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Full text of "Comparative philology of the Old and New worlds in relation to archaic speech"

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COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY 



OLD AND NEW WORLDS. 



COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY 



OLD AND NEW WOELDS 



m RELATION TO ARCHAIC SPEECH. 



R. P. GREG, F.S.A., F.G.S., ETC. 



ACCOMPANIED BY 



COPIOUS VOCABULARIES, ETC. 



cTrea TTTepoevra, 



LOIfDON: 
KEGAN PATTL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & Co., Limtted, 

PATERNOSTER HOUSE, cnARINO CROSS ROAD. 
1893. 



HERTFORD : 

PRINTED BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS. 



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" The first speech -wliich was used, before the Delupie, remains now properly in 
no place, only the reliques thereof may be found still in all languages." — Giioirus. 

" "Words are the fossils of Speech."— A. H. Satce. 

"Language as the expression of thought, is also the treasure-house of worn-out 
metaphors." — Ihid. 

"Etymology has the charm of all Sciences which deal with the beginning and 
\ growth of all the great products of Speech." — Geo. Ctjetids. 

^ " The most primitive language, say that of the American Palaeolithic man, must 

Ov^ii, have been more rudimentary than any language now known to us." — 

D. Bkinton, M.I). 

"Gesture language attained its most complete form in America." — Prof. Tylor. 

"Analogies are probably at the root of cognate forms." — Ibid. 



"The doctrine of cognate equivalents ov of ecjual pscychological values, is at 
^ bottom of all root researches ; and the value of Grammar in the study of primitive 

language is of secondary value. The original single root may, however, not 
unfrequently have been lost or displaced." 

" It will not do, as is sometimes done, to confound race and language." 

Hyde Clarke. 



"Every inflectional language was once agglutinative and eveiy agglutination 
once monosyllabic." Also that "the Turanian despises every idiom that does not 
clearly show its radical and significant element." — Ihid. 



lv'284;J 



CONTENTS. 



Preface. [List of Authorities referred to ,sco End.] 

Inthoddction, pp. vii-lxxi. — Aniorican Language.s, vii-svi, liii-lv. (257-208). — African Languages, xvi-xx. 
— Turanian, xx-.^xiii. — Accadian, xxii-xxv. — Chinese and Aryan, Scldogel, etc., xxv-xxvii. — Chinese 
and Turanian, liii. — Quichuan and Aryan, xxvii.~xxx. — Comparative Accordances, radicals, etc. xx.x- 
xxxiii. Races; Craniology of Old and Is'ew Worlds, xxxiv-xxxvii and 1-liii. — Aryans and Cradle of the 
Aryan Race, xxxviii-xliv and Ivii. — Egyptian, xlv-1. — Australian, Papuan, Oceanic and Dravidian 
Languages and Races, Iv-xl. — Iberians, lix. — Celts, lii. — Supplementary, on Comparative T^anguage : 
Max MUller ; A. H. Sayce ; Dr. O. Schrader ; Robt. Brown, jun. : Topinard ; Canon Cook, lxi-lx.\i. 
— Semitic, Kremer and Schrader, Ixiv ; Hyde Clarke, xiv-xvi. 

Part L — Vocabularies. 

For Egyptian, Accadian, Chinese, African and American \vord.s. 1-48. Interchangeable Letters, 49-.50. 
Accado-Chinese Agreements, 51-52. 

Part II. — Aryan, Semitic, African and American, 55-116. — Chinese and English Verbal Analogies, 117-118- 
— Chinese and American Analogies, 118-119. — Basque and Gaelic Analogies, 129. — Ancient Mexican and 
Aryan ditto, 120. — Aryan and Egyptian ditto, 121 and 298. — Accadian, Chinese and Egyptian ha and /:»* 
Sounds, 122. — Egyptian anich words, 123. — General words for Horse, Ass, 123-124 ; 346. — Greek and 
Latin Accordances, with Chinese and Mongol (Edkins), 124. 
Addenda and Gorrigenda to Parts I. and II. 125-126. 

Part III. — Turanian, Ugro- Altaic, East Tartar (Mongol), African and American (Accadian and Egyptian, 
etc.), 129-156. — Analogies for Asiatic, Turanian and Egyptian, 157-159. — Esthonian and American 
Comparisons, 160. 

Part IV. — Libyan and Berber, Basque, Caucasian, American and Sundry, 169-197. 

Part V. — Indo-Chinese (E. Himalaic), Tibetan (W. Himalaic), Aboriginal Chinese, African and Sundry, 
199-216. 

Part VI. — Dravidian, Malay, Oceanic, Polynesian, Papuan and Australian, African and American, 219-255. 

Appendices. — Comparative Tables, etc., for Special words and their Cognates, No. I. — Polynesian Grammar ; 
Examples of N. and C. American Grammar, No. II. — Algonkin Grammar, No. III.^(Tinneh ditto, 
and p. liii.) — Affinities between Othomi and Chinese, No. IV. (and p. 115). — Plural formations, New and 
Old Worlds, No. V. — Instances of Similar Words having Similar Meanings for North, Central and South 
America, No. VI. — A General List of American Word.s for Water, No. A^II.— Sundry Agreements for 
Aryan and Central America (Hyde Clarke), Nos. VIII. and LIII. — American Calendar and Zodiacal 
Signs, No. IX. -XIII. — Oceanic, American, African and Egyptian Analogies, No. XIV. — Caucasian 
African and American Analogies, No. XV. — African, Egyptian and American Analogies, No. XVI. — 
Special Linguistic Synonyms for Allied Primary Words or Ideas, Nos. XVII. and XVIII. — American 
General list of Words for Foot, No. XVIIIa. — Accordances for Liliyan and Berber, Basque, Caucasian, 
Celtic, American, and Semitic Words, No. XIX. — Additional English and Egyptian Analogies, No. XIX«. 
(and p. 121). — General Table of Selected Numerals, No. XX. — A General list of Words for Father and 
Mother, No. XXI. — Much great, etc., XXII. — Mouth, hole, etc., XXIII. — Tree, son, etc., No. XXIV. — 
Hou.se, hut, etc., No. XXV.— Bird, fly, shoot. No. XXVI.— Dog, cur, No. XXVII.— Good, yes ! bad, 
night, etc.. No. XXVIII. — Archaic or fundamental Water words. Old and New World, No. XXIX. — 
Life, cross, tie, phallus, mouth, navel, etc., No. XXX. — Primitive principal meanings of root sound J/a, 
No. XXXI. — War, death, etc.. No. XXXII. — Pronouns ; thou, he ; Nos. 1, 2, etc.. No. XXXIII. — 
Archaic, car, gar, Icar, gal, kal, etc. No. XXXIV. — Hand, foot, finger ; to go, etc., kd, ak, pa, sound. 
No. XXXV. — Archaic, kd, car=ioot, hand, go, etc.. No. XXXVI. — Karnac und Hermes, No. XXXVII. 
— Stone, to cut, etc. {ta, ka, te, kak, tak, etc.) No. XXXVIII. — The L sound in Roundness, No. XXXIX. 
— Words for Eye, sea, light, and Cognates, S and N sounds. No. XL. XLtr. — Fire, etc.. Cognates {ta, tak, 
hak'i) Sound.s, No. XLI. — Thunder, Noise, etc. No. XLb;. — Shining Metals, No. XLII.~ Sun, light, and 
Cognates, s, z, is soimd.s, No. XLIII ; Ditto, M, N and T sounds. No. XLIV ; Ditto, T or D, L, tan, kan 
sounds, Nos. XLV. and XLVI. — Food, etc. (S, M sounds ? /■), No. XLVII. — Son, and Cognates, s, z, ak ! 
No. XLVIII. — Blood-Relationship, N. na, ni, an sound, No. L. — Some Comparisons between 
Accadian, Dravidian and A.ssyrian, No. XLIX. — Personal Pronouns, ego, ngo ; na, an, ma, mi, i/u'n. 
No. LI. — Note on Male and Female Words, No. Lie/. — Man, Lib. — Hand (paw, take, cany and ma and 
ka sounds). No. Lie. — Some probable fundamental or Ai-chaic Phono-Consonantal and Vowel-sounds, 
No. LII.— Races of Mankind, No. Llla. — Some Costa Rican (Central American) Analogies, with African, 
etc.. No. LIII. — Comparisons of AVords and Roots, Aryan and An-Aryan, No. LIV. — Tongue and 
Leaf Words, No. LIVa. — Some Words common to most Language Families, No. LV. — Horse and Ass, 
No. LVa. (and p. 123). — Some Aryan and Tui-anian Word Analogies, etc., No. LVI. 

Supplementary Meiioranda, p. 348. Additional Australian and African Words to p. 220. Pure DraWdian 
Words and Roots (Part VI.) pp. 349, 350. 

Addenda et Corrigenda No. 2, pp. 351-353 [For Addenda et Corrigenda No. 1, see pp. 125-126]. 



vi PREFACE. 

Tliis racial and topographical bre^-ity may hare been earned too far ; and tlie precise locality of 
American and African words is generally omitted; Isut for the more special, as well as general, 
object I have had in view, greater detail would have been both cumbersome and possibly not absolutely 
essential. Lastly, I have ventured in the following Introduction to give a short epitome of the 
opinions of a considerable number of the pi-incipal writers and thinkers on the general subject of 
llace and Language ; hoping that such a procedure may not be without some interest, as well as 
be in unison with the general pui-port of this work, which has been a labour of love and the 
occupation of many years, earned out under the disadvantage of ill-health, and inability to consult 
as many books as I could have desired. Whatever its shortcomings may be, I can only trust that 
there will be much in it that may prove useful in the future Study of Philology in its widest 
sense. I have tried to offer the material for it, in a somewhat novel form, without having the 
abiUty or the time to fully unravel and digest it ; but I have given at the end of Part VI., more 
especially, a certain number of specially selected tables of comparison for cextain words and allied 
cognate ideas, to indicate what may be done on a more extensive scale (by those who are adepts in 
special languages), in the tracing of Archaic radicals, and to what extent apparently similar sounds 
may or may not be connected, or traceable through various or different families of language, and 
in what way such often widespread similarities or analogies may have originated. Quite indepen- 
dently, the general tendency inclines, I think, to confirm a good deal the lines upon which Mr. 
Hyde Clarke has worked. 

I have to acknowledge much indebtedness to the Eev. C. J. Ball for his revision of the Chinese, 
Accadian and Assyrian portion in Part I. Also to Mr. A. G. Ellis, Mr. C. Bendall, Mr. J. 
F. Blumhardt, and Mr. F. L. Griffith, of the British Museum, for a number of corrections and 
suggestions in Parts I. and II., more especially in Oriental and Semitic Languages ; as well as to 
Professor A. H. Sayce, Mr. Hyde Clarke and Mr. Eobert Brown, jun., and other gentlemen. The 
Egyptian is mainly taken from Pierret, but has been in part subsequently added to or corrected. 

In such a general work as this, absolute and precise accuracy and uniformity in spelling and 
meaning is naturally almost impossible, or to insure it would take up a life-time, but is probably 
of less importance than might be supposed. Different accentuation, pronunciation, and spelling 
occur for evidently the same word, in different parts of even the same language and coxmtry, and 
for different times. 

A considerable number of accents and diacritical points are given in Parts I. and II. ; but for 
the sake of simplicity are mostly omitted in subsequent references in the Parts III. to YI., as 
almost unnecessary in the case of words having to be compared with semi-savage languages. 



INTRODUCTION. 



AMEEICAN LANGUAGES. 

The few American writers on the subject have favoured the notion tliat the Red Man in America 
is more or less sui generis. Bancroft, in his " Races of the Pacific Coast of America," vol. iii. p. 561, 
et seq. says: "It is not improbable that the Malays, Chinese and Japanese, did at times arrive 
along the Pacific coast, in numbers sufficient to influence language, but hitherto no Asiatic or 
European language, unless tlio Eskimo, has been found in America, and tlie Eskimo are rather 
specially hjperhorean, than truly either Asiatic or American." Again, '^ verhal similarities, if frequent 
enough, tend merely to show that all languages were co-related, but in America they are evidently 
accidental, and the language distinct." 

To show how easy it would be to form from a list of words, iiseless hj-jjotheses, Bancroft gives a 
brief list of words analogous both in meaning and sound, from unrelated {sic) languages, e.g. : — 

"For the German ja we have the Shasta ya ; for komin, the Comanche him; ... for weinen, the 
Cora vyeine ; for thun, the Tepehuana duni. For the Latin hie, var,t\ic Tepehuana liic, vase; for lingua, 
the Moqui Unga ; . . . for toga, manus, the Kenai tngaai, man. . . . For the Sanskrit da, there is the 
Cora to (give) ; for ele, the Miztec ec (one) ; for md, the Tepe huana inai (not) and the JLiya ma (no) ; for 
masA (mouth), the Pima mahsa (moon) ; for tschandra (moon), the Kenai tschane (moon) ; for pada (foot), the 
Sekumne podo (leg) ; for Icdma (love), the Shoshone kamakh (to love) ; for pa the Kizh paa (to drink)." 

Inter se, Bancroft further adds in regard to American Native Languages, " they are wonderfully 
rich and full of delicate graduations remarkable in such uncultivated peoples. The few Philologists 
who have studied these languages find they contain common characteristics, that are themselves 
peculiar, and yet very different from the Cld World Languages, some, though perhaps more Turanian- 
like than others, yet occasionally have nothing in common with each other. All hypotheses to explain 
these peculiarities have so far been unsuccessful." 

" Whitney," says Bancroft, " considers the American languages are the most changeful of all 
human forms of speech, long words are common, except perhaps in the Otomi. The gesture language 
is very complete ; but the Eskimo a distinct language.* " 

Bancroft also, vol. iii. p. 556, says that, " the American languages generally possess much 
reduplication, or repetitions of the same syllabic to express plurals ; the use of frequeutatives and 
duals ; the application of gender to the third person of the verb ; the direct conversion of nouns, 
substantive and adjective, into verbs, and their eoujugations as such ; also peculiar generic distinctions 
arising from a separation of animate from inanimate beings" (see also Schoolcraft). 

Mallery says there are 58 linguistic stocks, and about 300 dialects in American Indian Languages ; 
but Nada'illac says that others have estimated them at fi'om 400 to 1300. These have, however, been 
more recently, according to Canon Cook, reduced to eleven families. 

Bancroft considers there are only three great language families in North America, viz. : 

1. The Tinneh, or Athabascan (North West). 

2. The Aztec ) r. <- i a 

r> an 11 r f Central America. 

3. The Maya ) 

"The dialects of the Tinneh family show many words in common, but not in the mora 
grammatical form. In California the dialects are hopelessly mixed, and may contain, as before noticed, 
some Oceanic admixture. 

"The Pima (California) contains 15 per cent, of Malay or Polynesian words, but no Chinese or 
Japanese ones. The Aztec and Toltec are one, and the Nahua or Aztec the oldest language of Anahua. 
The Aztec is a very original and dominant language, and the large Central Mexican plateau of Anahua 
was probably the primal centre of it. The Aztec is the most perfect and finished of the American 
languages, though wanting in six consonants b, d, f, r, g, and s. 

* See Professor Tj-lor's " Early History of Mankind," as to Gesture Langnage, pp. 14-88. 



viii INTRODUCTION. 

" Teotl vas their god. Aztec -words are much agalutinatcd and compounded. The connexion 
between Otomi and Chinese, advocated by some, especially by Sefior Xiijera, an Otomi native, is very 
doubtful, for on comparing two monosyllabic languages like the Otomi and Chinese, which (especially 
the latter) may have so many meanings to the same sound or apparent root, distinguishable only by 
accent or pronounciation ; the actual resemblances may be but few. Aztec nouns have neither 
declension nor gender. Adjectives come before nouns. Plurals usually have ya or e prefixed. Tza or 
fe« prefixed mark the superlative. Yerbs are conjugated with the assistance of particles. The letters 
il are constantly added" (so far Bancroft). 

Professor Tylor in his "Early History of Mankind" (pp. 14-83) says Gcstui'e Language had 
attained its most perfect form in America. 

Professor Max Miiller divides Sanskrit root-forms into two classes, the predicative, as shine, extend, 
etc., and demonstrative ones, a small class of independent radicals, as here, this, thou, he, etc., which 
Professor Tylor thinks rather correspond to the two gi-eat classes of gesture-signs, which may again 
in part correspond with Chinese words that are neither one thing nor another ; as ta meaning great, to 
make gTeat, to bo gTeat. The reference of substantive to a verb-root in the Aryan languages is quite 
in harmony with gesture language ; e.g. water, is that which waves ; the oar, that which makes 
to go, etc. 

The syntax of gesture language best compares with Chinese, and perhaps with French and 
English, which have most thrown oft' inflection. Chinese and English hero agree ; both putting the 
attributes before the subject, as pe )/(«^white horse ; ngo ta ni, I strike thee. 

Professor Tylor well says, "Utterance includes not speech only, but all ways by which a man 
can express his thoughts." " Man is essentially not tlie speaker, but he who thinks and means." 
" Speech and thought go together." Analogies are probably at the root of " cognate forms," Professor 
Tylor considers, and he instances the use of loud, as applicable equally both to sound and colour ; 
surdiis means both deaf and stupid. Some savage tribes would have their language incomplete without 
gesture-signs, and which is a most important element Ethnologically, and proves it to have been part 
of the original utterance of mankind. 

[The order of human utterance would naturally appear to be, first, Speech ; second, Language, 
including grammar, reduplication and agglutination. May not accentuation be directly derivable from 
gesture-signs ? while inflection belongs only to the later and higher stage of Language ? In the proper 
study of Primitive Language, analogies and cognate forms must occupy an important place.] 

Professor Gamer, in the ]\'^ew Review, has given a curious paper on " Rudimentary Language in 
Apes," as ascertained with a considei-able degree of certainty by means of the phonograph! (see 
Spectator, June 6, 1891). Apparently distinct sounds, equivalent to words, are uttered, as to express 
desire for food, diink, and even possibly for special kinds of food, on which they are most accustomed 
to feed, and which uttered by the ape is readily understood by other apes of the same species ; and 
Professor Gamer himself, by repeated practice imitative of the phonogTaphie sounds, succeeded in 
correctly giving the proper word or sound of this rutlimentary speech, so as to be readily and 
intelligently understood by the apes themselves. If apes, then, have an elementary fonn of true 
speech, may it not reasonably follow that savage man, before language became developed or specialized, 
might originally have had a considerable number of expressive elementary archaic and even wide- 
spread words or roots in common, such as pa, ma, ka, ak, te, etc. ; pak, paka, mak, tej), tak, pat, etc., 
many of which may still be existent, with similar or with more or less meanings ? 

There is a long and valuable account of the Languages, (Justoms, etc., of the N.AV. Indian Tribes 
of Canada in their Sixth Report given by the Committee of the British Association (Leeds meeting, 
1890), from which I briefly gather, that according to Mr. Horatio ILde and Dr. Boas, there are far 
more linguistic stocks along the N.W. coast of North America, than in the interior and ci'utral parts 
of N. America. The principal tribes are those comprised under the Tinneh, Salish and Kooteuay 
(not inclusive of the Nootka). These would appear to have been intruders, however, from Central 
North America (where the Alq(mkins and Blackfeet since predominated) and from the Eastern side' 
of the Rocky Mountains. Dr. Gibbs states that the Salish have made their way to the Pacific, and 
having absorbed the smaller local tribes have become much mixed both in blood and language. All 
the N.W. languages of British Columbia have a peculiar phonology, very harsh and guttural (almost 
clickish). The tl say of Mexico becomes ^txl ; but further south towards California the phonology 
becomes naturally perhaps through the influence of a wanner climate miich softer. These N.W. tribes 
with almost radical difl'erences of languages and even of origin, seem to have to some extent a common 
polity. The skulls are generally artificially flattened. Brothers and sisters, called younger or elder, etc. 
Different words often used by male and female for the same word. Animism and Shamanism common. 
Some tribes worship the sun, under the name li'ta. 

[The Tlingits of Queen Charlotte Island have many monosyllabic words much resembling Asiatic 
Turanian ones ; I am inclined to think they must have originally come from thence.] 

This Sixth Report of N.W. Canailian Tribes has a rather full epitome of the Indian Languages, 
Grammar and Vocabularies. 



INTRODUCTION. 



IX 



For tliosc di'siiYuis of stiulyiiig tlic iiiicivnt ilcxicui and Aztec Laiis'iias'i; I advise consultiiif? Sigiior 
Bernardini Biondelli's " Olossai'ium Aztcco-Latimim," etc., Jlilaii, 1819. In the Introduction lie 
states tliat " tlio Aztec is a liij^'bly inflexional language; e.g. Um-otlaz^V love, gives tlai;utlani, lover; 
tl(i(;otli, dear ; tla<;ulolo, I am loved ; tla(;oi.lacca, I have loved ; tlagotlaliztU, love ; Ua(;otlai/a, I loved ; 
tla^ofldcca, I liavc loved ; and flar^oUtz, I will love." 

The Aztcx- would say, mtxM-^iXvi hand ; tatUi^^xc father ; l)ut ])i-onounccd matzintU, when meaning 
to express tlie hand of a god ; and tazindi, when in relation to a father, etc. With both Aztec and 
Maya numerals, the system is very similar to the liascjue and (leorgian, viz. vigesimal. The old 
Slexicaus reckoned by five as unity ; e.g. w^one ; iiiiif^uilli^fiye ; but tor the second five, chicu ; 
ehicuace^.'b + l, etc. The Aztec cliicit being remarkably likc^ the Latin quin([Uo and Italian cinciue. 

The radical frequently carries both a suffix and a ])refi.K, with verbs as well as nouns. To express 
the masculine and feminine of animals, oquich and ciluia are prefixed, to some extent com'sponding in 
English to /w and a7/« (animals). 

The pronouns partly resemble tbt^ Indo-European, e.t/. ti for tu ; no for tni^ ; rjui/i for quis,- quem ? 
The final tie or flein, signifies something ; alle, a/leiii, nuthiug ; nel, diligence, solicitation ; anel, 
neglect, darkness ; qualli, good ; aqualU, e\'il ; quallotl, goodness. An example of a compound word, 
rt!j'M(y)««rt//«(/c/'/;^ water- wood-crossing (or bridge). 

I have added in the A])pendices of this work a sliort list of analogies between Aztec and Indo- 
European words. Eiondelli considers the Aztec offers great analogies to some of the chief 
Indo-European languages, as well as in civil, religious, and ancient monumental matters ; and with 
India especially. 

It is curious that Senor Lopez, of Monte Video, should likewise have supposed he had found so 
many analogies and roots, common to the Sanskrit or Greek and the S.A. Quicliua, and to which I have 
elsewhere alluded. The temples, ornamentation, and sculpture, and sitting attitudes of the gods 
and idols of ancient Jlexieo and Central America offer not unfrecpiently in my oj^inion also considerabh; 
resemblances to the Hindoo and Indo-Chinese architecture, and that has been noticed by others ; and in 
one or two cases the undoubted sculptured figure of an elephant's head, with tusks and trunk, have 
been found in Central American sculjiture. The Aztec for god was Teotl, very near the (Jreek Oewf, 
and Teutonic Tio. The old Mexicans had legends of a white man who had once arrived amongst them 
and taught them much, (Latham, p. 5, et seq.). 

With respect to the Native Languages of America, Canon Cook, in his " Origins of Religion and 
Langiuige," says : — " These languages are generally regarded by Ethnologists of the highest distinction 
as undoubtedly belonging to the Scythian or Turanian group. So far, Prichard, Berhaus, Primer Bey, 
M. de Qnatrefages, are unanimous. This opinion rests on scientific grounds both physiological and 
Etymological. The multituduious native languages of America, reduced after long and laborious research 
to eleven families, are what is termed polysynthetical, that is the a(/f/liifiiiative run to seed. In this respect 
bearing much resemblance to the Basque, as has been shown by Pott and Berhaus ('Ethnogi-aphical Atlas,' 
p. 23). Duponceau first ga^•e the name polysynthetical to the American tongue. Their unity and 
affinity to the Finno-Tartaric are maintained by Pritchard, Bimsen, and Berhaus. To this classification 
there is but one doubtful exception, that of the Peruvian language, for which an Aryan origin has been 
claimed by Lopez, a South American physician (see elsewhere). In his ' Eaces Aryennes de Peru,' 
1871, he seems to establish a connexion with the Aryan, but at the same time to prove that if the 
Peru\-ian Quichuan was derived from the Aryan, it must have imdergone a process of disintegration 
which needs almost separate it from the Aryan group." 

Latham in his Comparative Philology, p. 431, considers the resemblances said to exist between 
Otomi and Chinese, " those of analogy only, and not of affinity ; that languages wdth the shortest 
words like Otomi and Chinese naturally must exhibit the greatest number of analogies,* in fact 
coincidences are often not of primaiy importance as regards mutual relationship of languages, nor 
even the grammatical structure ; one nation may prefer prefixes to postfixes. Languages genealogically 
allied may vary much in their stage of development."! 

Buschmann traces back the Aztec language 1500 miles north of Mexico. Dr. Daniel Wilson 
thinks that the Central American Ci\ilization was of Southern origin, and seemed to embrace all 
the highest phases of the civilization of both North and South America, and included probably a 
mixtiu'c of races, with even a strain of migration borne across the Atlantic. (See Prehistoric 
Man, p. 603.) 

Professor Tylor thinks that connexion between the Peruvians and Mexicans is not proved. 
There are myths common to Polynesia, Asia, and America, as the World-Tortoise ; the man swallowed 

• 13ufc at the same time may not those short words contain not improbably a certain number of the oldest or primary 
and widest-spread roots or sounds ? — R. P. G. 

t Latham also says that in North and South American Vocabularies the same root is often found for both, which may 
be a good philological argument in favour of the fundamental unity of the two classes (p. 522). I have found a number o£ 
words nearly identical in all parts of America. (See Tables and Vocabularies.) — " K. P. G.' 



X INTRODUCTIOX. 

by the fish ; the Sim-Catcher ; the Bridge of the Dead, etc. It is well known that the ilexican 
Calendar and Zodiacal signs have much in common with Asiatic men ; — also ornamentation and 
architecture. 

As regards the ancient Nahua and Aztec languages of Mexico, I have not found so much in 
common with simple words belonging to the Old World as is the case with the Califomian, Otomi, 
Athabascan, Quichua, and Guarani languages ; this I have also found applicable to the Eastern and 
Algonkin groups of languages in North America. With the Algonkin and N.E. American languages 
and dialects, Schoolcraft, vol. iii. p. 60, etc., considers there is more connexion as regards customs 
and manners than with language, between the North Americans and Asiatics, that betokens early 
communications ; e.g. cutting or marking of the arms and legs to denote sorrow for the dead ; 
immortality of the soul ; burials with implements, food, and funereal fire ; head-stones ; also in the 
duality of the Great Spirit, one good, the other evil. They are much given to dancing and hunting, 
and to magic, which may have had its origin in medicine. Sorcery is also prevalent in Eastern Asia. 

The near identity of the words for younger brotlier and sister is still a characteristic of all the American 
Eed Indian langnages except the Iroquois.* Their substantive is older than the verb, and comes as 
well as adjectives under the same rule as the verb. They employ a common gender for he and she, 
and use the same word for man or woman, perhaps an indication of the antiquity of the language. 
Numbers of syllables are often clustered togetlier as if on a polysyllabic stem. "It is a fixed theory 
of language built on radices, to have the singular property of retaining the meaning of their original 
incremental or voweHc meanings, under all aspects of the compounds. Syntax is a later development 
of language." 

The Indian languages Humboldt called ayyiutinatire ; Duponccau, poh/synthetic ; but Schoolcraft 
preferred the term holuphrnstic (fi-om <J',\o9 entire, and 0/H;e(L'=to say, utter). It does not undergo so 
manv perhaps later modifications of the oi'igiual root or idea as the Sanskrit, and other languages of 
the Old World. 

Bradford, in his "American Antiquities," is of the opinion that the American Red race is of 
Mongolian origin, and he mentions, ititcr alia, the great grammatical similarity of American idioms, 
and those spoken by the South Pacific Islanders. [The similarity of many individual words may be 
noticed in some of my vocabidaries, in comiexion with the Polynesian and Papuan, as well also perhaps 
with the Malay.] Humboldt was also struck with some Mongolian or Tartar peculiarities among the 
Indians even of Central and South America. 

The holophrastic character of the Eed Indian and Polynesian languages has been discussed by 
Pickei-ing of Boston, U.S. In Lord North's Island, the numeral one is yaht ; if, however, they count 
cocoa nuts, number one is soo ; and if fish, number one is called seeinitl. So also with the Burmese, 
and the Cherokees in North America. In the Algonkin languages the verb is very rich in its 
inflexions ; more so even than in Greek ; it is the chief or mother language of East and Central East, 
North America ; and the Objibwa the leading branch according to Schoolcraft. [I have not found 
this family, however, nearly so rich in verbal or root analogies with Old World and Asiatic languages, 
as those of tribes nearer tlie Pacific seaboard, and there is a greater tendency to redu2)lication and 
agglutination ] 

The Algonkin, Schoolcraft says, is without auxiliaiy verbs, whose place is supplied by the tensal 
sj-llables, ge, gah, yuh. The suflixed or objective pronouns are indicated by adding g or n to the 
plural terms, to notify the two great divisions of created nature, the animate and the inaniinate, and 
and \\-hicli can be applied to each of the five principal terminal vowels. There are thus fornn^l ten 
classes of nouns and ten of verbs. The regular plurals end in eg, ig, og, ug ; and ain, ecn, in, on, un, 
with the additional any, eeg, and oag for the rital ; and aun, ecu, and oan for the vowels in tlie 
non-rital chiss ; so that but two ideas are gained by these 32 inflexions, viz. that the objects arc rital 
or non-i-ital ! All this is gained in English by the simple letter s ; m Latin by a single vowel or 
diplithong, and in Hebrew by im. 

^. Edkins considers, and I think reasonably so, there may have been a Polynesian or Oceanic 
immigration by the Pacific into America ; also a Turanian one by the Aleutian Isles or Behring Straits 
consecjuent on a comparatively recent subsidence of land in tlie Pacific. Tlu- Polynesians were probably 
more civilized than the Turanians and influenced the civilization of America on the Western side. 
Amongst the Aztecs the religious element was more allied to that of India or Asia. EdUins thinks 
the JLalay and Polynesian are more connected with the Uravidian (?) and Chinese, than with the Indo- 
European or the Turanian; the Malay is n very old language, and that on the American continent, 
Turanian and Polynesian linguistic principles meet in the vaiious Indian languages. 

At the Oriental Congress, held in London, in 1891, Mr. Sterndale read a paper on "Asiatic 
Migration in the South Pacific," and said : — 

" The theory was that there were two migrations of Asiatics, one from the Malay Ai'chipelago, through 
the Carolines, a mild race, the progenitors of the gentle and liospital)lc savage spoken of by the earlier 

• This faniil)' distinction is also [ouml in m;iny parts of Asia, also in Polynesia, auil in Africa. 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

voyagers of our race, and another migration of a ruder and more warlike iico|ile to whom Ije lia<l alluded 
as the builders of the cycloiiean reiujiiuM, who .starting from J'"(]rmosa came through the Ladrones and the 
eastern group of the Carolines, and established themseh-es in the I'alik and Uadak chains. From hence 
departed in course of time two expeditions, one to Hawaii, in the Sandwich Isles, and another to Savaii, in 
the Navigatons' Isles. Ho woidd briefly touch upon the means which these rovers had of spreading from 
island to island, especially with reference to the theory, which was scouted by Di-. Briiiton in a recently 
published work on tlic American people, that America owed some of her people to Polynesian migration. 
Dr. Brinton said that the Polynesians had no vessels cajiable of making sucli long voyages as would have 
landed them on the American coasts ; but his (Mr. .Sterndale's) brother, who after a shipwreck traversed 
700 or 800 miles in a self-made lioat, stated that it was quite feasil)le. The canoes of tlie Ratak chain carried 
from 40 to 60 men, with their baggage and provisions. They sailed close upon the wind, made long voyages 
for purposes of traffic, and had been known to beat up home against the monsoon from the (Jocpiilles and 
Carolines, distances of over 700 miles. Where was the mai-vcl then that similar e.\peditions starting from 
the Sandwich Islands should have reached the coast of America ? Many cases were on record of voyagers 
losing themselves in those seas, and drifting enormous distances out of their way. There was nothing 
incredible, then, in the supposition that wanderers of Asiatic origin found their way to the American continent 
and were the progenitors of the copper-coloured races there." 

Commissioner F. C. Fuller contributed a paper on the Fijian language. The writer said the most 
interesting as well as the richest of Polynesian languages was that .spoken by the natives of the Fiji Islands. 
It was essentially Papuan, soft and melodious. Thanks to the successful efforts of the Wesleyan mission, it 
retained its purity, although at one time it was greatly threatened by the influence of powerful neighbours, 
the Tongans, or Friendly Islanders. This was the language of the Ban district, and when the island was 
annexed it was recognized by the Government as the official language. 

So far as my own observations go in reference to the Malay, Polynesian, and Papuan and Oceanic 
languages, there -would appear to be considerable admixture ; especially so in regard to Melanesia, 
Admiralty Islands, etc. ; and even the Australian and Papuan appear to be distinctly represented in 
"Western South America. 

[One of the few really characteristic living animals common to the Old and New World would 
appear to be the Bison {Bos J^urojiteus), though now nearly extinct in both continents, which favoui's 
the theory of an old land connection between Europe (Asia) and North America.] 

Dr. D. Brinton, of Philadelphia, U.S. (Pop. Science Review, April, 1889), an excellent authority, 
considers that "the most primitive fonu of language, say that of the American Pala?olitliic man, must 
have been more rudimentary, than any langiiage known to us ; that it had no grammatical form, or 
fixed phonetic values ; but depended largely upon gesture, tone, and stress ; that its words often had 
antithetic meanings, which could only be determined from the accent or sign ; and that the vowel-sounds 
and consonantal groups conveyed special significance and were of more import than the syllabh.'s 
they formed." 

Both Prof. jMax Miiller and ilr. Hyde Clarke, reasonably enough, consider it does not do to 
confound race and language ; the two may often contain essentially distinct elements ; and Professor 
Max Miiller says in regard to Comparative Ethnology, " difilerent words in the same language often 
happen to take similar forms, as well as different words the same form in different languages ; " and 
in treating of apparent analogies between words in difterent languages for the purpose of comparison, 
it is very desirable to bear this in mind. Many analogies may be accidental coincidences ; but on the 
other hand, also, they may not be ; especially where, as not unfrequently happens, the same idea 
happens to be expressed by nearly the same primary radical sound in a number of very different 
languages.* 

In forming an estimate of the value of Comparative Philology as between the Old and New 
"Worlds, it is important to consider the linguistic question in various waj's. Historically, Physically, 
Geographically, and Etlimologically in order to have a good general idea of the value of mere verbal 
or possible quasi root analogies, whether, i.e. they are coincidences merely, or if resting on a firmer or 
wider basis. On this may depend, more than on syntax or construction, the (juestion of primary and 
pre-historic roots and sounds, and about which there has been a good deal of learned disputation. 

Surely a wider and more reasonable acquaintance with apparently Old "World elements in American 
Philology (somewhat on the lines of Mr. Hyde Clarke, who is in agreement with myself in the matter 
of there probably being an archaic suhsfratam at the bottom of most languages), as applicable to 
African, Polynesian, and even of Celto-Iberian and Caucasian Etymology, might lead to quite as much 
as the too long continued study of Sanskrit and Hebrew ? 

Mr. W. H. Goodfellow, of Yale College and New York, has obseiTed, "that the suspicions which 
have long since been pointed to a possible intercourse by sea between ancient America and ancient 
Mediterranean civilization will receive curious ccuifirmation from the publication of the hitherto 
unnoticed lotus patterns of Ancient Mexico and Yucatan, and of the modern Zuni Indians, whose 

* Mr. Hyde Clarke writes me that " three or four ideas are often expressed by one root or word in a primitive state of 
language, and rice versA, three or four words may be made to express the same idea." I can fully testify to the correctness 
of Mr. Ilyde Clarke's observation. 



xii IKTEODUCTIOX. 

culture is kno\ra to be a survival from pre-liistoric times. A similar survival will be proven to exist 
from the Kabyle pottery of modern Alp;eria, as related to the pre-historic pottery of Cyi^rus." * 

Before coming to tlie purely physical part of tlie question of American Race, I shall quote from 
Dr. Daniel Wilson's Prehistoric Man (second edition, p. 591, et seq.). He states that Schoolcraft, as 
the result of his analysis of the Algonquin dialects, thinks there is evidence that they have been 
built up originally from monosyllabic roots ; though there is less variation probably in American than 
in Old World languages ; and Man has long existed in America. Physiologically speaking there is less 
proof than was fonuerlj- supposed of essential diversity in the American man ; or that there are really 
such ratlical tlillerenees in their languages. That there are also considerable and important relationships 
traceable betvreen American languages, especially South and Central American and the Polynesian. 
[See my Table of Verbal Affinities between Polynesia, Papuan, and American.]! 

Dr. Wilson goes on to say : — 

" That the substitution of affixed particles for inflexions connected with the direct action of the speaker 
is common to the Polynesian and Oregon languages, and also has analogies in the Cherokee ; and in South 
America esjjecially in relation to the mode of expressing the tense of the verb by affixes as well as by the 
general system of compounded word-structure. But here again, while seeming to recover links between 
Polynesia and South America, we come on the track of affinities no less clearly Asiatic. 

" Striking analogies have been recognized between the languages of the Deccau and those of the Polynesian 
group, in which the determinate significance of the formative particles on the verbal root equally admits 
of comparison with peculiarities of the American languages. On this subject the Rev. Richard Garnett 
remarks that most of the languages of the American continent respecting which definite information has 
been acquired, bear a general analogy alike to the Polynesian family and the languages of the Deccan, in their 
methods of distinguishing the various modifications of time ; and he adds : ' We may venture to assert in 
general terms that a South American verb is constructed precisely on the same principle as those in the 
Tamil and other languages of Southern India ; consisting, like them, of a verbal root, a second element 
defining the time of tlie action, and a third denoting the subject or person.' J Such indications of philological 
relation of the islands of the Polynesian archipelago and the American continent to Southern Asia, acquire 
an additional interest when taken in connexion with remarkable traces of megalithic sculpture and of ancient 
stone structures in the Pacific, long ago noted by Captain Beechey on some of the islands nearest to the 
coasts of (_'hili and Peru, and more recently observed on Bonabe and other islands lying oft' the Asiatic shores. 
Some of those have already been refei'red to in their general bearings on oceanic migration, and on the 
probability of an era of insular civilization, dm-ing which mai-itime enteriOTse may have been carried out 
on a scale unknown to the most adventurous of modern i\Ialay navigators. 

"The affinities between Polynesian and American arts belong to a remote past. The direct relationship 
of existing Polynesian languages is not Mongol but Malay ; and this is for the most pai't so well defined 
as to indicate migrations from the Asiatic continent to the islands of the Pacific at periods comparatively 
recent ; whereas the diversity of those of America, and their essentially native vocabularies, prove that the 
latter have been in process of development from a remote period free from aU contact with tongues, which, 
as we see, were still modelling themselves according to the same plan of thought in the clustering islands of 
the Pacific. But the American languages present a widely diversified field of study scarcely yet fairly entered 
upon ; while their peculiar complexities, when considered in relation to nations broken up into numerous 
uidettered and nomad tribes, seem to afibrd such facilities for ever-changing combinations, that the difficulty 
of determining their radical elements is greatly increased in any attempt to compare their old and modern 
forms. Two languages, however, seem to invite special study, in addition to that of Mexico. The JIaya, 
which presents striking contrasts to it in its roft, vocalic forms, has already been referred to as that to which 
we are attracted by some apparent relations to the remarkable anticphties, and tlie possible surviving 
civihzation, of Central America ; while the Quichua was the classical language of South America. 

" From some one of the early centres of South American population, planted on the Pacific coasts by 
Polynesian or other migration, and nursed in the neighbouring valleys of the Andes in remote prehistoric 
times, the predominant southern race diffused itself, or extended its influence through many ramifications. 
It sjjread northward beyond the Isthmus, expanded throughout the peninsular region of Central America, 
and after occupying for a time the Mexican plateau, it overflowed along either side of the great moimtain 
chain, reaching towards the northern latitudes of the Pacific, and extending inland to the east of the Rocky 
^Mountains, through the gi'cat valley watered liy the Mississippi and its tribufciries. It must not, however,^ 
be supjiosed that such a hypothesis of migration inqilies the literal diftusion of a single people frfun one 
geographical centre. There is just as little reason for designating cither the Toltecs or the Mound- Builders 
Peruvians, ;i.s for calling the Iranian Indo-Gernians Greeks. But many archsoological traces seem to indicate 
just such attinities lietween the former as bave l)een suggested by the philological relations of the latter. 

"Tims far we have chiefly regarded the traces of oceanic migration by the southern Pacific route. But, 
while its island gi'oups appear to furnish facilities for such a tr.msfer of population to the New World as 
evidence of various kinds tends to confirm : it seems scarcely to admit of doubt that the Canary Lslands 
were known to the ancients : and that by Madeira and the Azores, on the one hand, and by the Capo Verde 
Jsland.s, on the other, the Antilles and Brazil may have become centres of diverse ethnological elements, 

* The Aryan fonii of the hooked cross or Swaslil-a has likewise been recently discovered on nntive Indian pottery from 
the N.W. of Kouth America. Tlio kcy-nattcrn is a common ornament I'oniid in Mexico, IVrn and rolyni'sia. 

t Latham says tliat the American lan!,'iiages have a decided allinity with the J'apuau and Australian, hut tliat butli 
cultures are on a low level (p. 621). See Appendix, No. 14. 

X Proceedings of the I'liilological Society, vol. i. p. 271. 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 

and also of diHtinctive arts and customs of tlie western Ijoniisplicro. Tlio Carib race, which was the 
predominant one in the Lesser Antilles, and occnpied extensive regions of the mainland towards the 
southern Atlantic seaboard, tliffered very strikingly, alike in mental and physical characteristics, from 
the races of (Central and of North America, and still more so from those with whom they came in contact 
in the larger islands. Traces of words connuon to the Colfachi of Floi-ida and the insular Caribs are probably 
the sole grounds for the tradition of a North .American origin for the latter ; though in cranial conformation 
their analogies arc with the northern dolicocephalic nations. Greatly more interesting is the fact that, 
while their continental habitat belongs to the southern and not to the northern hemisphere, they also disclose 
Polynesian atlinities in language and customs. IJr. Latham remarks in his Varieties of Man : ' In the 
ethnograiihy of Polynesia certain peculiar customs in r(!s]iect to the language of caste and ceremony were 
noted. The Carib has long been known to exliil>it a remarkable i)eculiarity in this respect. The current 
statement is that the women have one language and the men another. The real fact is less extraordinary. 
Certain objects have two names ; one of which is ai'iilied by males, the other by females only.' 

" In our modern English language grammatical gender has to a great extent disappeared ; in the ancient 
Saxon, as in the Latin, it affected noun, pronoun, and adjective, and modified them through all their 
declensions ; in the linguistic feature thus found conuuon to certain Polynesian and South American 
languages, gender is carried to the utmost extent, and not only modifies the forms of speech applicable to 
the .sexes, but those in use by them. It is in this direction that the pcculiariti(!S analogous to true gender 
have been developed in widely different American languages. The general mode of expressing sex for the 
lower animals, alike among the northern Indians and in the languages of Mexico and Central America, 
is only by prefixing another noun to their names, equivalent to our use of ' male ' and ' feniale ' ; ' he ' 
and '.she.'" 

Again, Dr. Wilson proceeds to say : — 

That some other analogies may likewise favour the probability that a poi-tion of the North American 
stock may have entered the continent from Asia by Behring Straits or the Aleutian Lsles, antl diffused 
itself over the north-west, and ultimately reached the valleys of the Mississippi and penetrated to 
southern latitudes by a route to the east of the Kocky Mountains. Many centuries may have intervened 
between the first immigration, and its coming in contact with races of the southern continent ; and 
philological and other evidence indicates that if such a north-western immigration be really demonstrable, 
it is one of very ancient date. But so far as I have been able to study the evidence, much of that hitherto 
adduced appears to point the other way ; and while, theoretically, the northern passage seems so easy, yet 
so far as any direct proof goes, the Polynesian entrance into the southern continent, across the wide barrier 
of the Pacific, is the one most readily sustained. 

Mr. Lewis K. Daa, a learned Norwegian, has traced certain cm'ious affinities between the Samoyed 
languages of Northern Asia and some of those of America ; and through the other dialects of Siberia, and 
the relations of both to those of the Finnic and Altaic stock, completes, as he conceives, a chain of 
connexion, eastward from North Cape to Behring Straits, and thence to the related American stocks beyond 
the Pacific. But the comparison is chiefly based on a parallelism of vocabularies, and not on any 
reappearance of the peculiar constructive elements of the American languages. It does not, therefore, 
lead us very ftir ; for the determination of the true form of the radical, for the purpose of useful comparison, 
in the unwritten language of uomade tribes, is exceedingly difficult. But is does furnish some guidance, 
though not, as I conceive, in the direction its author imagines. He has demonstrated, as he believes, certain 
Asiatic affinities in the Athabaskan and Dakota tongues ; and has shown a series of suggestive similarities 
between words in the Asiatic and North American languages, relating to primitive arts, custom.s, and the 
rudimentary terms of religious belief. These include God, priest, slave, dog, fire, metal, copper, hiife, axe, 
aid, boat, house, tent, village, door, bag, spin : terms for the most part relating to arts, institutions, and 
opinions, common to the rudest tribes of Asia and America. 

The Central American civilization was the highest known in America at the time of the Spanish 
Conquest ; and the Central American Races are much intermixed and by no means pure. The typo 
of skull, too, is often mixed, neither purely dolicocepluilic nor brachyccphalic. 

Dr. "Wilson considers the Red Man in America very anciently planted there (Quatrefages says 
" Quaternary " man existed there) and were probably like the nomads of the Asiatic Steppes; that 
they exhibit almost greater diversity of language and dialect than the Old AVorld ; and include 
elaborate agglutinate languages as well as inflexional forms, requiring centuries for their development; 
whilst some like the Otomi and Heve are almost monosyllabic. 

The Rcil Indian language is that of the children of nature, says Duponceau, but the forms often 
rich and methodical and compound though not confused. The terminations of their verbs arc expressive 
of number and person, and afford many modifications of action and passion, whilst they are in 
extension richer than Latin or Greek, yet with a highly elaborate structure, theii' vocabulary is limited, 
but yields delicate shades of meaning. 

Humboldt says American dialects, the roots of which do not the least resemble each other, often 
show resemblances of structure like that in Greek, Sanskrit, or Persian : while some of the languages 
and dialects are very different in detail, yet they have some sort of similarity. 

Sqnier asserts that out of 400 South American words, 187 were common to foreign languages, 
riz. 104 A.siatio or Polynesian and Australian ; 43 European and 40 African; and likewise in his 
" Peru" considers the ancient Peruvian civilization to have been indigenous, and does not agree with 
D'Orbigny in considering the two great Peruvian stocks, viz. the Quichuan and Aymcra, one and the 



xiy INTRODUCTION. 

same, or rather merely dialects of one langriiagc, but tliey arc quite as distinct as Trench is from 
German, and both probably distinct from the North America Indian. 

The Quichuan, however, most resembles the language of the old Incas, who only wanted a written 
language to have made it the highest of all the American, and even equal to some of the Old World 
Oriental ones. 

The qui2)us was not a very efficient substitute for even hieroglyphical writing. Some of their 
stone monuments are certainly" very old, and compare favourably with similar buiklings in the Old 
World, as Stonehenge and Carnao in Brittany. The sun circles of Sillustani resemble those of 
England, Denmark, and Tartary. They specially worsliipped the sun and were great cultivators and 
irrigators. "The attempt, however, that has been made to make them Hindoos, because /«i!a is the 
Uuichuau name for sun, and indh means sun or fire in Sanskrit, is absurd." 

Senor Lopez and others have rather dubiously derived the word Peru itself from a presumable 
(iiiichuan root ^j/r^fire, as a derivative from the Gra?co-Aryan word ttS/j. 

Eespeoting the Malay and Polynesian, Edkins thinks they once must have come from Eastern 
Asia, just as the Chinese came from "Western Asia. The Polpiesian personal pronoun is like the 
Chinese. The third person he, common as i, to both Polynesia and China. (Miss Gordon Cimiming 
noticed a resemblance in some of the Polynesians to the Japanese.) In Polynesia the word expressing 
gender came after the noun, in Chinese before. 

Dravidian, according to Edkins, as well as others, is of Turanian origin, and along with Japanese 
once may have branched off from the Tartar ; there is also, Edkins thinks, much in common between 
Malay and Polynesian, and both with Himalaic and Chinese ; and also that the Mongol rests on the 
older Chinese. With most of these and the American there are, as I have shown in the body of this 
work, considerable verbal analogies, though not so much so with the Indo-Chinese. 

Mr. Hyde Clarke (Comparative Pliilology, 1874), says: "The further evidence of language in 
America means also a common origin with the Old World of many of its inhabitant races, thereby 
reducing the area of possible aborigines, and so bearing on the question of the unity and subsequent 
development of mankind." Parenthetically Mr. Hyde Clarke considered there is a connexion between 
the Magyar and Himalaic Languages, as als"o between the Finnic and Ugro-Altaic, and that some French 
scholars "have even shown an affinity between the Basque and American (see my Table of Basque, 
Celtic, Caucasian, Libyan, and American Verbal Affinities). He also thinks that the Carib resembles 
the Dahomeh and Whydah of Africa; and that the Amazon tribes of Eastern South America may 
linguistically connect with the coast of Guinea in West Africa, and with the Tujn or Guerani of Brazil, 
with the Agaw of Ethiopa, and through some of the Caucasian languages even with Accaihan and 
Sumerian. Mr. Hyde Clarke has drawn attention to a possible connexion between the languages of 
Australia and those of Mozambique and the Kaffirs of South-East Africa ; in fact he considers that 
Africa is a great centre of languages, mythology, and ci\-ilization. [In this matter Mr. Gerald Massey 
would also appear to be in agreement] ; and in a paper on " Serpent and Siva Worship " in Central 
America, ^Vfrica and Asia (Journal of the Anthropological Institute, 187G), he quotes from Professor 
Gabb's paper on Inihan Tribes and the Languages of Costa Eica, showing that quite a number of words 
and synonyms are analogous with African ones ; these words I have mostly inserted in my Comparative 
Lists of Words given in the body of this work. 

Professor Campbell and Mr. Hector McLean have given a considerable number of Peruvian words 
common to, or analogous to, Celtic ones ; and also have noticed further connexion with the Berber 
(Anthrop. Inst. August, 1887). Out of 95 words in his Peruvian Vocabulary, 70 well formed 
equivalents were obtained by Professor Campbell.* 

Mr. Hyde Clarke considers Celtic and Sanskrit to have been derived from a common prehistoric 
stock ; as also the South American Quichuan and Sumerian AccacUan. Also that the S.A. Aymcra 
and Canary Islanders or Guanche Berbers were closely connected. Their vocabulary is possibly 
fundamentally Celtic (see my Tables), and that the Berbers or Libyans came originally from Ethiopia. 
I venture here to append a number of memoranda extracts from letters to myself at various times - 
from Mr. Hyde Clarke, and with many of which I am more or less in agreement : — 

1 . The bow-wow theoi-y of languages was not the origm of speech, which more probably arose 
by gradual dc;v(!lo])ment from gesture or iiiterjcctioiud language. 

2. The doctrine of cognate equivalents, or of even psyidiological values, is at the bottom of root 
researches. 

3. Adverbs, prepositions and numerals are not of much value comparatively in the study of 
primitive languages. 

4. The languages of the world are all related and of a Mniform identical origin, but variously 
distributed. 

5. Professor Abel, of Berlin, is bringmg out a work in relation to Egyptian, Cojitic, and tlic 

* In tliis way perhaps some of the Aryau elemeut iouud by Senor Lopez, of Moutc Video, may have been derived ; 
and whose work I shall notice presently. 



INTEODUCTIOX. xv 

Semitic and Aryan languages, which may tend not a little to challenge some of the cun-ent orthodox 
theories of the special Aryan school. [This work is now published (1890), and will be noticed in tliis 
Introduction.] 

6. The Ethnographical Department of the United States Goverament arc bringing out an 
important work on the Indian Languages. 

7. The value of Grammar in the study of primitive languages is of secondary value. 

8. The affinities of some of the Eastern Central American are almost identical with the African 
vocabulary ; as also the affinities of the Yarra of Australia, and probably the Maori of Xew Zealand 
with East Africa. 

9. The researches of Dr. Block and Kolbc in relation to liantii and JFi-rcro are valuable, but are 
too localized and special to be universally applicable. What makes the African languagcis so valuable 
is that they constitute a "preserve," as it were, of ancient culture left by the founders of speech 
less disturbed by the greater or more civilized and conquering nations like the Semitic and Aryan.* 
[Mr. Gerald Massey takes also much the same view of the importance of Egyjjtian and African 
languages as Mr. Hyde Clarke.] The African langimges are possibly mostly from white languages 
introduced from the North, as Semitic, Aryan, and Aecadian. The Libyan or Berber is not hero of 
much importance. 

10. In an early state of language there are many pJiallic relations \\hich may depend on origiutd 
laws that govern the phonetic origin of the syllabic alphabet. 

IL A labial ideograph may have a dental application. Mouth is generally labial; but many words 
for mouth are dental, or have become so. The Cypriote syllabary is valuable, inasmuch as it retains 
some of the original and earlier phonetics. 

12. As to America, its languages may have been influenced by intercourse with other countries, 
as Polynesia, etc., but that may have nothing necessarily to do with race. There may not have been 
any aboriginal American language. 

13. Any relations which may exist between Quiohuan and African, Iberian or Celtic, etc., are 
probably in their origin due to the existence of a more primitive state of language and speech. 

14. Berber and Basque are of little general value. Armenian is not a true Caucasian tongue, 
but rather Aryan ; nor is the Georgian of much value in primitive philology. Even in Celtic and 
Latin and other Aryan Languages, words occur which are direct descendants from an earlier period 
of language culture. Brian Hodgson is still the best authority on the Himalaic languages, f The 
writings of philologists sometimes have their practical value lessened because they may be too erudite. 

15. One should be on one's guard as to roots. Primarily, the original single root has been often 
displaced. Thus, where the chief root was a labial (not necessarily M, B, P, etc. ?) it may bo replaced 
by a nasal, dental, etc., and representing possibly another physiological relation. The proper root for 
mouth would be a labial ; but when the idea is taken to include tooth, a dental might be introduced. 
[_Muiifh, however, merely correlates with hole, cave, hollow, etc., in R. P. G.]. 

16. It is often fallacious comparing some highly developed language with savage or primary ones ; 
and possibly Professor Abel treats even Egyptian too much as a language in its primary condition.;]: 

In his "Eesearches into Prehistoric Comparative Philology" in connection with the Origin of 
Culture in America and the AecaiUan-Sumarian Families I gather that Mr. Hyde Clarke considers 
the Aymera and Quichuan of Peru, and the Maya, Otomi,§ and Aztec of Mexico are all, more or less, 
allied with the Indo-Chinese, and thereby with the Aecadian, as well as with the African, especially the 
Agaw. The Circassian seems allied to the Otomi of North America; also the Etruscan with the 
Altaic. [Mr. Ellis connects Etruscan with the Caucasian, and both these again with some of the 
South American languages ; and may not all the.se have a common Archaic-Turanian origin ?] 

Mr. Hyde Clarke remarks, p. 28, on the use of Determinatives with a distinctive power in pre- 
historic language as the be in Basque ; and that a single root often represents several ideas ; of the 
truth of which I think there can be no reasonable doubt. 

Mr. Hyde Clarke thinks the Georgian also connected with Aecadian and Thibetan. As Proto- 
histoi'ic langTiagcs ho also proposes to include EgyjDtian, Sumero-Peru'\'ian, Chinese, Thibetan, and 
Dravidian, and that it may have been through the Egyptian they affected N.E. Africa and Western 
Africa and did not reach Australia. "High Asia is a centre to which in ancient times the West, 
including Caucasia, the Nile, and W. Africa conformed as India did to the south. Caucasia seemed 

* The influence of the Aral) and Moslem is now making; a considerable disturbance in all Northern Africa down to 
the Congo or further, many new Arab words being constantly inta'oduced. See also Stanley's Etymological Notices of 
Ethiopic and Caucasian influence in S.E. Africa in " Darke.st Africa." 

t I do not find that the Himalaic and Indo-Chinese VocabuIarie.s are strongly reflected in the American ones. 

J This criticism might apply with still greater force with respect to Mr. Gerald Massey's central idea of his " Egyptian 
Origines." 

^ May not the Otomi have received its decided Asiatic affinities through the Chinese or Aecadian rather than through 
the Indo-Chinese and other American linguistic connection, rather than through the Altaic? and are not the Eastern 
Himalaic languages very mixed ? 



xvl INTEODUCTTON. 

once to be a gi-eat language centre. [I cannot agree witli Mr. Hyde Clarke's theorv of the Accad- 
Sumerian connection or intercourse ivitli South America.] Words may he transmitted for thousands of 
years, as Sumerian with American in an unwritten form." 

Mr. Hyde Clarke gives an interesting list of cognate equivalents — 
e.g. ToxGUE^mouth, speech, knife, leaf, lance, 
TooiH=bone, horn, arrow, heai', elephant, 
SNAKE==fish, sun, god, horse, etc., 
to which might probably be added (see my own lists), navel, bowels. Many of Mr. Hyde Clarke's 
agree with my own prehistoric synonomous types.* For Field I find the equivalents land, country, 
enclosure, circle, garden, house, stone ? boundary ? place, wall, yai-d, ^tax^, marsh, earth (see 
Vocabularies). 

The study of these synonomous and cognate type-terms is of evident and great value in the study 
of prehistoric language. Mr. Chirke states that in Accadian L {la, hi) is an animal characteristic ; 
and the name for dog is often a mere general animal distinction. Mr. Hyde Clarke dwells a good deal 
on the importance of what he calls the " Negative Series" in prehistoric etymology ; e.g. no or not is 
the equivalent of night, black, bad, etc. "Woman, moon, and female, are mainly negative ; man, male, 
sun, positive. 

I have not attempted to follow Mr. Clarke in his comparative analogous lists of rivers and city 
names of the Old and New Worlds, e.g. Tarapca and Tauoa in Peru, as with Tarrago and Takki in 
Spain ; many of these names, especially in Soutli and Central America, may have been altered to suit 
Spanish and Portuguese maps and ideas. 

Mr. Clarke speaks of the "phenomena of man in America as representing an arrested development 
of civilization," and that there are strictly speaking "no aboriginal languages in America, of the higher 
and later forms " [this would hardly agree with Seiior Lopez as regards the Quichuan of South 
America ?], unless the Omagu, as possibly connected with the Caucasian. 

In the early prehistoric days a stream of emigration must have taken place from the Old to the 
New World, across Behiing Straits ; hardly so across the Atlanlic. [Why not from or via the Azores, 
following only 1200 miles, with favouring Trade Winds to N.E. coast of South America, or the 
Caribbean Isles ?— H. P. G.] 

Lastly, at the Cardiff Meeting of the British Association, 1891, Professor G. P. Wright read a 
paper on recent discoveries bearing on the relations of the glacial period in North America to the 
antiquity of man. He deduced from the discoveries the theory that, during the early period of post- 
Tertiary elevation of the continent, man made his way from Asia to America, bringing with him the 
rude arts of the Paloeolithie age. On the spread southwards of the glacial conditions which followed, 
he was more and more confined in the southern part of the United States and of northern Mexico, and 
shared in a fierce struggle for existence. In his opinion man succumbed and became extinct on the 
continent and was supplanted by the jiresent races at a much later date. 

APPJCAN LANGUAGES. 

Though Dr. Block in his " Comparative Grammar," and Mr. Hyde Clai-ke in various short papers, 
have drawn attention to the probable importance of Afiican languages in the Study of Language, it is 
impossible not to notice the recent work of the Eev. F. W. Kolbe, " A Language-Study based on 
Bantu." (Triibner & Co., 1888). This is a scientific attempt on natural grounds to arrive at the 
earliest and simplest form of radical sounds in language. 

Kolbe says in his Introduction : "It appears to me that there is good reason for believing that the 
African Bantu family, and especially Horero, which may be called the Sanskrit of Bantu (a S.E. Afiican 
language), has been preservi'd in such a primitive state as to make it possible to discover certain simple 
laws that mostly guided the first man in creating the stock of radicals from which unis-ersal language 
lias sprung. Let the stiudent first divest himself of pre-eonceived notions on the subj<>ct and carefully 
examine the facts that shall be laid before him. He will then be convinced that the continent of Africa 
supplies nc^w and wondrous forms, the examination of which will upset many old and ingenious theories 
based on too limited study of the very limited plien(jmena supplied by the Aryans aud Semitic families. 
(See R. N. Cust in " The Languages of Africa ; " also Stanley's " Darkest Africa," 1890.) 

Kolbe then advises caution as to tlie inti'liisic value of even such a monosyllabic language as that of 
China, wliere apparent true monosyllables may have been graded down from duo or from polysyllabic 
words ; of course this may ftpply with even greater force to numy of tlu; shorter Aryan words; and the 
longer word or even spelling is often nearer the original ])ronUn(iati<in. Even Hottentot clicks are 
much in the same way as Semitic consonants, a later form than many liautu or Herero radicals.j- 

* Some of Mr. Clarke's equivalents in Prehistoric Etymology seem rather forced or fanciful ; and there is a consider- 
able nnniher of more reasonable omissions. 

t Mr. Kobcrt Brown, jun., has observed that archaic forms are often not infrequently longer than later and graded 
ones. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XVII 



Kolbe, 1st, consuk'i-s liinguaKe to be tlif offspriiif!; of sip,lit ruthcr tliaii sound ; and not mere attempts 
at imitative sounds, but rontu founded on dc^finitc, natural and rational laws, founded as life-motion, 
wind-motion and rext (including dcatb and inaidmato objects), and the organs or sound of speech, 
guttural, labial and dental. 

2nd. " The beginning of language consist of true monosyllables with one consonant and one vowel, 
such as Ka, Ti, I'u, each with rather wide and general meanings, as to moVe, stretch, wave, fly, run. 
Words ending with a consonant, e.g., Chinese tap, horn, are mutilated or graded forms, and not in 
reality real monosyllabl(>s. 

3rd. In all languages, by far the greater number of roots are combinations of two piimitive mono- 
syllables which have lost the terminal vowel as Chinese y-ik' ; English find', loo-k', which have in 
Bantu often been preserved in their complete forms as ra-nda, buy. ^'o true i)rimitive root ever exceeds 
two syllables. 

4th. " The two first gi'and princijiles of language are motion, and the absi-nce of motion, viz., 
rest; the conmnants representing motion (and the absence of motion or rest), and the voiveh the various 
relations as to space (time) and locality. The primasval laws, which regulated in the beginning the 
use of the consonants (guttural, dental, and labial), and the primitive vowels {a, i, u) can still be 
observed in the Hcrero of Africa. 

5th. " The dift'crences between the several families of speech are, on the whole, not radical or 
material, but merely grammatical, formal, and conventional, each family having moulded what it 
possessed of the original common stock in its composition. The vowel-method (see Chap. IV.) will 
enable the science of language to demonstrate the origin of the several families of speech from one 
common source." 

Kolbe says also, p. 21, Chap. III.: "The vowel sounds had in the beginning of language an 
inherent power to modify the whole sense of a root, forming in this way a wide cluster of indeiiendent 
root-words, with one prevailing idea, but differing as to space and locality. 

" As the consonants represent regulated diversity of motion, so the rotvcls were originally signs 
for the various positions and relations in space ; as at present represented by adverbs and prepositions 
of place, were represented by three primary vowels, a, e, u; and each of which equally had its own 
individuality and function. (See p. 49 Vocabularies. E,. P. Gr.) 

A:=on ; along, flat, extended. 

I=in ; out, tall, erect, stiff, between, over, up, hidden. 

U^above ; up, thi'ough, full, large. 

The vowel A has really no precedence over I or U. K, T, P, and M, are, or were, the primitive 
consonantal letter sounds. Ka ; Ta ; ;md Pa ; also Ma, were the earliest and most primitive vocal 
sounds expressive of certain meanings ; and are most clearly still shown in modern Bantu and Herei'o. 

In effect, Ka, means animate life, to breathe, live, etc. 

Ta, inanimate things ; death, lie down, repose. 

Pa, movement ; blow, fly, walk, wave, flow, run, etc. 

Ma, mother; female (also food, land, "E.P.G."). 

Ka (singular) ; life, living thing ; (plural) Kha (^ka-ka)?* 

Ma^mother. kha=;mothers. 

It is, of course, impossible here to do more than merely to allude very briefly to Kolbe's book ; the 
principal chapter-subjects are thus treated — Primitive Alphabet, and Primeval Laws of Consonants — 
Primeval Laws of the Vowels — The Vowel-Method in Universal Etymology — Notes on the Primitive 
Bantu Prepositions and Adverbs — Root-Formation ; its beginnings and successive stages — Development 
of Thought — The Herero Pronoim ; Primeval Law of the Plural — Sexual Dual — The Operation of 
Common Laws Traceable in the Bantu and Aryan Pronouns — Pronominal Tables ; the Primitive 
System liestored. 

Probably Kolbe has pushcd.the Bantu primitive formative diagnosis of language a little far, as to 
its being universal ; but, nevertheless, as far as the simple consonants K, T, P, and M go, in combinations 
with vowels, there would appear, I think, not a little in the comparative vocabularies contained in this 
book, a tendency to corroborative evidence. The root ^7», in connection to motion, flying, foot, bird, is 
nearly universal, or common to most branches of human language. Jia is also found m connection with 
animals and life in other than jVfrican languages, as may be seen in my tables of word-comparisons and 
quasi roots. In a general way I should be inclined to say nearly universally that the archaic radical 
Ka meant Life ; and Ak Action or Movement as well as Pa. Short words, as ki, te, ka, may or may not 
in a single language be primitive roots ; and sometimes merely graded dual or polysyllabic only ; but 
when found occurring in a number of difilerent languages having pretty much the same meaning, they 
may then be accepted as being a primitive root. 

* Latham (p. 558) says that the Kaffir generally has an inseparable prefix as (H-kaki^ stone ; i« -komo = ca/i/c ; and 
the plural is of ten determined by the prefix ; as in-komo =cattle ; imi-ti = trees ; Hia-kaki=siows. 



xviii • INTRODUCTTOX. 

In his concluding remarks (pp. 93-94), in referring to the pronominal forms of the Bantu* Aryan, 
Semitic and Hottentot families (whilst considering that he has sliewn that the pronominal system of the 
Bantu to be the " primitive prenominal system of universal language," there being 33 absolute, and at 
least 10 conditional forms, or 43 in all), Kolbe observes the foUovring distinctive features and 
peculiarities arise in their relation to the common original stock, viz. : — 

" In Bantu the primitive correspondence between singular and plural has been wonderfully well preserved, 
al.so the forms of the sexual dual, whilst the ii/ea of the dual, except in one case, has been lost, the originally 
dual forms being now used for the singular and plural. Some original femiuine forms are still extant, but 
they have assumed a common per.sonal and local meaning. Real grammatical gender is, therefore, wanting in 
the present state of the Bantu languages, no eiibrt having been made by the ancestors of the African nations 
to keep it alive by substituting conventional feminine forms derived from the common personal gender, as has 
been done in the Ajyan, Semitic, and other families. The j^ersonal, neuter, and local meaning are at present 
the chief features of the Bantu prefixes and pronouns. 

" The Aryan nations have, in all the three persons, retained the primitive natural plural, whilst few, if 
any, traces seem to be left of the sexual dual. For the Ai-yan dual is merely a modification of the plural : in 
Gothic and other idioms it is evidently, as Bopp has pointed out, a composite consisting of the plural pronoun 
and part of the numeral two, meaning literally we two, ye two, as Gothic ri-t (we two), Lith. i/u-du (ye two), 
etc. Also in Sauskiit the dual seems to be radically identical with the plural. The original feminine forms, 
sing, and plur., J/t'and IIHU, etc., have been presen-ed, as, e.g. in Ski', -mi, I, Engl, me, and plur. Skr. nns 
(us), Lat. nos (we, >is), but the original feminine meaning is lost. Later the feminine was formed from the 
mascidine (or common personal) by change of consonant, as Engl, she from he, or in other ways. (See Ap- 
pendix LI.) 

" In the Semitic languages the original correspondence between .singular and plural is, except in one or 
two cases, extinct, forms originally belonging to the sexual dual being in use now for the plm-al. A few 
primitive feminine forms have been preserved , but their signification as such has been lost. The feminine of 
the third person singular is formed from the masculine or personal gender by changing the vowel u to i. 

" The Hottentot family, too, has lost the iirimitive correspondence between singular and plural, but has 
made the most of a few retained forms of the sexual dual, which have been modified by aspiration, abbrevia- 
tion, or change of consonant and vowel, to serve as plural and dual pronouns. The femiuine is derived from 
the masculine or personal gender by consonantal and vowel changes." 

Kolbe commences with Ka= living thing, and developes it, say as in 

Table I. (Primitive .system restored). 

1. Ka=living thing. ) 2. Ka-ma=living pair. ) 3. Kha = living things. f 
Ki. ku. J Ki-mi. ku-mn. j Khi. khu. 

Similarly, Ta= dead thing. Pa = moving thing. Ma=mother, etc. 

Table II. (Prenominal system restored). 

1. Ka = he, she, it. 2. Ka-ma = he-she=pair. 3. Kha=they. 

Ta; ti ; tu = it. Pa; pi; pu = it. Tha; pha = they. 

Ma^mothcr ; female; she. Mha= mothers; females; they. 

This aiTangement is carried out very fully in reference also to the Herero prefixes and pronouns ; 
and to the system of the Herero, Nama, Hebrew and English pronoims, I may have gone further into 
Kolbe's book than may possibly be necessary ; but it is desirable in any modern work on comparative or 
structural philology, not to omit some notice of the grooving importance attached to the study of some 
of the more primitive African languages. It is more likely when African words and roots are seen to 
occur more or less in most other modern as well as dead languages, including Egyptian, as well as manj- 
of those of the New World, that there may be still existent the remains as it were of old primitive 
radicah and sounds, having a more or less common meaning, and which may assist ns not infrequently 
in explaining apparently very distant similaiities or analogies. Stanley states that there is a good deal 
of Caucaso-Semitic ancl Ethiopic blood and descent in many of the African tribes of Eastern-Central, 
Inner, and South Eastem Africa. (See "Darkest Africa," vol. ii. p. 354.) 

In my own selection of words I have generally been guided by this principle of the occurrence of 
likely or possible »-«(^/(;fflZ«. Roots, so Professor Max Miiller says, " arc abstract and not concrete, and 
the elements out of which all language has been constructed." 

* According to Stanley the Tvord Bantu means men, and tliat tlio sni-disant Bantu's probal)ly originally had some 
Semitic admixture, and in fact the Kalfirs of S.E. Africa generally. 

t Many African languages do not form their plural exactly in this way, but either by reduplication of some kind, or 
with a sufhx, or by change of the initial letters; as ngnml)e = cow, siugombe = cows ; bi = egg, mabi=egg9; goku = axe, 
heku=axes. Then, again, so simple a root as kit would hardly universally mean or refer to tivimj tilings. Tivon iu Africa 
ka also means stone, no ! take. And in America kaka = bad; ko = to give, etc. Gerald Massey says: "The Egyptian 
ka-ka means rejoicing; Ka is to cry, proclaim, a boundary, to boast, to be lifted up." I have shown in one of my compara- 
tive tables or vocabularies, that kha also means hole, cave, mouth, etc., so that there may be considerable diirerences iu 
meaning for a primitive (?«n«i radical sound. The root kar = kan has many cognate meanings connected with the idea of 
circle, round, enclosure, house, people, etc. (See Vocabularies and Appendices.) 



INTRODUCTION. xix 

In my selcotion of Modern African wonls 1 have cliiclly consulted Koellu's " Polyfi;lotta Africa" ; 
Latham's comparative Pliilology; Hyde Clarke's papers bearing on the subject; 11. Ellis' " Pcruvia 
Scythioa"; Stanley's Vocabularies of Central Africa, given in his " Dark Continent," as well as 
" Darkest Afi-ica" ; and .Tohne's " Philological Proofs of the Origin of the Human Race." 

In the consideration of African Languages in comparative Philology, it is well to remember that 
native African Languages arc not of one stock, and in numerous cases not purely negro, but rather 
negroid or even Ethiopic and Caucaso-Scmitic. Sfanhsy in his "Darkest Africa," vol. ii. pp. 354-3.59, 
has some interesting observations on the ethnology of Africa, in connection with the Pigmies and 
Wahumas of Central Inner and South Eastern Africa. In a general way Jlr. Stanley considers that the 
true negro races are only found in South and Western Africa, and that there is a large and probably 
very ancient admixture through Ethiopic Caucaso-Scmitic blood in Inner Central Afi'ica, as far south 
probably as Zanzibar, and extending from Abyssinia to Lake Tanganika, and (juite into Central Africa. 

Mr. Stanley says, " probably from Abyssinia and Ethiopia must have come more than one third of 
the present inhabitants of Inner Africa," that all Africans may have the negro woolly hair; but 
generally the " Caucasian face " may be distinguished ; and the Kaffir, Zulu, Matelebos, Bantus and 
Bechuanas, are different from the moi-c indigenous negroes of West Africa and the Guinea Coast, 
Congouese or Eaboncse, etc., and of the extreme South (Hottentots). " There is a kind of subtle 
amalgamation of the Hindu and West African types." As we advance from Zangemika towards Ujiji, 
we see the facial type constantly improve. 

The people of Semitic, or quasi Caucasian type of face, arc mostly herdsmen, and look down with 
contempt on the more agricultural tribes, and are not found very near the Eastern littoral of Africa 
to the cast of the great lakes and snowy mountains, so much as in or near the Nilotic basin. 
Mr. Stanley considers the Wahumas the truest descendants of the Galla, Abyssinian, and Ethiopic 
type ; " Of" those Ethiopians who for fifty centuries have been pouring over the continent of Africa 
East. and West of the Victoria Nyanza in search of pasture, and while so doing have formed superior 
tribes and nations along their course, from the Gulf of Aden, almost to the Cape of Good Hope ; a vast 
improvement in the old primitive races of Africa." 

In a note, page 359, Stanley says : " It is necessary when speaking of the coloured races of Inner 
Africa to boar in mind that they "are now developed into five distinct ty^jes, which maybe called. 
Pigmy, Negro, Semi-Ethiopic anil Berberine (Libyan), or Mauresque ; and that among these types 
there are a number modified by much amalgamation or crossing of one with another, such as Pigmies 
with Negroes ; producing tribes whose adult males have an average height of 5 feet 2 inches ; Negi-o 
with Omani Arabs, as on the Eastern sea-board ; Ethiopic with Arab, as along the littoral in the 
neighljourhood of Jub ; Berberine with Negro, as in Darfour, Kordofan, the herdsmen of the Upper 
Nile, and east of Sierra Leone." 

I do not pretend to judge of, or to enlarge upon it; but as far as my own vocabularies are concerned, 
there would appear to be a number of rather remarkable verbal analogies between the Caucasian, 
Basque, Celtic, and Libyan, and the American languages, especially for South American on the 
North-Eastern side, and even with the Quichuan, Caiib, and Eastern-Central America. This influence 
or connection may have taken place fi'om or via the Azores and Canaries, following the route of the 
trade winds and shortest ocean crossing. 

Some have connected the Libyans (and Berbers) with the ancient Egyjitians, others with the 
Amharic, and, I believe Professor Sayce has even suggested, with the Amorites. Mr. R. ElUs thought 
that before the Aryans arrived in Etruria and Italy, that Africans and Iberians were there.* 

In his Introduction, Mr. Ellis refers to the i'mportance of the primeval affinity of the languages 
of .Africa in comparing the languages of Europe and Asia ; and that Herr Europoeus (of St. Petersburg) 
had imited the Basque in one group with the African and Semitic languages, making the Caucasian 
lang-uages to form a second branch, and the Aryan and Finnish a third branch ; and Mr. Ellis goes 
on to speak of a Pre-Aryan population of Southern Europe as Ibero-Afilcan ; and that the Pemvians 
may have once been connected with or allied to the Basques, Lycians, and Etruscans. 

Mr. Ellis, apparently, does not admit of a connection between the Turanian, Siberian, and the 
Etruscan, but (dubiously) rather with the Caucasian and Iberian ; f and he looks to the Caucasus as 
the cradle of the Basques and Etruscans ; considering the Iberians, with the Turanians and Americans, 
as branches of one race, for which he adopts Rask's title of "Scythian"; and that it would be 
premature to determine the exact degree of affinity between the Scythians and Africans. _ 

On this subject, and on the characteristics of" the African languages and of the ancient Egyptians, 
"much more will no doubt be known when we possess the completion of Reinisch's gi-eat work, the 
fruit of fifty years labom- upon the original unity of the langaiages of the Old World." 

* Mr. Hyde Clarke, I believe, does not highly value the Berber and Iberian languages, and thinks Jlr. Ellis has 
rather confused the Armenian with the true Caucasian ; and so has been partly misled in respect to comparisons with the 
liasque and Iberian. I do not myself find the Berber languages of much philological value. 

t My own observations rather tend to show some connections between the Guerani and the east coast of South 
America with S.W. Europe and X.W. Africa, than with the Peruvian. (See Appendices VIII. XV. XVI.) 



xs IXTKODUCTION. 

Mr. Ellis has great faith in the niimcral system by Jires,* as connected with the hands and five 
fingers, both in the Old and 'New "Worlds, as being a very old one ; but that some of the possible 
coincidences in the names for hand, fire, may have either arisen fi'om a common ancestry or fi'om 
a common natm-al necessity. That the majority of the ancestors of the American Indians, when they 
crossed the sea from Asia, probably entered it by Alaska and the Xorth-West ilr. Ellis does not 
seem much to believe in ; but his opinions as a rule do not agree with those of the best authorities, 
nor yet with my own Vocabularies. The Quichuan numei'als he however considers "plainly connect 
the ancient Peruvians with the nations of the (.)ld World ; their nearest kindred there appearing to be 
the Turanians, especially those of the Yellow Eace ; and also with some of the Xorth American races." 
[Some of the tei-ms for man and woman are found nearly identical all over the world ; Quichuan words 
are also found in Africa and the Caucasus.] 

The matter of the numerals is one upon which volumes have been and may still be written ; it is 
a question which in its relation as to the Old World and the New AYorld, I have not largely attempted 
to enter into ; but the analogies as a rule are not strongly marked. Some of the Malay and Oceanic 
numerals would appear to agree better with Western American than even the Turanian and Asiatic 
ones. Generally the sounds or words for numei'als would appear to vary more considerably and be more 
graded down than ordinary words or roots ; and as the words for hand, finger, vary very much, so still 
more might it be expected that numerals based upon those conceptions would also vary. 

I have given some of the more striking analogies between the American numerals and Malay, 
Polynesian, Aocadian, Chinese, Sanskrit, Finn, Celtic, Caucasian, and Ugro-Altaic, etc., but it does not 
amount after all to very maich. f Eor the numeral fico there are perhaps most analogies. I have also 
given the Nos. 6 and 7 for a considerable number of languages and families of languages. 

Between the Papuan and Australian and the Polynesian, and both with the American, there would 
appear to be a good many words, as well as roots, in common ; and these again more or less apparently 
with Malay and African. Mr. Hyde Clarke and Mr. Gerald Massey (see his " Book of Beginnings ") have 
both referred to the apparently rather numerous analogies between Polynesian (Maori) and Afiican ; 
and my own Yocabularics and comparisons appear to lead to a similar result ; possibly the Malay may 
have in more recent times acted as a kind of go-between or link. It has been recently said that the 
present Polynesian Islanders have not occupied the Oceanic Archipelago more than 2000 years ; but 
judging by the ancient stone momiments in some of the islands, there may have existed previously 
an earlier population. (See Appendix XI Y.) 

I have given a number of Aryan words, that seem to agree with American as well as with Turanian 
ones; but in what way those do so I do not pretend to say. J Celto-Iberian words as noticed in one 
of my own special Comparative Tables may not improbably have crossed over from the 8.W. of Europe 
or N.E. of Africa, rid the Canaries and Azores, the direct distance being only some ll200 miles (trade 
winds favouring) to the nearest N.E. coast of South America. 

If we admit the Unity of the Human Race and the Natural Development of Language to a certain 
extent on similar lines as pai't of the conditions natural to the common instincts and physical aptitudes 
of humanity, much that appears common or accidentally coincident to both Old and New Worlds may 
be explained in respect to speech and language. As regards America, a certain number of both shorter 
words and' monosyllabic radicals, appear much in common with those of the Old World, having possibly 
come in originally at the time of the Quarternary period ; but more numerous verbal analogies (hardly 
coincidences) may have crept in by subsequent degrees, or through casual migrations. 

TURANIAN. 

But it is more with the so called Asiatic Turanian Family of languages there would appear to be 
most in common with the American ones ; and as occupying or covering the best accepted earliest seat 
or cradle of the human race itself, we might naturally expect to find there the largest number of old 
agglutinated words and possible roots ; whilst a fuller study and examination of tlu' Turanian languages 
in conjunction witli the African and American ones, may do more towards a fuller knowledge of com- 
parative Philology and of the origin of languages than any amount of learned and ingenious erudition 
expended on tlie Semitic' and Aryan more highly specialized later language-devehqinient, covering rather 
a limited area, and yet, in the first instance, not imjn-nhablv nearly connected with an earlier Turanian 
itself. 

* The number seven as .5 + 2 apptears to occur in tlie Soutli American, rateo;onian, and Quichuan ; in the Aztec and 
in parts of California, Texas, and Alaska; and in the Old World, iu Burmese, Sanskrit, Greek, and Lcsghian. Two of the 
Etruscan numerals Mr. Ellis would derive from North Africa. 

t The coincidences or analogies between the African and European, Asiatic and American words for the numerals, 
appear to me to be almost nil, or valueless, for the purposes of comjiarison ; but of course a smattering of the Inter Arabic 
numerals may not unfrcipiently be found in Africa. (No. 1 is often = 1 or ei;o ; and No. 2=thi)U.) 

X I'rofessor Skeat has, 1 believe, some 100 Aryan roots connected with the Finnic. May not this have in p.art arisen 
from the close proximity of the older Scandinavian Aryans with the Iji])S and Finns and Slaves during a fonner considerably 
remote period. Du Cliaillu thinks he can trace back the Scandinavian Aryans to the lilack Sea aud North Caucasus. 
Lap and Finn words are not, I think, the predominant forms of the North American Turanian element, (pp. ItiO, IGl.) 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 

In compnrmn; my own lists of Turanian and American words for the ratlier limited range of words 
selected or obtainable, it must bo, I think, aduutted that the nuiiilicr of more or less analogous words, if 
not of radicals, is really remarkable however it may have arisen, and making some allowance for 
interchangeable hstters. 

Edkins considca-s the Turanian type midway between tlie monosyllal)ic Chinese and the poly- 
syllabic European Languages ; that the Mangol comes nearest of all to' the three Turanian families 
of speech, and is very old ; and that there may, indexed, have been a time, 5000 years ago, possibly a 
primitive Turanian in Western Asia from Avhich the Japanese, Dravidian and Tartar spi'ang. 

It was not with the Altaic branch of the Turanian, but witli the Western Ugiic and Ostiac branch 
that the earlier Chinese language was most nearly connected, Edkins thinks.* 

The verb to he (buhu) in Sanskrit hhi'i, and the 1st personal pronoun in m or h, and the 2nd (?) in 
« or t, are as widely spreail in Tartary as in Europe ; the latter, jjcrhaps, being their borrower ; and the 
surest sign of kindred between the Tartar-Turanian in European llussia with the Indo-European. 

In America tlic 1st personal pronoun generally commences with n in j)reference to m, though both 
fonns occur, whilst h is not found. 

The transition from d to /, sometimes seen in Chinese as well as in Indo-European languages, 
probably took place before the separation of the Aryan and Turanian races. The interchange of the 
letters d and / is also Turanian and American. 

Edkins thinks the old Thibetan possibly allied to the Ilebrew ; and gives a number of coincident 
verhal agreements.! (See p. 164.) 

He also considers the Turanian may he connected with the Japhetic languages, as the Himalaic and 
Malayo-Polynesian with the Semitic ; and that the Polynesians retain traces of a lost ci%-ilization which 
comes rather prominently into .view on the American Continent ; also that both language and religious 
belief indicate Southern Asia as the source from which came the tribes that inhabit Australia, Polvnesia, 
and the more civilized of the American tribes ; likewise tliat the Tartar has a nearer relationshipto the 
Indo-European languages than other Turanian ones. He considers the Thibetan older even than 
either the Turanian or Indo-European. It is a law in all true Turanian languages that the vowel of the 
root repeats itself in both suffix and prefix ; and he probably correctly considers the Dravidian is of 
Turanian origin, though Prof. Pope, D.D., would I believe rather refer it to an early Aryan one. 

The verb and noun in Chinese and Turanian are specially identical, and the Turanian has "the verb 
at the end of the sentence. There was also a time in Turanian history when its long suffixes were 
separate roots, and that a considerable number of its words and radicals agree in Tamil, Sanskrit, and 
other Aryan Vocabularies. 

In Thibetan, auxiliaries are jirefixed, in Indo-Chinese suffixed. There are many words, naturally in 
the latter or Eastern Himalaic, found in the Chinese ; and Eilkins even considers the Eastern Himalaic 
older than the Chinese itself. The Rev. C. J. Ball tells me that the Malay Grammar greatly resembles 
the Chinese. Mr. Hyde Clarke finds words common to the American and Indo-Chinese (East Himalaic) ; 
it is not easy to trace how these could have had any direct connection, unless indirectly through the 
Malay and Polynesian to the south, and through China or Tartary to the north. (See my Vocabulary of 
the Indo-Chinese and American (pp. 200-2 14). J 

Mr. Edkins considers that it was after the Separation from the Chinese occurred that the Turanian 
placed the conjugated verb last, and thus originated the declension of nouns; and the Sanskrit then 
occupied an intermediate position between Europe and Turania. [The noun in American languages is 
sometimes declined and sometimes not ; any regular form of gender is extremely rare ; but the verb is 
conjugated to a remarkable extent]. The Sanskrit did not use prepositions in regard to nouns like most 
of the Aryan languages. 

Suffixes generally were of pronominal origin. Greek, Zend, and Sanskrit were evidently, Edkins 
considers, in near relation with the Semitic ; possibly in or from Armenia. The Turanian languages 
had formed cases of nouns before they were known in the Indo-European family. The best and leading 
types of the Turanian are more nearly allied to the Sanskrit than to other branches of the Aryan family. 

[This may be worth consideration in dealing with the connection between American languages 
and certain Turanian or Aiyan verbal or grammatical analogies.] The Sanskrit of Indo-European 
languages also alone employs case-suffixes, instead of the more ancient prepositions of the Chinese, 
Semitic, and Himalayic.§ Some of the American languages use prepositions to conjugate the verb; 

* This has been founcl to be partly true inasmuch as the Chinese is now shown to be intimately connected with the 
ancient Accadiau or Sunierian ; wliilst the Dravidian is now su])posed to be Turanian or Tartar. 

t I do not find many words in J.acouperie's work "Chinese before the Chinese," showing agreements with the 
American, nor yet with modern Chinese itself. 

+ Examples, however, are found in Central America of temple architecture not unlike the Indo-Chinese. 

^ In North American languages, the pronoun is sometimes used in a copulative and distinct form with the verb. In 
Otomi and Aztec the distinction for gender is made by adding certain separate words or syllables. In Quichuan there is no 
gender. Tolerably full details as to American languages will be foimd in Schoolcraft, Petitot and Bancroft. (See Appendices, 
Nos. II. III. IV.) 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 

in fact adverbs, pronouns, and prepositions are common ; only in one or two American languages ia 
there any dual forming the plural. The monosyllabic Utomi shows numerous resemblances to Chinese, 
as I have elsewhere noticed. (Appendix No. IV. and p. 118.) 

The following resume of a lecture given by Professor Douglas at University College, London, on 
the Chinese language, is taken from the Times of October 17, 1890 : — 

" The lecturer commenced hj giving a brief sketch of the geography of China, and passed on to refer to 
the trade of that comitry. Dealing with the Chinese language of to-day Professor Douglas said that in 
Chinese the subject pi-ecedes the verb, the adjective precedes the suV>stantive it modifies, and when two 
substantives come together the first is in the possessive case. The written- language is monosyllabic, but not 
so the colloquial, which has become diffuse in consequence of the necessity arising from the difficulty of 
making orally intelligible the single words which are sufficiently plain to the eye by aid of the ideographic 
characters. Like many other languages, Chinese has sufl'ered loss through phonetic decay, and it is poverty- 
stricken in a gi-ammatical sense. It is uninflected and only shows slight signs of agglutination. There is 
very Uttle, therefore, to mark the grammatical value of a word except its position in a sentence, since very few 
words belong absolutely to any one part of speech. The result is that the same word is often capable of 
playing the part of a substantive, an adjective, a verb, or an adverb. But when this is so, it sometimes 
happens that the transition from one part of speech to another is -indicated by a change of tone in tlie 
pronunciation. The tones are not fixed quantities. They vary considerably in different parts of the empu-e, 
from 16 in some of the southern dialects to five in the Mandarin; and words are fm-ther constantly being 
transferred from one tone to another in obedience to the laws of popular phoneticism. Whatever may have 
been the origin of these tones, they play a very important part in making Chinese colloquially intelligible. 
In the Mandarin dialect, which is the most generally spoken dialect in China, there are only about 632 
syllables, which are represented by the 12,000 or 15,000 characters commonly found in the dictionaries. It is 
obvious that with so small a number of sounds to express vocally so large a iuiml>er of words confusion must 
inevitably arise. And so it often does, though the introduction of the tones has served to mitigate the evil by 
giving generally each syllable five different vocalizations. Being an uninflected language, the cases of noims 
and the tenses of verbs are either indicated by position in the sentence or by the addition of prefixes or suffixes 
to the original words, which do not undergo any inherent change whatever. As in the Accadian, there is an 
absence of any distinction between the mascuhne and feminine genders, and the plural is commonly only 
indirectly pointed out. On paper the language is represented by cliaracters which may be classed as hiero- 
glyi:)hics, ideograms, and phonetics. The hieroglyiihics are the primitive characters of the language, and were 
originally drawings of the objects which they were intended to represent, though now, through the changes 
which have taken place in the form of the characters, it is often difficult to recognise the originals. It will 
easily be understood that these hieroglyphic characters soon proved insufficient for the literary needs of the 
people, and hence the practice grew up of combining two or more hieroglyj^hics to express an idea. Thus, for 
example, the character representing the sun placed above a straight line stands for the dawn, and one repre- 
senting the sun shining through a tree for the east. Again, the characters for " a man " and " words," 
associated together, rejirescnt the word meaning " sincere," and the sun and moon, placed side by side, the 
word for " brightness. " But by far the largest number of characters are phonetics — that is to say, certain 
characters, about 1600 in all, are used as phonograms, with or without reference to their own particular 
meanings. According to Chinese records the original characters numbered about 540, the Accadians are said 
to have had about the same number of primitives. These characters would at first represent so many words, 
but as time went on it would become necessary to associate derived meanings with these words, and to indicate 
on paper the particular sense in which the writer intended them to be understood. This would be done by 
the addition of determinatives or classifiers as they are sometimes called. By means of their three classes of 
characters, the hieroglyphics, ideograms, and phonetics, the Chinese have been able to express and preserve 
the thoughts and sayings of their greatest and wisest writers, through a series of centuries which dwarfs into 
insignificance all Western ideas of antiquity. But by the fresh discoveries of Messrs. de Lacouperie and Ball, 
not only is a new interest added to the language, but it is brought into close and intimate relation with the 
tongues spoken by the great civihzing nations of the world." 

The Kcv. Canon Isaac Taylor in his work, " Etruscan Eosearchcs," page 357, specializes some of 
the peculiarities of the Ugrio or Altaic languages, and their evidently direct connection with the older 
Etruscan, etc. He considers there are five great branches of the TJgric, \'iz. : Finnic, Samoyedic, 
Turkic, Mogolio, Tungusic, and possibly Yeniseian ; that the Median contains a good deal of Finnic, 
also that thero may probably be both a Semitic and Turanian element in ancient EgAiitian ; that in 
Latin the Turanian clement is of considerable importance ; that any Prc-Aryan population of Greece 
must have hec^n Finnic or Euskaric or Caucasian ; and tliat the Etruscan shows more Tataric than 
iFinnic characteristics. Less probably Mr. EUis thinks the Basque, Etruscan, and Caucasian are of 
Iberian origin, and their origiiud locus the Caucasus.* 

[The Pro-Aryan element, referred to by Canon Taylor, may not unlikely be of considerable 
importance, as an early connecting link between what may appear to be Ai-yan in New World 

* Luricn L. Bonajjarti! (1880) writes nic "Tlint the Basque constitutes by itself nn isolated stem of the agglutinative 
division of lant'uages, hut still it is an agj^lutinativc one, as well [lerhaps all the other languafjes of the world, which are neither 
isolating (as Chinese, etc.) nor inflexional (as Aryan, Semitic, etc.). Celtic beiiis inflexional, and Aryanic is toto cwlo 
distinct from Basque, in spite of a few similar words to be found in it. 'Sound' Etymologies are not always nound." 
Some modern etymologists now, I believe, connect the Basque with Finn or Lap. Mr. Kllis, 1 believe, with Caucasian and 
Etruscan. Others, again, formerly with Libyan. 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

Etymologi(!R, mid tlie Turanian. Ciiptaui Condor say.s, that in tlie Efryptian Dictionary 170 word.s (?) 
are of Turanian origin, and 55 Semitic ones, going back as far as 1500 or 2000 years B.C.; but this 
statement must not be taken without further corroboration. Furthermore, it has been stat(ul that in 
Accado-Medic there are 109 phonetic, and 12 ideographic signs; and tliat out of 800 Accadian words 
about 200 are found in Turkish ; 60 to 70 in Medic ; 400 in the Tartar dialects ; also not a few 
in Mongolic, Ugric, Finnic, and Chinese. The llcv. C. J. Ball considers "it highly probable that 
Egyptian and Accadian (as well as Accadian and Chinese) are ultimately related." I'rof. Abel also 
finds a remarkable connection between the Indo-European and ancient Egyptian.] 

ACCADIAN. 

The oldest known branch of the Asiatic Turanian family is the Accado-Suracrian, respecting which 
Dr. T. de Lacouperic had previously argued in favour of the identity of the system of writing, and the 
Rev. C. J. Ball has only quite lately shown to be closely allied to the Chinese. 

In Part 1. of my Vocabularies I have given in parallel columns Egy])tian, Accadian, and Chinese 
for the same words and their cognates. The eonncctitm between Egyptian and Accadian is ])erhaps 
not very striking, though there would appear to be a decided Turanian clement in the Egyptian, and 
even jierhajis more so with Aryan ; this may arise either from an early direct immigration into Egv]it, or 
from a certain Archaic substratum more or less common to all langiuigcs; and this is a point requiring 
further elucidation. 

Common radicals like Pa, Ma, ka, ta, te, mat, pat, kak, kal, may be more or less universal, 
occurring both in the New World as well as Old, and in Africa. 

I have given elsewhere, p. 157, a separate list of words showing similarity between tlic Egyjitian 
and the Tartar languages ; and Prof. Carl Abel, of Berlin, has likewise done much to show analogies 
with the Indo-European languages. Take, e.g. ham^dfi;/ in Egyptian; in E. Tartar, harara=^o ««e ; 
hararat=:/'crt^ ; in Ugro-Altaic, harara^^ffy {aurora?). Egyptian, sel:=ster ; E. Tartar-, silui^if/htninff ; 
Ugro-Altaic, sil:=to shine; seilu:=f?/f ; in Accadian, z&l^^ahining ; and in S. American, sillo. Egyptian, 
tep=/(«'«rf; Ugro-Altaic, rep, tepe, top, etc. Egyptian, o.ah^moun; Accadian, a'i; Ugi'o- Altaic, ai, ay, 
ahi; E. Tartar, hara ; American, aihhai, uh, ari, auhe. 

On the whole, however, I am inclined to think that the Chinese, as a Turanian language, has more 
direct agreements with the American, and with the Otomi especially, than the Accadian has, and that 
the Accadian represents rather a special form of the Turanian Ugro-Altaic; whether more so with the 
Turko-Tartaric than with the Ugro-Finnish I do not pretend to say. The llcv. C. J. Ball, in his papers 
on the "New Accadian," in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, 1889-91, has given 
a series of valuable and original papers on the near connection between the ancient Accadian and the 
older Chinese, and drawn special attention to the interchanging value of certain letters found in those 
languages.* 

Professor de Lacouperic has given a scries of important papers also on the same subject in the 
"Babylonian and Oriental Record," 1886-1890. 

It is not yet clearly ascertained, according to Lacouperie, whether "the populations .speaking 
the Accado-Sumcrian dialect were themselves directly of Turanian origin or not." The Assyro- 
Babylonians may have been Kushites, " who used to inhabit the lands and sea-shores from Abyssinia 
to India, and of whom the Bisharo, Agaw, and Galla, of Abyssinia ; the Bagas of the Oman coast, 
the Brahin, Kolarians, and even Dravidians, are the later representatives possibly arising from the 
Semitic, Aryan, or Negric, all intermingling." 

Dr. de Lacouperie, I gather, appears to think that the Sumerian was less under the Assyro- 
Babylonian pressure or culture than the Accadian proper; but apjjcars in 1886 to have considered 
both the Accadians and Sumerians as of true Tui'anian origin, and belonging to the same stock as the 
Ugro-Finnish, Turko-Tartar, and Kuenlnmic groups of languages ; that they branched off in a southerly 
direction at a very early period, and became subsequently more or less influenced and modified by 
intermingling with the Kushites, Assyro-Babylonians, and Semites. It must be borne in mind always 
that race and language are not necessarily identically connected. 

Lenoi-mant in his " Chalda?an Magic" (Bagster & Son, 1877?) gives much veiy valuable and 
interesting information as to the Babylonian, Accadian, and Turanian systems of Religion and Language 
and some of its accordances I have given in my vocabularies of the Ugro-Altaic and Turanian 
Languages (Part III.). From Lenoi-mant's book, I gather that he considers the Accadians first 
introduced writing on a hieroglyphic system, and that in civilization they probably occupied a position 
between the more northern Turanians and tlie rather later Kushites ; that the Arabs were a purer 
Semitic race than the Kushites of Babylonia; and that these so-called Kushites had "some peculiar 
Ethnic characteristics somewhat resembling the older Egyptian " of the earliest dynasties. That the 

* I understand that the Rev. C. J. Ball considers that the Chinese is the last form assumed by the ancient Accadian, and 
he doubts any Elaraite connection, or that Prof. Lacouperie's " Bak tribes " were simply anything more than emigrants from 
Accad, who were driven out by the Semitic invaders, about 5000 years ago, and who wandered on till they settled in J^orth 
China. The Eev. C. J. Ball likewise considers Egyptian, contrary to the received opinion, younger than the primitive Accadian. 



xxlv INTEODUCTION. 

Accadian language coukl nevor liave beeii invented by pure Semites. Lcnormant gives an interesting 
number of simple words, apparently of radical, and not merely accidental origin, showing the intimate 
connection between the modern Ugro-Fiunio and Turco-Tartaric, " and the ancient Accadian languages," 
pp. 300-308. 

On the whole, Lenormant considers Accadian roots much more like the Ugric than Finnic, and 
nearest the Ostiac ; and that the Accadian language was formed at a very early stage of agglutination,* 
and the gi-ammar, also ancient, and even thousands of years ago, already showed signs of much phonetic 
decay. The final vowel of the root often tbopped as ut uttc=zs\m. In Tiu-anian languages generally 
the full or perfect form of the root often is not given except as a suffix of declension or conjugation. 
The particle prefixed to form the prccative of verbs exhibits the following scale of degeneration, 
e.g. ffan, ga, x<i, a{]ia). The Accachan (soft) h, g, rf=Finnio p, k, t. 

On the whole Lenormant considers the earliest occupants of Babylonia and Chalda-a, more allied 
to the Ugro-Finus than with the Tartars, that is before Kushite, Semitic, or Aiwan influences were felt — 
and that there is much in common between the earlier Aceadians and Pagan Finns of the present day. 
The chief value of the Accadian in Pliilology is in having been, like the Egyijtiau, a written language 
some 5000 years ago. Mr. Hyde Clarke at one time favoured its connection with some of the Caucasian 
and South American languages ; my own comparative vocabularies may tend to throw some Hght on 
the question. That there is a decided Turanian element in a number of the New >Yorld languages 
seems clear ; how or at what period it originated has not been well investigated, and little in fact has 
been done towards a proper comparison ; but it opens out a fresh field for the Tiu-anian philologist and 
for the study of comparative philology generally. 



The Tolyncsian, Papuan, and Malay linguistic element is well marked in America, but the races 
probably distinct.f The Semitic element is little noticeable in the New World languages. In 
comparing or selecting words for comparison with the New World languages I have, for the sake of 
convenience and bre^-ity, taken most of the Asiatic langiuiges as one great Turanian one, and called 
them Ugro-Altaic, including all the Turko-Finnish, Altaic, and Siberian languages, though they are 
not always very closely connected ; yet they appear to me to contain arcliaic elements and radicals, 
which appear to repeat themselves in the Afi'ican and American languages, as well as in the Egyptian 
and Indo-European ones. The African and American, and possibly the Papuan native languages, are 
certainly valuable to a study of Philology, as being less mixed with European and Asiatic influences, 
and more nearly representative 2>(>' «^ of earlier or simpler forms of speech ; and I have introduced 
them in such a form as to reathly admit of comparison with other families of languages ; and 
especially with the Turanian, which I conceive represents better than the Aryan an older form 
of language.:]: I may, in a slightly condensed form, quote from Professor Max Miiller's work, 
the "Origin of Language," Vol. I. pp. 361-379, in reference to a common origin of language, 
Professor Max MiiUer states, " that every inflectional language was once agglutinative ; and every 
agglutination once monosyllabic." .... "The Turanian despises every idiom that docs not clearly 
show its radical and significant element;" and likewise briefly that "the classification of races 
and languages should be treated quite independently of each other;" also that "the problem of the 
common origin of language has no necessary connection with the problem of the origin of mankind, 
or of its descent from one common pair ; for language miglit have made its proper beginning imder 
later or more favourable conditions." Prof. Max Miiller however, arguing for the possibiliti/, not 
necessity, of a common origin of language, says that " it is evidently possible from original materials 
nearly identical, or very similar, that two families or nations might, in course of time, produce two 
languages so different as Hebrew and Sanskrit." .... "The grammatical forms of the Aryan and 
Semitic families we have seen decaying in the historical period ; " also that much light may be thrown 
on those languages by the study of the Turanian agglutinative languages. Coincidences in the allied 
branches of the Turanian, as with Finnic, Turkic, Mongolic, Tunguslc, and Samoyedic, must be 
referred to tlie more radical materials of language and speech, and especially to pronouns, numerals, 
and prepositions. Tlie Finnic and Turkish are even now becoming more inflectional, as the Aryan once 
did. The different brandies of the so-called Turanian family, whicli may include even Tamil and 
Finnish, are ratlier radio or diverging from a common centre, than children of a common parent ; but 
liave still preserved traces of their actual grammatical structure. Prof. Max Miiller goes on to say, 
1st, "That notliing necessitates the admission of ditl'erent independent beginnings for the material 
elements of the Turanian, Semitic, and Aryan branches of .speech ; it is even possible now to point 

* Mr. Robert Drowii, jun., writes me, as a fair instance of agglutination in modern Turanian dialects, the following 
examples from the Finnic: Talviltanaa="iiom his farms" 

= tah -^ i -\- Ita -\- nsa 
=farm — s — from — liis. 
t It woiilil appear lliat in many of the Oceanic Islands, notably, I think, in Melanesia, there i.s a not inconsiderable 
mixture of Papuan and Malay and I'olynesian. 

:f Some consider the African and Egyptian the oldest and most original language. 



INTRODUCTION. xxv 

out radicals, which under various tlisguiscs have been current in these branches, ever since their first 
separation. ' 2n<L Though it may not be possible to derive the Ai-yan system of grammar from the 
Semitic, or the Semitic from the Aryan, wo may yot get an understanding as to how the different 
systems of grammar in Asia and Europe (and ? Ameri(-a) might have been produced." Darwin's 
researches tend, Prof. Max Miillcr thinks, towards a common origin for mankind ; " and tlie researches ■ 
generally of different scholars tend more and niore to confirm, not only the close relatiousliip of the 
languages belonging respectively to the Northern and Southern branches of the Turanian class, but 
likewise the inter-relationship of those two branches themselves, and their ultimate dependence on 
the Chinese (and Accadian ?), and this, not from a grammatical point of view, but from that of the 
Dictionary." 

Prof. Max Miillcr then quotes from a letter from J. Edkins relative to the Chinese and ^Mongol. 

Edkins says he had found a large proportion, perhaps one-flfth, of Mongolian-Tartar \\-ords to be 
Chinese, going back perhaps some 1200 years ago. 

The correspondence is most common in the adjectives, of which one-half are radically the same as 
the Chinese. 

This identity of common roots seems to extend to the Turkish-Tartar; e.g. su = t<;ater, and 
terni = heaven, ski/.* The older forms of Chinese is necessary in comparing with Thibetan as well as 
Mongol ; and while the Mongol is nearer the Chinese in the extensive prevalence of words common to 
the two languages, the Thibetan is nearer in phonal structure as being tonic and monosyllabic. 

[See Edkins, "On the Common Origin of the Chinese and Mongol Languages:" "Revue 
Orientale," No. 56, p. 75, Paris, 1865; also, "China's Place in Philology," London, 1871. Sec 
also end of this Introduction on Prof. Max MiiUer's most recent views.] 

CHINESE AND ARYAN. 

Gustave Schlegel in his Sinioo-Aryaca (Batavia, 1872), in his Preface, criticises Mr. Edkins 
somewhat severely for wrongly compounding different roots in his comparisons between Chinese and 
various Indo-European languages. His own researches, he states, are based upon the original Chinese 
phonetic characters of about the 2nd century B.C., written with their determinative elements, and 
which, traced back to their radical form, helps to give the solution of the wider meanings of those 
composite characters into which they phonetically enter ; and at the same time this radical may give 
us the key to the meaning of a great number of Sanskrit and Indo-European words hitherto unexplained. 

In his Introductions, Schlegel says that all primitive languages were probably monosyllabic, 
commencing even with mere interjectional or emotional cries ; that the Chinese remains at once the 
simplest and least changeable of all languages ; and he also places the cradle of the superior races of 
mankind in the centre of Asia ; that at least 6000 years "ago the Semites, Aryans, and Cushites 
formed separate groups. That alongside, as it were, of these the more Nomadic Turanians, with 
a monosyllabic language like the Chinese, also existed, that they fh-st came in contact with the Aryans, 
and may not unlikely have penetrated into Europe before them ; and that it may have been in the 
Caucasian region where they got more intermixed. Some have placed the Polynesian* as the most 
primitive of existent languages ; others the African. After which probidjly the Chinese (and Accad ?). 

The Sanskrit is not a primitive language ; but Schlegel thinks that iu the Turiinian Chinese, an 
early connection through roofs may be ti'aced, and this he proceeds to do in an apparently rigorous 
and scientific manner, through some 180 quarto pages, as for some 24 root sounds, or radicals for 
Chinese and Sanskrit, e.ff. kan=kan-han (cane, shoot of a plant), and he proceeds at great length and 
det:dl to go through the various seconduri/ meanings, both in Chinese and Sanskrit and its allied 
branches ; he takes, e.g. the word Fire (Fr. feu). Indian scholars would usually derive it from 
Sanskrit Bnl, but Schlegel prefers — 



Chinese. — ho. 
Cantonese. — io. 
Emoui. — ho. hoe. he. 
Ancient sound. — pu. po. 
Gi'eek. — 00 as in (piLi. 
Italian. — fo-co. 
French. — feu. 
Japanese. — fi. 



pel. 
phi. 
phi. 
put (phonetic). 

Polynesian. — ahi and afi. 

Malay. — hai. api. 

[American. — ah. ho. haie.] "R.P.G." 



* In referring to the table of Philological Accordances in the body of thia work, may be found many analogous and 
identical words (see Appendix, Xo. 29) for water, common to the Ugro-.iltaic and American ; including of course the word 
su. And similarly the Tartar, tenri and tana =5/7/, heaven (identical with the Chinese lien), occurs iu America, as tani, tina, 
ken, and caan ; Accadian i-din, and Etruscan, tina; African, toine, dian, kanu, tone; Indo-Chinese, kani, dina, thian ; 
English, s/ii»f ; Sanskrit, dina ; Celtic, twyn. 

t The Toljuesiau language is generally considered to be one of the most rapidly changing ones, at least in some islands. 



xxvi IXTEODUCTIOX. 

I give a few fm-tlier examples out of many : — 

The Sanskrit yng-am (yoke) from the Chinese, gak ; gik. 



)J 


mak-shika (midge ; fly), ,, 


J? 


mak. 


n 


pa (to drink) ,, 


jj 


pu; po, 


)) 


9van (dog) \ 






(Greek) 


K-inct' (dog) 1 „ 


J) 


khiun. 


(English) 


cur ; hound. ) 






Sanskrit 


inkh ? (to go) „ 
ga (to go ; gang (old proi 


)j 


hing. 


)j 


lunciation) gang. 


)j 


i. ta (lie. him) ,, 


3) 


1. tha. 



Sohlegel derives many Aryan vrords from a single root, and considers (p. 159) that they were 
derived from a single anterior family (see also Bev. C. J. Ball). He states that Curtius and Benfey 
arc strongly of opinion that it is one of the inalienable laws of language that " many words may be 
derived from a single stem " by means of suffixes.* But that the Chinese is somewhat of an exception, 
having been grapho-phonetic for 3000 or 40U0 years, and the pronunciation much less changed. 

The Cantonese is now the most valuable for purposes of comparison and resemblance to the older 
forms of pronunciation. 

The ancient Chinese and Sanskrit must originally have drawn from the same source. The Chinese 
root kak or kok (hoh), means, fruits, eggs, insects, chrysalis, cocoon, hollow-tree ; shell of mollusk. 
The Sanskrit khoh and hoh (kok), means, case, sheath, shell, egg, cocoon, hollow of a horn. 

Schlegel also quotes fi'om A. T. Pott (p. 27), who "says the reason of the resemblance between 
two languages may arise from two causes ; 1st, from the unity of the earlier or anterior race ; 2nd, by 
commimication or admixture. Tliey generally borrow little from each other but noun-substanaves ; 
seldom verbs ; and still more rarely, abstract words, such as pronouns, particles, and numbers." 

Schlegel does not enter into the matter of either Chinese or Aryan words and roots in connection 
with Accadian or American ones, though, as has been previously noticed, there are many apparent 
analogies between the Chinese and the Otomi of Central America ; f and generally numerous ones 
between Asiatic, Turanian, and American. 

The common and well-defined Aryan root AR, referred to at some length in Max MiiUcr's 
" Science of Language," would not appear to occur in America. According to Schlegel (who quotes 
Kuhn), the Sanskrit root AR (er) = to ear, plough, may have come from a primitive root »•*'; (see foot 
note) as in aritra (Sanskr.) = rudder, oar; Latin, arator (with a root, riulh). This, however, he prefers 
to connect with the Chinese root //, a character, the key of which is a character composed of knife and 
com (which, of course, might also refer it to sickle or plough-share). [AR is likewise a Dra\-idian root.] 

AjiTA=ri-|-ya=noble=li-min (?) 

Sanskrit : ri=io go, wound, be elevated [ri = to go in Quichuan.] 

Chinese, li=io walk, wound, work, cleave. 

The Chinese, not being a maritime nation, did not use it in sense of oar or rudder. The ancient 
Chinese li was pronounced lit=lat, to separate or cut with a knife. 

The entire question of comparison of probable primary radicals as between the African, Turanian 
and Chinese, and the American (especially the Quichuan and Mexican), J requires to be far more 
thoroughly worked out than has hitherto been the case. 

Too much attention has been devoted to the vaiying accidents of grammar, construction, formation 
of plurals and dual fonns. It might happen that there are a certain minor number of radicals peculiar, 
say to the Sanskrit, while the majority may prove to be cither Turanian or more or less primitive or 
universal. The laws or accidents also, that appertain to the interchange of letters in other than tlie 
Aiyan language require to be far more fully considered. It may be that American languages will not 
throw much light on the vexed question of the original seat of the Aryan race (sec p. 163), but I find 
that probable Finnic words in North America have rather a Turanian tlian Ai'yan or Scandinavian ring 
about them. Professor Skeat luis found, be believes, some -150 Aryan words however in tlie Finnic. I 
myself should be more disposed, for several reasons, to look upon the region of the Caucasus or Southern 
Russia to have been the cradle of the Aryan race than Bactria or the Baltic. That, however, is 
irrelevant as to the philology of the Now World. 

In respect to the study of language in its larger sphere, I quote with approval what Mr. Hyde 
Clarke says in his Essay on Comparative Philology. After stating his belief in the common origin 
of the languages and races of the Old and New Worlds, he says, " one point may be particularly pointed 

* This leads very much in the direction wliich my own researches have conducted me. In the African languages almost 
identically the same word often does duty for (|Hite a nuniher of different ideas cir meaning's ; as also in the Chinese. 

t For Allinities between Otonii and Chinese hy Tiirnier and Adelung, see jip. 118 and 259. 

I Whatever may be in the American Ijanfiuafces connected with the Aryan, more especially perhaps with the Celtic, 
Sanskrit, and Greek, as well as North African, will pr(iliii1>ly, I think, be found rathiT in i>outh and Central America than 
in North America. The letter r sound is rare both in China and North and Central AuKrica. 



INTRODUCTION. xxvli 

out to ynnn}; mon desirous of orif^inal rcsoarc!h, that if some of the many who are luarninK Sanskrit 
and K'^itiiig not one step beyond, will take up the language of a savage tribe, ample reward will 
be obtained." 

The Ilev. C. J. Ball, in a recent letter to myself, writes : " I quite agree with you about Sanskrit, 
at wliieh 1 Avorked some years ago. It is obvious that so elaborate, not to say artificial a stnicture 
cannot be made the standard of language generally, especially of the language of the earliest 
period. The roots of all tongues are prol)ubly (or were) the same, not merely because the organs of 
human speech are in every way similar, not because only a certain limited number of sounds is possible 
with human organs constituted as they are ; but because, as I more and more see reason to belieye, 
the human race is ultimately of one family. Even Darwin thought it improbable that man appeared 
originally in several ind(q)end(!nt centres, and unity is the goal of all science." . . . . " Your own 
comparisons of Otomi with Chinese are very striking." .... " I believe that Chinese is very closely 
related to the Accatlian ; and it is highly probable that Egyptian and Accadian are also intimately 
related. In Egyptian and Accadian the pronouns are the same, many words are common : e.g. 
Egyptian, sha-t; Accadian, sku; Chinese, «/«<=book, writing; Egyptian, mes-tcher; Accadian, mustriig 
= ear; Egyjitian, «;<-< = heaven ; Accadian, «« = heaven ; Egyptian, r«;^ = man ; Accadian, lilgk; 
Chinese, lung; Malay, orang, etc." Again, "I was looking over a Mexican vocabulary the other 
day, and was struck by many coincidences with the Accadian, e.g. A7j=mouth in both ; quilla 
Quiclnian for moon is like /i//('=star in Accadian. Pa is probably a primitive word; it is both 
Accadian and Chinese." .... "I am constantly coming across the most sm-prising coincidences, 
not merely in roots, but in compoimd words." * 

This "is especially what I have myself so constantly noticed, and may be so largely noticed in the 
lists published in the body of this work (see Tables). 

The Rev. C. J. Ball is also in agreement with Kolbe (as regard the S.E. African Bantu, viz. 
that a, i, u are the primary vowels, as probably also in Hebrew); «+/= gives «/, e; and a-\-H 
gives au, d. 

Until a more general and certain knowledge of what is more or less common to most languages, 
or to primeval language, so to speak, in the abstract, is anived at with more certainty, and parallel 
or cognate terms for certain leading ideas, better or more fully understood aiul agreed upon by 
comparative Pliilologists generally, specialists in one or two languages will be apt to arrive at too 
narrow or even false conclusions. And to effect this result satisfactorily more attention will have to 
be given to the study of languages in their more primitive and savage state. 

The Eev. C. J. Ball further says in one of his letters to me (1890), " Tou are unquestionably 
right in insisting upon the comparison of related terms, as expressive of related ideas. The growth 
of language depends upon the growth of thought. Modification of the notion demands a corresponding 
modification of the soimd which best embodies the notion. This is the history of human speech in 
general. I have tried to make this clear in my papers on Accadian and Chinese. In the latter language. 
Pa, Pah, Pao, Pan, Pang, Pang, Pei, Pieh, Ping, etc., is a remarkable instance of it. One of the 
first things to which I called Prof. Douglas's attention, was the way in which the same root-ideas 
re-appeared under each head of this remarkable ramification of the sound Pa (Ba). Probably the 
Accadian BAE=i)//%«, stronghold, may even be the same as the Maori, ^;«f/j = village. f (See p. 122) 

QUICHUA^^ AXD AETAN. 

The present Introduction would not be complete without notice of a work by Senor Vicente Fidel 
Lopez, entitled " Les Races Aryenncs du Perou" ; Montevideo 1871.| It is a work veiy Httle known, 
and containing besides an extensive comparative vocabulary in connexion with supposed probable 
Quichuan and Sanskrit roots, gives an immense amount of interesting detail in connexion with the 
history, legends, science, and religion of the old Peruvians and their more modem descendants. The 
book was briefly reviewed some seven or eight years ago by Mr. Andrew Lang, in Macmillan's Review, 
and from which I bon-ow the following extract : — 

The Aryan Races of Peett. 

"The title of a book published by Senor Vinoente Lopez, a Spanish gentleman of Monte Video, seems at 
first sight as absurd as any of these guesses. That an Aryan race, speaking an Aryan language, possessing a 
system of castes, worshipping in temples of Cyclopean architecture, should be found on the west coast of South 
America .seems a theory hardly worthy of serious atteution. It appears, indeed, to have met with no attention 
at all, and yet the work is a sober one, serieitse et de boime foi, as the author says, who deserves the credit, at 

* It would appear highly probable that analogous words in two or thi-ee distinct languages have arisen in two ways, 
viz. : words that are more or less prehistoric, universal, or primary ; or words that have casually been imported. 

t The Rev. C. J. Ball also writes me, "Your own conclusion that American roots agree with Chinese rather than 
with Accadi.an is only what I should have expected. The Chinese parted company with the Accadians thousands of years before 
Asiatic tribes beg.in their wanderings eastward, may have landed them in North-West America. 

X Also sold by A. Franck, 67, Rue Richlieu, Paris. 



xxvii'i IXTEODUCTIOX. 

least, of patient and untiring labour in a land where the works of Bopp, Max MiiUer, and others, are only with 
very great difficulty to be obtained. 

Seiior Lopez's view, that the Pei-uvians were Aryans who left the parent stock long before the Teutonic, or 
Hellenic, races entered Europe, is supported by arguments drawn from language, from the traces of institu- 
tions, from rehgious behcfs, from legendary records, and artistic remains. The evidence from language is 
treated scientifically, and not as a kind of ingenious guessing. Seuor Lopez first combats tlie idea that the 
living dialect of Peru is barbarous and fluctuating. It is not one of the casual and shifting forms of speech 
produced by nomad races, for the centralizing empire of the Incas imposed on all its provinces the language 
called Quichuan, which is still full of vitahty. To which of the stages of language does this belong — the 
Agglutinative, in which one root is fastened on to another, and a word is formed in which the constitutive 
elements are obviously distinct ; of the Inflexional, where the auxiliary roots get worn down and are only 
distinguishable by the philologist ? As all known Aryan tongues are inflexional, Seiior Lopez may appear to 
contradict himself when he says that Quichuan is an agghitinative Aryan languagt. But he quotes Sir. Max 
Miiller's opinion that there must have been a time when the germs of Aj'van tongues had not yet reached the 
inflexional stage, and shows that while tlie form of Quichuan is agglutinative, as in Turanian, the roots of 
words are Aryan. If this be so, Quichiiau may be a linguistic missing link. 

AVhen we first look at Quichuan, with its multitudes of words beginning with Hit, and its great prepon- 
derance of j's, it seems almost as odd as ilexicau. But many of these forms are due to a scanty alphabet, and 
really express familiar sounds ; and many, again, result from the casual spelling of the Spaniards. We may 
examine some of the forms which Aryan roots are supposed to take in Quichuan. In the first place, Quichuan 
abhors the shock of two consonants. Thus, a word like -nxia in Greek would be unpleasant to the Peruvian's 
ear, and he says jOi7/Mi', "I sail." The pZ« again, in p?i<ma, a feather, is said to be found in pillu, " to fly." 
Quichuan has no v, any more than Greek has, and just as the Greeks had to spell Roman words beginning with 
V, with Ou, like Valerhis, oiia\epioi ; so, where Sanski'it has i; Quichuan has sometimes /lu. Here is a list of 
words in hu : — 

QuicnrAN. S.ixsKRiT. 

SuaHa, to call. Vac", to speak. 

Huasi, a house. Vns, to inhabit, 

Suai/ra, air, avpa. J'li, to breathe. 

Hitam, the back. J' as, to be able. 

{pouvoir) . 

So far Mr. Lang. Sclfior Lopoz alludes to the extent and dcgi'oe of prosperous cmlization of the 
old empire of the Incas ou the first arrival of the Spaniards, consisting of twenty millions of people. 
Science and Arts were cultivated as well as the religious c^llture of the sun. Sefior Lopez regrets that 
learned European ethnologists like Max MiiUcr and Pott are not more conversant with the old 
Peruvian and Quichuan language. The ingenious way in which it was grammatically formed, and the 
perfect system of Declension and Conjugation is surprising. Few of the irregularities and complications 
of Aryan languages, where roots are mostly hidden or worn away, but which, in the Quichuan were 
comparatively easily seen, occur. The Declensions contain inflexions only to a certain extent, 
somewhat as in the Turkish, Thibetan and Tamil, than as in Sanskrit and Greek. 

Seiior Lopez considers roots the most interesting, as belonging to a comlition of language, earlier 
than Sanskrit (or the proto-Semitic or proto-Ar3-an of some writers?). He agrees with Pott and Max 
Miiller that the formation of Sanskrit as wo know it, was, doubtless, preceded by a period of extreme 
simplicity and entire absence of inflections, like the Chinese. Even in inflectional languages Seiior 
Lopez thinks the inflections themselves to have originally been words (even suflixos and prefixes) ; 
" des racines demomtratives ayant en !■''= uu sens distinct des racines attributives" ; so that strictly 
speaking every root was a word, and each word a root ; and the more modern distinction between 
different parts of si)eech did not exist ; the same syllable employed for both verb, noun, adjective or 
adverb, was only determined by its place in the general construction of the sentence. Tlie ancient 
Chinese and Egyptian are excellent examples of this earlier condition of language; and sufficed for 
the then wants of mankind. Subsequently, a certain number of roots were agglutinized witliout 
altering the sound. This was the system of the Turks, Tartars and Mongols, as existing even at 
the present time. The Aryans went further ; phonetic alterations took place, as well as the addition 
of suffixes and prefixes, and greater amount of grammatical consideration ; and roots were reduced to 
single syllables and even to letters. Seuor Lopez considers the Quichuan represents a comparati\-ely 
early and arrested state of laiiguagc, but with a higher gramnuitical condition than tlie Turanian ; 
and with the roots better jireservcd than with the Aryan. [AH this must, howe\-er, be recci\-ed with 
considerable degree of reservation.] 

AIIYAN AND QUICHUAN HOOTS. 

Scnor Lopez gives a list of some 1200 words for comparison of Quichuan with Aryan, chiefly 
Sanskrit and Greek ; many of these, however, ajipear to be far-fetched, and tlie Sanslciit itself not 
nnirequently of veiy doubtful value. He also gives a list of some hundreds of (iuicliuan roots reduced 
to, or taken in tlieir simjdest meaning, and which might be usi^ful for comparison willi Old AVorld roots, 
whether Aryan or not. Scnor Lopez also give an introductory chapter as to Quichuan Uramniar and 



IXTRODUCTION. 



XXIX 



parts of speech, as well as references to roots, to which I shall very briefly allude. Seiior Lopez 
examines for comparison with Quichuan the tentative Sanskrit roots: Kar, Va, Pak, Hur, Kel, Vhi, 
Sta, Ta, Sail, Kak (Lak ?), and Aq. The following are a few only of the examples he gives of 
apparently similar Aryan, or Sanskrit and Peruvian words. (See also my Aryan and American 
Comparative Lists.) 

QuienuAN'. 

hua yu (aii-) 
naka (kill) 
hamuni (come) ) 
hamu (go) j 

inti (sun) 
katini (follow) 
ri_(go) 
iki (cut) 
tayta (father) 
pnna (hand) 
pioh (five) 
mama (mother) 
huakia (call) 
kasa (thorn) 
huahua (son) 
pat-pa (wins;) 
akakha (black) 
hacha (tree) 
mankana (eat) 



Aryan. 

aura, Lat. 
nccarc, Lat. 

a-gam (hamm), Sk. 

indh (shine), Sk. 
kat ? (go), Sk. 
ri, Sk. 

esi (sword), Sk. 
T«T«, Gr. ; tata, Sk. 
pani, Sk. 
panka, Sk. 
mamma, Lat. 
vac (speak), Sk. 
kas' ? (to pierce), Sk. 
hua, Celtic ; puer, Lat. 
pada (foot) Sk. 
KOKov (bad) Gr. 
gficcha, Sk. 
mandiicare, Lat. 



Quichuan. 

chachua (laugh, 

cackle) 
yuk (join, yoke) 
karu (traveller) 
tupani (strike) 
tuta (night) 
pukru (cavern) 
maki (tand) 

>> 
mita (time) 

huasi (house) 



ni = (speak) 

kaklia (hill, peak) = 

nana 



canka (leg) 



Slavo.vic. 
khakkh, Sk. 

yfi, kuc' ? Sk. 
car (go), Sk. 

TUTneiv, Gr. 

tutt (to hide), Sk. 
bucca= mouth, Lat. 
manus, Lat. 
matu, Armenian, 
mita ? ma (step ; 
measure), Sk. 
vas (inhabit), Sk. 
husa (house), Gothic. 
(?) na=song, Sk. 
kakud, Sk. 
nand, Sk. 

nandana= daughter, Sk. 
shank, English ; 
tanka=hand, Slavonic. 



The Quichuan has only two -personal pronouns, noka=I; kam=thou; and two classes (isolated 
and affixed); e.i/. huahua-ki = son -thine ; and also demonstrative and interrogatory ones. The verb 
takes its "theme" from the root. Examples in verb : — muna-n-i=I love ; muna-n-ki=thou lovest, etc., 
ri=to go, rini = I go. Cam-mi, or cnn-i = I am. munan-mi = I love. chik = chi-chi {jdural of c'i=to 
unite) ; and munau-chik, means the union of those who love ; the Latin ama-mu-s is formed on the 
same principle. 

In Quieluian, as in Egy[5tian, the letter N may designate the third person, e.g. munan-ki=" fo?, 
cehd qui aimi"; but muna-n-n, " lui, celui, quiaime." The Quichuan muna-sa=/«7(«Z? love, corresponds 
to the Greek (pi\riau)= I shall love; r}iuna,-r-'kani = I have loved {ca,n-\= I am) ; muna-i-man-mi = /sAoM^(;? 
have loved. 

There are 18 consonants in Quichuan, viz. C, CC, Kh, Ch, H or G, II, il, jS"', N", P, PP, Qu 
E, S, T, Th, TT, y, and the five ordinary vowels, A, E, I, 0, U (really A, I, U). 

The Quichuan G, often = Sanskrit K. Also T=d=r. In Polynesian r and 1 often interchange, 
and may be equivalent to the Sanskrit d. The Aryan L=N sometimes as well as M=a primitive V. 
The Quichuan semi-vowels are R and LI, and nearly correspond to the Sanskrit r and r'; 1 and 1'. 
The Quichuan L corresponds to an Aryan R ; and tlie Quichuan E to Aryan L ? The Aryan \= 
Quichuan hu ; and Sanskrit 9 = Quichuan S. There are no genders or declensions in Quichuan 
nouns. The prefix hu or hua stands for the article, or for relationship ; hua also means son. (See 
also p. 165 on Aryan and New World Analogies.) 

With regard to the Eskimo as a North American race. Dr. Eae and others considers the pure 
bred and Western Eskimo, with highly braohyccphalic skulls, were originally of North Asiatic 
extraction. Dr. Eink, of Copenhagen, thinks they may have originally come from Alaska. Tlieir 
chief word for boat, kaijal-, is certainly Turanian and Ugric, and their word for man, people, innuit, is 
also very much like the Ugro-Altaie ennete, hena, ena, immimene, en, with similar meanings; as also to 
the ainu of the Ainos of .lapan. 

Professor Henry, in his Eevicw (being the substance of a paper read before the American 
International Congress at Luxembourg, 1877),* on Seiior Lopez's work, and which I have just been 
referring to, speaks of it with a considerable amount of interest, though by no means being in 
agreement with Senor Lopez's conclusions ; and by no means considers that the connection between 
the Aryan and Peruvian languages has been proved ; or that he is correct in considering the 
Quichuan to be "an agglutinizing Aryan language"! and that he falls into several kinds of 
error in his too sanguine attempts "to establish a phonetic primitive moi-phology," and into several 
serious grammatical mistakes, in Ijis comparisons and analogies of the Quichuan and Aryan. 

At the same time M. Henry evidently docs not believe in the unity of either races or of language ; 



* "Le Quichua est il une Langiie Aryenue"? Examsn critique, par Professor V. Henry D. D. Lille, du livre de 
D. V. F. Lopez. (Nancy, 1878.) 



xsx IXTRODUCTION. 

and -n ill hardly admit anything but an accidental unity in the roots of Old and New World languages, 
beyond such evident examples as with Ma or Pa, etc. 

He also prefers the Quichuan Grammar and Vocabulary of Hcrr I. von Tschudi ("Wien, 1853) to 
that of Lopez as being fuller and more aecm-atc, etc. He is also severe on 11. Ellis (" Sources of the 
Etruscan and Basque Languages," 1886; and " Penivia Scythica," 1875), and cannot believe in his 
general tei-m Sojihian, as applied to and embracing such apparently ilivcrse languages as Afiican, 
Caucasian, Basque, Dravidian, etc., and referred to, in his extensive list of somewhat similar words 
used in those languages as compared with American. [See, however, my lists of comparisons in these 
languages, and Mr. Hyde Clarke's treatises and observations on the subject. There are, doubtless, not' 
a few instances of more than accidental analogies; though how they may have arisen is another 
matter; to a certain extent, doubtless from a prehistoric substratum very widely spread.] 

M. Henry goes into a reasonable and fair critical examination, I think, of Soiior Lopez's Aryan 
and Peruvian morphology, m its varying aspects, e.g., grammar, apparent analogies, interchange 
of vowels, pronouns, verbs, etc. Possibly in the matter of roots M. Henry may fail, however, to 
see certain probable or possible similarities iu connection with Old and Xew World analogies. He 
sums up : — 

1. That Quichuan roots and idioms cannot yet be shown to compare favourably with Ai-yan. 

2. The Quichuan affi.rcs are quite otherwise to what should be the case in any primitive 
agglutinating language, from which might have arisen the Indo-European inflectional language. 

3. Any apparent semblance in affixes or declination are isolated, or only accidentally phonetic ; 
and those of conjugation in verbs offer little or no real comparison. 

4. The syntactic order in the grouping of affixes in Quichuan is quite different from that of the 
Indo-European languages. 

In conclusion M. Henry considers "the Quichuan is not an Aryan Language," and "has little 
or nothing in common with it." Nor does he even think, with It. Ellis, that there may even have 
been an intermediate connective language such as Iberian or Turanian. The twenty or thirty words 
in common are insufficient proof ! 

Edkins has noticed resemblances between Greek, Latin, and Mongolian words (see p. 123) ; 
and Professor Sayce has, I believe, somewhere stated, that out of 2740 Greek Lexicon words, 1500 
only can be traced to the Indo-European ; the remainder to a Proto-Semitic origin. Possibly under 
that term may be included many of so-called Turanian origin ; a few of which may accidentally have 
subsequently migrated into America. 



I have in my comparative Yocabularies and at p. 165, in connection more especially with 
possible Aryan analogies to the American, added a few Semitic words, some of which, either 
accidentally or through a common but remote ancestry, may agree with American ones ; some have, 
indeed, fancied they had discovered in America the lost tribe of Israel, but I have found but little 
in common between the Semitic and American (see Part II.), less so, however, perhaps with 
Assyrian than with the Hebrew. There doubtless is much still left, for those learned in Sanskrit 
and in the Semitic languages, to trace out as to the connection between those two highly specialized 
languages, with the Turanian and the so-called ^;ro^o-Aryan. It is perhaps in South and in 
some parts of Central America that there would appear to be the strongest Aryan elements. (See 
p. 165.) The latest idea as to the origin of the dominant ancient Egyptian race, appears to be that 
it came from the S.E. of Europe or S.W. of Asia, by the Straits of Babelmanclel, through Nubia, 
and up the Nile valley to Memphis, and that the earlier elements of the language is strongly 
Indo-Germanic, though it seems to certainly contain a proportion of Turanian words.*" 

E^•idently there is a cei'tain amount of the early Turanian element in the ancient Egyiitian, as 
well as our Aryan one, as Prof. Abel has clearly shown. Gerald Massey, in his " Book of Beginnings," 
has given a long list of English or British words, many of them provincial or slang ones, which he" 
considers may correspond to Egyptian ones ; but not a few of these are either fanciful or forced. 
Jfr. Massey also gives many comparisons as between Maori and Egyjitian ; and between Accadian and 
Egyptian ; some of them apparently very doubtful. (See Appendices XIV. and XVI.) 

Mr. Villiers Stuart, in his " Panoply of an Egyptian Queen," gives a short list of close comparisons 
between Egyptian and Aiyan, of which I give a copy elsewhere (see p. 121), and I have added 
a number of cimous analogies between English and Chinese, and between Central American and 
Chinese, as well as Aiyan (see pp. 117-119). The English words to bake, roast, fire, appears in 
Chinese as bak ; Egjptian, bexcx; American, haca=_/?;-«. The Egyptian bksu, hat, textu, xiiiiu=«^«, 
to cut, to hack. 

• Others, again, consider the common or low caste Efryptinns were of I,il)jan origin ; wliat may appear in America in 
common with Egy])tian miglit only have reached eitlier through the Chinese and 'I'lirauian clement or through Libya and 
the Azores. (See Appendix Jy'o. 16.) I'rofessor Sayce's proto- Semitic may be Kushitei' 



IKTRODUCTION. 



XXXI 



"Words for stone and cut, and knife, oonstrintly appear in nearly all lanp:nap;es in mnch the same 
forms; E,nyptian, s(ix = io cut, bisect; Aeeadian, kud ; Chinc^se, kat, kot, sok, kliiuk, etc; American, 
cuta, kaka, iki, etc. Also ior food, with M or S (mrinui ; suck; sip, etc )? 

There arc, doubtless, a number of simple woi'ds showin};; much resemblance between ancient 
Egyptian and African, as Massey has noticed (sec Appendices XIV. and XVI.), as well as curious 
analogies between weapons, ornamentation and dress. (See Stanley and Wilkinson.) There are also 
many remarkable analogies between Papuan and Polynesian and South American words. (Sec 
Appendix XIV.) These numerous, wide-spread resemblances between veiy similar words in connexion 
with the same or their cognate ideas, can scarcely be the resvilt of accident, as has been too 
frequently asserted by some etymologists, but rather suggest the probability of a common or 
natural origin of speech in connexion with an early and great simplicity of language, and the 
existence of a comparatively limited number of primary or natural radicals, each in the first instance 
having several distinct meanings, or coming to have slightly different soundings through gesture or 
accentuation or climate, and showing an inherent tendency to change, for certain vowel and consonantal 
soimds. In fact, simple sounds like ka, ma, aka, pa, pak, kak, may be trac(!d as having had, or that 
may still retain (juite different meanings, as we have noticed elsewhere. Again, it is cjuite possible 
that if te, ta, ka, may have been veiy early roots or sounds meaning, say, stone, that the natural 
addition of the k sound, may imply the active use of a stone or knife, and thus became cut, knock, 
tack, whack, hack, etc. Might not a single interjeetional cry as of sudden sui-prise, ])ain or joy, as 
ah ! oh ! hoch ! ach ! have come to mean or to refer to in a more definite form, miythiiuj large, tall, 
ugly, dark, crooked, ])ainful ? I have referred to this elsewhere. 

Many words and ideas have their cognates or natural allied forms ; as stone, rock, tree, hill, high, 
house ? The house to begin with may have been a rock-shelter, or built of logs, or stones, or even 
perched in a tree, as is still the case in Sumatra. 

8on=tree=shoot=small, etc. 

Boat= water-house = dug-out ;= water-tree (log); and canoe, probably=canoua=kan-oua=tree 
(cane)-water. 

I have noticed that for certain well known objects, as foot, water, light, fire, etc., there are generally 
two, three or four wide-spread principal radicals. (See Appendices XXXV. and XLI. to XL VI.) Take 
the word /uo# ; it is most frequently in most languages, either pa, pet, pad, etc., or kok, kak, etc. The 
one probably meaning movement, the other crookedness. One meaning or idea having reference to 
height, greatness, chief, tree, hill, mountain, as represented by the root ah, will be seen to embrace 
nearly all language-families, ancient and modern ; e.g. Accadian : aka, niagh, agga. Basque : acu. 
Egyptian: axa=/»^A, next=sfron.i/. Chinese: bak, pak, gok, mok, ka, kok. Ugro-altaic : paca, 
pasha, jiiksek, agha, tak, balkan, kurek, dagh= mountain. East Taetae : ike, agutshe=^oorf, khkhau, 
yeke. Indo-Chinese : thehka, nakha, hachur. Thibet : akaj^ckief. Japanese : ikai, okii. 
Dra vidian : aneka=wrtKy. Indian: ra]a]i=prince. Polynesian: ariki=chief, tiki=e>-eator. Papuan: 
svik\i.=mountain. Libyan: mek. Phcenician : melck=/,:/Hy. Caucasian: maghe, atta, tak, bagha= 
god. Assyrian: cmukii, shakii, madu ? Arabic: sheikh = chieftaH (old tnan). Ajuhaeic : talak=ffreat- 
Celtic: rak? German: hoch, kiigel, berg. Greek: okpcs, /(E7as, ■!rayof=kill, pnxt's=itie/c. Sanskrit: 
aga, maha, qac = bi(/, kakud=^;«'fl/.\ Scandinavian: brckka=/j//^. Latin: major, magnus. English: 
peak, back? big? duke? height. African: baka, eku, oko = mountain. Malay: bukit, kaya. 

Tree names, indicative of height, evidently often occur widely represented also by a similar root ; 
as (^ac = strong, gaccha in Sanskrit. In Latin : quercus=ort/i;. Teutonic : boka, buch. Punjab: iiikh. 
Persian: bfik, vak=o(?/i:. Greek: (jy^io's^beech, ■irevKt^=pine? Basque: zurkai, arrecha. Caucasian: 
dzig? oc=house. Egyptian: akh. Accadian: daaka=Jig-tree (gi, kar). Chinese: mik, muk. 
Ugro-Aetaic : ak, uca=beech-irce, ok, aghag, oksa, aga, aqhe, kha. Indo-Chinese : akan, kai. 
Japanese: ki. Dravidian : kadu. Malay: kaya, ki. English: oak? stick? African: ki, gi, 
eku, oke. 



American. 



Great, Strong, God, etc. 

mach.* hacoha.* prica = »«ow«/. 

huk=yoof?. arcii. toak. pacha.* 

mov\ii = much. h\ico=ffood. aach. 

ukka* = //////(. oghaf =god. 

iiaak = high. zacuali. shcnik=^oo^. 

oc-j.*=house. 



Mountain, Tree. 

mittek.* ])ik\i=J}r-tree. 
khoka.* kagg.f rukama. acatl.f 
sacha* ; haca* ; kah* ; hi*= tree. 
toak. arcu. kaak. shaak.* 
hoak. 



N.B. — House words, fi-equently correspond to tree, stone, and mountain. 

I have already referred to ak or pak as being a widespread, and tliercfore, probably, a primary 
or very early radical, significant of "height or greatness," and including such ideas or words as 



xxxii IXTRODUCTIOX. 

tree, liill, chief or piince, head, etc., ami in the hody of this work I have given a number of such 
lists of analogous or more or less cognate words and ideas, or I'oot-sounds, compendiously arranged for 
the principal language-families of the New and Old World ; tracing the same word or idea with 
apparent similar sound (making some allowance for interchangeable letters) ; e.g. as for dog (or more 
properly cur) ; man, hand ; eye (S, If, and T sounds) ; had, crooked, night, evil, Mack ; house or hid ; 
stone, cut.; war, death ; bake, fire ; navel, life, tie, cross, I, me, No. 1 ; thou ( JVo. 2 ?) ; son, tree ; good, 
God, great, high, much, many ; domestic animals ; relationship (as in jS") ; sun, fire, God (S, L, and T 
sounds) ; numerals, a few American as nearest to some of the Old World ; field, enclosure, circle, garden, 
land; bird, fiy, go, icing, feather; tie, cross, yoke, join, life; mouth, hole, etc.* (See Appendices.) 

Likewise lists of jirobable cognate synonyms and root sounds ; and special lists of analogies or 
apparent accordances as between, e.g. Mexican and Aryan ; Chinese and Accadian ; Chinese and Otomi ; 
English an<l Egyptian ; Chinese and American ; Quichuan and Aiyan (Sanskrit) ; Libyan, Basque, 
Caucasian, Celtic and American ; Polynesian, Papuan and Australian, and American ; Dravidian with 
Turanian, and many comparisons for modem .African words ; also examples of the plural ; and 
grammatical illustrations as between some of the chief American language-families, as Otomi, 
Quichuan, Algonkin, as well as Polynesian. 

I have also (p. 49) appended a long list of more or less interchangeable letters for nearly 
all language -families, other than Aryan and Semitic which for several reasons have been purposely 
omitted. This list has been the result of an examination, incidentally so to a certain extent, of many 
thousands of words met with in the selection of those intended for more special vocabularies ; but 
their special application to each separate family of language has unfortunately not generally been 
recorded ; they, however, belong mostly to the Turanian, American, and to the less civilized languages ; 
naturally a number of them have not sufficient repetitive occurrence to be of much value ; those of 
most importance and fi-equency are distinguislied by capitals. A few special lists having linguistic 
interest arc added from the labours of Mr. Hyde Clarke, Edkins, Lopez, Biondelli, G. Massey, Ellis, 
Abel, Johnne, and others in special fields of Comparative Etymology. Tolerably extensive lists of 
American words for Water, Sun, and £ye are given, as well as references to the old Mexican, Peiiivian, 
and Asiatic calendars and Signs of the Zodiac. (See Appendices, IX.-XIII. and XL.-XLVI. ; also 
VII. and XXIX.) 

The general lists of Comparative Accordances (many words, however, being also given not showing 
accordances, are aiTanged as conveniently and briefly as possible, so as to speak for themselves, though 
perhaps rather crowded and not sufficiently localized. Language-families are, for the sake of 
convenience and space, rather largely grouped together en masse ; e.g. the Ugro-Altaic families of the 
Turanian of course include a great number of more or less separate languages, as the Finnish, Tartar, 
Turkic, and Siberian ; and the selection of Afiican words, for want of space, may not always be 
satisfactory as to detail and localization. But where a general comparison of the Old as with the Xew 
World is concerned, and in regard to the greater probability of original simplicity, if not unity, both 
of language and of race, the entire question of Comparative Etymology as wi'll as race may possibly 
be regarded from a wider stand-point ; leaving the question of further comparative or special connexion 
between languages, whether of the same family, or between apparently distinct families, to experts and 
linguists in each branch. 

3Iy object has been more especially in the first place to present in a more compendious and 
simple form a list of the most likely words than has yet been oifered, for general purposes of 
comparison, not only with Xorth, Central, and Southern America inter se, roughly speaking, but 
each of those considerable divisions again with corresponding words in the Old World hmguages, 
both aueient and modern ; showing if possible the tendency not only towards certain more or less 
fundamental or universal root-sounds; but that there must at various and later times have been 
influence exerted on some, if not many, of the older Xcw World languages, either by direct systematic 
foreign invasion or immigration, or by casual introduction (as by Behring Straits) of Turanian words ; 
from the Pacific, of Polynesian and even of Papuan and Malay ones ; and even from both sides of the 
Straits of Gibraltar, of a certain number of African, Libyan and Ibero-Ccltic words. (See Appendix 
No. XIX.) 

The choice of words selected for comparison luis been both necessarily as well as naturally limited 
to the most important or more frequently used words. For a certain number or class of words, there 
have naturally been found no accordances. It is not to be taken for granted that all apjjarent 
accordances are real ; some must be accidental ones ; especially when there are no intermediate 
conditions, e.g, as betw(«n the Papuan badok and the English" irtrf, etc., though it miglit not be 
impossible to trace both through the Greek KaKof, and S(nith American kaka. 

The English word house is curiously like the S..Y. (iuichuan huasi; but perhajjs only through the 
neariy universal radical hu, seen better'in our English hut; Ugro-Altaic hu, kota, hat;" Cbinese, hu, 
uh, ku ; and it nmy readily bo traced continuously in North Aiucrica, as /n'lh, koh, ha, ha; in Central 

* Professor C. Abel, of Berlin, has also trcuted ou this miitlcr ; see elsewhere iu the lutroduetioii and at page 122. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

America as ngu, ghoti, Iw-chan; and in South America as uta; also with the s, in Eftyptian, hnz, ««, hu; 
in Ugro-Altaic as huus, khus, hiiz ; and finally in South American as huti.ii:'^ Many otlier similar 
accordances, real or accidental, may be found presented in tlie accompanying work. 

It might, however, till a volume in itself, and require a thorough knowledge of each individual 
language, to trace out etymologically a tithe of the words occurring in the present vocabularies, and 
making every allowance for what may be doubtful, incorrectly copied, or unsuitably selected. 

The same sound or word, and more especially in African dialects, not unfrequently may have half 
a dozen different or distinct meanings. In I'olynesian qfi and pitra stand for water ; in Mrican, 
«/?=firc ; and urii in American for botli water and tire. 

Prof. Abel, of Kerlin, considers not unfrequently the same simple root of two or three letters, 
may have the spelling reversed without change of meaning; but that could, luirdly amount to a law, 
and may have arisen from dui)lification and subsequent loss, of vowels. (Sec elscwliere.) 

In the "Academy" of 18th Seijtember, 187.5, Professor Sayce says, in reference to Professor 
Whitney's remarks on roots, etc., in language in relation to flection: 

It is with pleasure that I find Professor Wliitney emphasising another linguistic doctrine of high 
importance, tlie fact that sentences precede words just as words precede letters. "Men began," lie says 
(p. 302), " not with parts of speech which they afterwards learned to piece together into sentences, but with 
comprehensive utterances in which the parts of speech lay as yet undeveloped, sentences in the germ ; " and 
elsewhere he observes that " the parts of speech " are " the main classes of words, having restricted application 
and definite connexion, into which the holoplu-astic utterances of a primitive time have by degrees become 
divided ; the separated parts, members of what were once an undistinguished whole." These statements 
need to be dwelt upon ; for if once we grasp firmly the two facts, that language is the symbol of thought, 
and sentences the germs out of which words and forms have been differentiated, it seems to me that the 
mechanical doctrine which would derive flection from the external accidents of agglutination and phonetic 
decay must cease to be a dogma of orthodox Glottology. 

And this brings me to that portion of Professor Whitney's system, with which, simple and widely- 
accepted as it is, I find myself unable to agree. It is too much like that common-sense explanation of 
sunrise and sunset, which made the sun go round the earth. With a logical clearness and consistency which 
makes it possible to see the full meaning and tendencies of the theory. Professor Whitney lays down the 
prevalent doctrines as to the nature of roots and the origin of flection. " A primitive body of monosyllabic 
roots," he tells us, formed "the historical beginnings of Indo-European speech-development," and the 
whole machinery of flection, whether in our own family of languages or in any other (p. 22G), has grown out 
of the attachment of independent words to roots and stems, and their subsequent decay in form and meaning. 
There was a time when our fathers could communicate with one another only in monosyllabic roots, and 
a later period when they were much in the same condition as the Mongolian of to-day. " The dissidents " 
from these views, adds Professor Whitney, "are few ;" and without doubt this is really the case. But the 
truth does not always lie on the side of the majority ; and, as one of the dissidents, I must protest against 
the assertion that we "have nothing to say in defence of" our " unbelief, except what is easily refuted as 
misapprehension or want of logical consistency." 

Many even of those who otherwise agree with Professor Whitney have now given up the monosyllabic 
character of Aryan roots, while Professor Whitney himself admits that the roots of the Malayan languages 
" are prevailingly dissyllabic " (p. 243), and the very " type " and " normal example of the whole genus ' root ' " 
which he offers >is (p. 299) is bow-wow, a word of two syllables ! Nor again is it accurate to say (p. 237) 
that Chinese words are " analogous " with the hyiiothetical " roots " of Indo-European speech. These are the 
ultimate results of lexical and grammatical analysis, and all that can be said about them is that they 
may represent the language which preceded the restored parent- Aryan of Pick and Schleicher better than 
any of its later developments can do. As for flection, when we are asked to believe (p. 252) that Semitic 
speech must have developed out of a jireceding stage of monosyllabic roots and the agglutination of 
independent words in accordance with " what is seen to lie at the bases of all other human speech," it must 
be remembered that " all other human speech " means Ai-yan speech alone, or rather the inferences drawn 
from certain phenomena observable in Aryan speech. Might not Semitic scholars with equal right reverse 
the problem, and claim to interpret the phenomena of Aryan flection in analogy with the phenomena of 
Semitic flection ? I would draw attention to an extremely important article by M. Bergaigne in the last 
number of the Memoires de la Socie'ti? de Linguistique, in which he attempts to show that the Indo-European 
case-endings are really suffixes of derivation, the noiuiuative, vocative, and accusative in all three immbers 
being originally abstracts, without symbols for marking flection, and the oblique cases so many adjectives 
taken adverbially. His theory will provide an escape from the awkward question of " pronominal roots " ; 
but it will also lend support to the view that in the background which lies behind the highly-developed and 
cultivated parent Aryan, so ludicrously misnamed the Ursprache — a background, be it borne in mind, to 
which the facts at our disposal hardly allow us to reach — the primitive sentence-words adapted their 
terminations to the expression of such grammatical relations as the growing consciousness of man gradually 
worked out, and so, by the influence of analogy, originated what we may call the flectional instinct. 

N.B. — I have given, near the end of this Introduction, a short resume of Professor Sayce's work 
on " Comparative Philology" (Second Etlition, 1875). 

* Another word for house found in Central America is cal, ealli (Aztec) ; which may in all probability be found in the 
Polynesian /rt?f, /(«?(> ; Dravidian, haile, ytdU; Malay bali, katal; Ugro-Altaic, Jdial, ftiht. kholla ; Celtic ia? = town ; 
Hebrew ,(/(;/ = heap of stones ; Assyrian, al. A similar class of words in kal may also be widely found meaning stone. Stone, 
house, field, often carry a similar root ; but even the final L may here have once been E, significative of roundness or hardness. 



XSXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



EACES, 

Leaving for the present the question of Language, and before coming to the more purely physical 
characteristics of the American ra^'cs, I may he allowed to quote several recent eminent authorities on 
the races of the Old and Xcw "World. 

1. Professor Boyd Dawkins, F.G.S., says : " So far as 2)^iysiqve goes, the whole of the inhabitants 
of America, except the Eskimo, are distinctly Mongolian or Mongoloid. This conclusion exactly 
squares with the results of pliilology and arehseology, as with the Asiatic derivation of the Mexican 
customs." This, however, is perhaps too sweeping an assertion ; as the brachyccphalic and Asiatic 
form of skull is by no means imiversal in America, as will presently be noticed; nor even all the 
American languages, myths, and customs derived from an Asiatic source ; still it is probably correct 
that the majority of the American races do incline to brachycephaHc tr[)e of school, the Mound 
Builders of Central !Xorth America more especially. 

2. M. dc Quatrefages, the leading French Ethnologist, in presenting the second part of his 
"Introduction to the Study of the Human Eaces" to the Academy of Sciences, 1889, has recently 
given an interesting summaiy of his general conclusions with regard to the origin and distribution of 
mankind. Neglecting minor differences, he estimates that there are no fewer than 72 distinct races 
in the human species. All these descend or branch off from three fundamental types — the Mack, the 
yellow, and the ivliite — which had their origin at the great central mass of northern Asia, which is 
thus the cradle of the human race. " Eepresentatives of these different tj-pcs and the races which 
sprang from them are stiU to be found there. The whites, according to M. de Quatrefages, appear 
to have originated on the west of the central mass, the yellows on the north, and the blacks on the 
soiith. The whites extended westward and northward, gi\Tng birth to three secondary tyiies — the 
Finnish, the Semitic, and the Aryan, if we except the Allophyles, wliich form a separate group. 
Their area of distribution is continuous, as is that of the yellows, because of the extensive land surface 
of the Eurasian continent. The yellows spread eastward and crossed into America. The whites and 
yellows checked or blended with each other, producing many varieties of man. The blacks, or negro 
type, which originated on the south of the central mass, was forced by the nature of the continent, 
and probably by the attacks of the whites and yellows, to go south into Africa and east into the 
Indian zVi'chipelago, or Melanesia. The proto-Semites arrested their distribution m the noi-th of Africa, 
and the mixture of the two races gave rise to the negroid populations. In the centre and south 
of Africa the blacks continued in tbcii- ethnic purity until the infiltration of other races fi-om Europe 
and the north of Afiica in modern times. Those which remained in their original home became 
blended with the wliites and yellows, giving rise to the Dravidian populations which pass by shades 
into the three fundamental types. As for the Allophyles, represented by tlic race of Cro-Magnon, 
they occupied parts of Europe and North Africa, from which they extended to the Canaries. The 
three fundamental types also found themselves in Oceania ; tlie Allophylian whites occupying Polynesia, 
the blacks Melanesia, the yellows Malasia (Micronesia ?). The latter were, according to M. de Quatre- 
fages, the last to come into tlie maritime world. The peopling of America dates fiom the Quatcraary 
period, and is due to migi-ations of different types — Allophylic white and yellow blending with the 
local Quaternary races, which also belonged to the yellow typo. Eiu'ope, since the Tertiary ages, 
has received only Allophylian whites, Finns, and Aryans. Having regard to the constant and 
various migrations of the human races in past times, and the resulting amalgamation of the varieties, 
whether due to conquest and -violence or peaceful diffusion, M. de Quatrefages justly observes that 
the number of races now existing in a pure state is exceedingly restricted, if indeed there is a 
single one which can be accepted as such. Perhaps some little groups, protected by their isolation, 
such as the Mincopies, may show an identity of characters attesting their ethnic homogeneity." 

N.B. — ^M, de Quatrefages in this resume does not specially allude to the Iberian or to the Negritic 
races. 

3. I shall next refer to "Wallace in his recent work entitled "Darwinism," 1889, in reference to 
the Probable Birthplace of Man, p. 459. Mr. Wallace considers that the ancestral fonn of Man was 
not in the tropics, where the antlii'opoid apes and monkeys mostly occur, and which are essentially 
of an arboreal nature in their structure, and where tree fruits are the principal food, wliereas the 
distinctive character of Man is that he is not specially adapted to terrestrial locomotion. "It is 
more probable that he began his existence in the o]ien plains or plateaux of the temperate or sub- 
tropical zone, where the seeds of indigenous cereals and numercnis herbivora, rodents and game 
birds, with fishes and molluscs in the lakes, rivers, and seas sup])Iied him with iin abundance of 
varied food. In such a region lie would best develop skill as a linntcr, trajiper, or fislurnuin, and 
later as a herdsman or cultivatoi' of the soil — a succession, of which we find indications in the 
Palicolithic racers of ]"]urope." . . . . " We arc consequently restricted to some j)ortion of the 
Eastern Hemisphere, where alone the anthropoid apes exist, or have a]ipareTitly ever existed. There 
is good reason to believe also tliat Africa must be excluded, as it is known lo have been separated from 
the northern continent in early Tertiary times. 

" There remains only the great Euro-Asiatic continent ; and its enormous plateaux, extending 



INTRODUCTION. xxxv 

from Persia, across Tliihc^t and Siberia to Jraiicliuria, afford an area, some part or other of whicli 
probably offered suitable conditions in late Miocene or Early Pliocene times, for the development of 
Ancestral Man. 

" It is in this area that we still iiiid that type of mankind — the Mongolian — which retains a colour 
of the skin midway the black or brown colour, or blackisli-brown colour of the Ne<;ro, and the ruddy 
or olive-white of the Caucasian tj-pes, a colour which still prevails all over uortliern Asia, over tlie 
American continents, and over much of Polynesia. From this primary tint arose;, under the influence 
of varied climatic and other conditions, the varied tints which still prevail amonj^ mankind. The area 
just referred to is sufficiently extensive and varied to admit of prime\'al uuni having attained to 
a considerable population, and having dcvclo])ed his full human characteristics, both physical and 
mental, before there was any need for him to migrate beyond its limits. 

" One of his earliest impoi'tant migrations was probably into Africa, where, spreading westward, 
\u; became modified in colour and hair, in correlation with physiological changes, adapting him to the 
climate of the e(piatorial lowlands.* 

" Spreading north-westward into Europe, the moist and cool climate led to a modification of an 

opposite character, and thus may have arisen the three great human types Somewhat later, 

probably the spread eastward into North-West America, and soon scattered hiuiself over the whole 
continent; and all this may well have occurred in Early or Middle Pliocene times. Thereafter, at 
very long intervals, successive waves of migration carried him into every part of the habitable world, 
and by conquest and intermixture led ultimately to those puzzling gradations of tj-pos which the 
etlmologist almost in vain seeks to unravel." 

In reference to the distribution of land animals, and bearing in mind that the limits of the 
1000 fathom line between N"orth-West America and Xorth-East Asia, by Eehring Straits and the line 
of the Aleutian Islands, connects or lies between, I will briefly refer to what Mr. Wallace says as to 
the distribution of tapirs : "These animals are now confined to very distant regions of the globe, viz. 
the Malay Peninsula, and the adjacent islands of Sumatra and Borneo, and tropical America, where 
there are three or four species. During the Miocene and Pliocene period, iapirs abounded over the 
whole of Europe and Asia, their remains having been found in the Tertiary deposits of France, India, 
Burmah, and China. 

In both North and South America fossil remains of tapirs occur only in caves and deposits of 
Post-Pliocene age, showing that they are comparatively recent immigrants into that continent. They 
perhajis entered by the route of Kamschatka and Alaska, where the climate, even now so much milder 
and more equable than in the North-East of America, might have been warm enough in late Pliocene 
times to have allowed the migration of these animals. In Asia they were driven southwards by the 
competition of numerous higher and more powerful forms, but have found a resting place in the 
swampy forest of the Malay region." f 

Again, "just as there have been periods which facilitated intermigration between America and 
the Old AVorld, there have also certainly been periods, perhaps of long duration even geologically, 
when these continents have been separated by seas as wide, or even wider than those of the present 
day, and which may explain such curious anomalies as the origination of the camel-tribe in America, 
and its entrance into Asia in comparatively recent Tertiary times, and the introduction of bears and 
bisons fi'om Asia into America." 

From "Anthropology" by Topinard, with Preface by Paul Broca (1876), I shall venture to make 
some allusion as bearing on the subject of Comparative Ethnology and Language. He considers 
that there are three principal types of langniage : 1st, the Monosyllabic, e.ff. Chinese; 2nd, the 
Polysyllabic or agglutinative, e.ff. Basque, Berber, Mongolian, Finnish, American ; 3rd, the Inflectional, 
Semitic, and Aryan — the Semitic, polysylhdjic and partially inflectional. There are something like 
800 roots and grammatical languages divisable into families, including Basque, Uralo-jUtaic or Turanian 
(Samoyed, Fin, Turk, Mongol, Tungus, etc.). 

M. Topinard himself is in favour of the Polygenistic origin of language. 

CRANIOLOGY. 

The celebrated prehistoric skull of Neanderthal is dolichocephalic, with a flatfish or phalycephaUc 
top, and considerable recession of the frontal bone, and apparently approximates to apes. 

The average cranial capacity of American Indians is about =1234 (but Mexicans =1340). 
African negroes =1364. Negritos (Papuans, etc.) =1234. Europeans =1.534. 

For much detailed information as to cephalic indices of various nations see Topinard, p. 240, etc. 

Dolichocephalic skulls have 71'5 to 75-0; Brachycephalic 8334 up to 860, the highest index; 

* According to Dr. Scliweinfoith the Akkas and Pigmies of Central Inner Africa best represent the earlier and more 
indigenous negroid population. (See also Stanley.) 

t There would appear to be none of the European and Asiatic domestic animals native to America, with the exception 
of the Dog; the Siuith American Llama and Alpaca are peculiar to South America (see my lists of domestic animals and 
names) ; but some of the native American names curiously agree with those of the Old "\Vorld. 



xsxvi INTRODUCTTOX. 

with every intermediate type and modification. It is questionable if any really pure and regular type 
can be found in any race. 

Old Woeld. 

1. The Arabs have a very fine oval skull; dolichocephalic 74. Some old Phoenician sliulls may 
be mesocephalic. 

2. The Berber and Libyan, dolichocephalic 74-4 ; and very possibly was the oldest stock in the 
Iberian Peninsular. 

3. European types. — Hardly any pure. The Celts have the largest known cranial capacity ; oval 
and orthonatic, i.e. the least prog-uathic; index 75-5 to 82-0. 

4. The primitive Blonde European (Arj-an) type was dolichocephalic, and has been spreading every- 
where; the Scandinavian gives us the jjurest type. Danes are brachycephalic ; iSTormans mesaticephalic. 
Swedes, Xorwegians, Belgians, and EugUsh dolichocephalic. The blonde typo of skull has been found 
in North Africa, Aighanistan, and possibly even in America. 

5. The Brown European (Aryan) lias black hair, and gives numerous sub-types ; e.ff. Hiadu, 
Circassian, Iranians, Albanians, Ligurians, Bascjue ; possibly Berbers. The Russians and Slavs are 
much mixed. The primitive Teutons, or Germans, were dolichocephalic. The Bavarians, brachy- 
cephalic. The Iranians, dolichocephalic. Tlie later Germans mostly brachycephalic. The Greeks 
much mixed. 

6. The Basques or Euskarians have skull index of 790 and are dolichocephalic, rather like the 
Cro-Magnon ones with 7;3'75. 

7. Laps; doubtful, but very brachycephalic (85-0). 

8. Fins ; a connecting link between the European blonde and the xAsiatic brachycephalic types ; 
long reddish hair. Index 83 7 ; not European, though more so than the Jlongols ; possibly mixed 
with both Lap and Mongol; brachycephalic, — some think are connected with the Basqiie;* possibly 
preceded by a people with red hair and green eyes. 

9. Turks ; rather inclining to tlie Fiunisli and Altaic ty|)es, but much mixed — esjjccially in 
S.W. Asia. There is much mixture among the Caucasian tribes. 

10. The Samoyed, probably 86-3 index and highly brachycephalic, and probably in part Eskimo 
and in part Mongol. 

11. Thibetans are not prognathous like the Chinese. 

12. Mongols are a " yellow race " ; hair straight and stiff and rather long. Physically mixed; 
eyes not oblique ; moderately brachycephalic and not prognathic. 

13. The Eskimo ; very dolichocephalic, with a high skull ; 75'0 index. 

[N.B. — Erom the Caucasus to France even, artificial defoimation of the skull has been met with, 
as well of course in Asia, and especially in America amongst tlie more modern Picd Indians.] 

14. Malays, according to Mauiy, came from Thibet ; but some say from Borneo ; they have 
a better forehead than the Mongols; arc brachycephalic; Index 81-6; with rather a high amount of 
prognatliism for the "yellow race." The occiput is flattish. Some etlmologists suppose there are 
two sorts of Malays, one partly Caucasian. 

15. Polynesians approach the Malay type, and are, however, separate from the Micronesians. 
Probably the South Americans have some relation with the Polynesians, and considerable linguistic 
connection exists between the Polynesians and Malays. The present race of Polynesians probably 
commenced at the Malacca some 1500 years ago, and gradually extended over the Pacific Islands. 
Theii- skull is mesaticaphalio and oval ; to some extent like the Chinese, Malays, and South Americans. 
At Tahiti there is a mixture to some extent of black and yellow. The primitive Polynesians were not 
prognathous. The nose nearer South American than Mangolian ; complexion mahogany, with hair 
black and curly. 

16. Australian type. — Smooth hair and negroid in feature ; rather like the South Indian Dravidians 
and Ghonds, even in language elemc^nts ; probably a mixed race. The cranial capacity small, ani 
veiy dolicliocephalie ; index 71'0. Probably both Malays and Polynesians have landed in Australia. 

17. Papuan. — The Melanesians have a vei-y dolichocephalic skull; skin nearly black, and hair 
frizzled. In Fiji there is a Pohoiesian mixture. 

18. Negiitos. — Now chiefly Semangs and jVndamanese ; hair black and woolly. Existed probably 
once in New Guinea. Cephalic Index 825. [Prof. Flower has, I believe, considered that Negritos 
may have been the ancestors of both the African negro, and of the Mehinesians and Papuans.] 

N.B. — Topinard says, mixed races may, in course of time, give rise to a fixed intermediate race. 
Malays, Chinese, Cape Hottentots, Himyarites and Abyssinians are probably of intermediate race and 
types. 

19. Hottentots or Bosjenien of S. Africa, proliably a mixture of and a low-tyjied race ; hair long 
and woolly and also tufty ; very small cranial capacity. 

• I do not find this much confirmed by my own vocabularies as regards archaic roots. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xxxvu 



20. The Kaffirs arc the liifjlicst of tlic Xc^ri) type ; larijo fraTiial rapafity. Cephalic Index 72-5. 
Tho BantuR the ])rc(li)iniiiaiit ami best type. [Aeeurding to Stanley the Kaffirs of S.E. Africa have 
certainly been improved by Ktliiopian and even Cancasian interniixture ; (sec elsewhere).] 

Negro type generally has skull duluceplialic, with Index 7;J'0 about. 

New "World, etc. 

Patasoniaus arc the most dolichocephalic type in the world, except the Eskimo, which they 
resemble in several ways, except in not having a veiy wide check bono. Index 72'02. M. Topinard 
suggests they or tho Tehuelches may best represent the autochthonous dolichocephalic American, 
clement, which, by its crossing with brachycephalic Asiatics has given the existing or more modem 
American-Indian type. Their prognathism of 69-4 is very gi'eat, and equal to that of the Eskimo. 
The neighbouring Tehuelches have 75 92 Index. Generally M. Topinard calls the American type of 
skull as incapacious, and more iisually dolichocephalic, but often mixed or mesocephalic. The 
Mexicans have 78-1 and tho Peruvians 78-7 cephalic Index. In Nortli .\merican, dolichocephy is more 
common to the East of the Alleghauies ; and bracliyccphaly to the West of the Mississippi.* The same 
thing holds good in South America. The Peruvians have rather quadrangular skulls, and arc shorter 
in stature than the Mexicans, and who have the occiput more flattened. Generally the American type 
approximates to the Yellow Races thougii taller, and evidently crossed with the Asiatic ; but still 
probably to some extent special or American. The native .Vnicrican skulls are generally so artificially 
deformed as to make it difficult to decide satisfactorily respecting their true shape and measurement. 
The Californian tribes often have a similar complexion to that of negroes whose hair is not woolly. 
Some arc blacker skinned than others, but the hair is generally thick, glossy and stiff, and black 
like horse-hair ; the skin olive-brown, mixed with white or red ; the nose prominent, but sometimes 
Asiatic. 

As to Propwtliism it varies greatly from about 60-0 for Bosjeman to 82 ; thougli in extreme 
cases from 89-d to 51-3. White races average 82 = 76-5 ; yellow 76 = 68-5 ; black, 69=59-5. The 
Eskimos come nearest the average with 71-46. Speaking generally, the white races are never 
prognathous, the yellow and black ones are so in various degrees. 

Tlie precursor of man was probably only analogous to the Anthropoids. M. Topinard alludes to 
M. Haeckel, who asks whether the chimpanzee and gorilla of W^est Africa, both of which arc 
(lolichoccphales, may not be the ancestors of the dolichocephalic men of Europe and Africa; and 
whether the brachyccphales of Asia may not descend from the more brachycephalic orangs of Borneo 
and Sumatra? " Many reasons load (M. Topinard adds) to the belief that all the dolicephales are 
originally from Europe and Afi-ica, and the brachyccphales from Eastern Asia, though M. Voght 
thinks otherwise." 

Welcher clearly showed contrary to Eetzius' doctrine that the aboriginal races of Europe, best 
perhaps, represented by the Fins and Basques, arc brachycephalic instead of dolichocephalic. A list of 
the cephalic indices of most of the principal races of mankind is given by M. Topinard at pages 
240-242 (Anthropology). 

According to Canon Isaac Taylor (" Contemporary Eevicw," Aug. 1890), the Paleolithic period 
may have come to an end some 20,000 years ago ; and that Broca considers the earlier Neolithic 
race is allied to the North African tribes, and their languages probably belonging to the Hamitic 
class, without inflexions and almost without grammar. "That their descendants may probably be 
traced in the present inhabitants of Sariliuia and of South Italy, as well as in some parts of the 
British Islands and of Northei-n Spain. They are usually called the Iberian race. In the early 
Neolithic period we find skulls of this Iberian race all over Western Europe, in Caithness, Wales, 
and Somersetshire, in the South of France, in Spain and Italy. This race was swarthy, with olive 
complexion and black curly hair ; it was orthognathous and highly dolichocephalic, with a low orbital 
index and short stature, averaging only 5 feet 4 inches. Their present descendants are found in 
Donegal, Galway, Kerry, and in some parts of Wales. They are also to be recognized among the 
Spanish Basques, Berbers, Kabyles, Guanches of Teneriff'e, the Corsicans, Sardinians, and Sicilians. 
Pausanias informs us that the Sardinians were Libyans (now Berbers). Seneca, that Corsica was 
peopled by Iberians and Lignrians. Thucydides, that the oldest inhabitants of Sicily were Iberians." f 

Canon Taylor also considers that in Belgium, Central France, Savoy, and North Italy, in early 
Neolithic times, there existed a short staturcd round-headed race, resembling the Laps ; and whose 
speech may now probably be best represented by the Basque. (Iberian.) See pp. 160-161. 

* This is just what might he expected, as immigration from either N.E. Asia, or from Polynesia or Malay, would 
naturally more atiect the West Coast of America, and so lessen any autoclithonous tendency to dolichocephaly. 

t See my Tables of " Comparative Linguistic Analogies " for Libyan, Basque, Caucasian, Celtic and American. 



INTRODUCTION. 



ARYANS. 



In Lis " Origin of tlic Aryans," Canon Taylor is quite decided ngainst any Asiatic origin of tlie 
Aryans, and speaks of them as a Neolithic race of Eastern Europe. See also his chapter on Neolithic 
Culture, and a short article on the same subject in "Harper's New Monthly Magazine," No. 48(3, 
p. 962 ; and Canon Taylor also says, speaking of the older theories connected with Philology and 
Ethnology : " The whilom tyranny of the Sanskritists is happily oveiiiast, and it is seen that hasty 
philological deductions require to be systematically checked by the conclusions of Prehistoric Archieology, 
Craniology, Anthropology, Geology, and Common Sense." See also Dr. Schrader's " Prehistoric 
Antiquities of the Human Races," translated by F. B. Jevons, 1890. Dr. Schrader is strongly in favour 
of European Russia, as having been the "cradle" of the Aryan Race, in opposition to Herr Penka's 
theory of a Scandinavian origin. I, myseK, am inclined to place it in the Northern Caucasus between 
the lilack and Caspian Seas, with extension towards the Lower Volga. 

Professor Huxley has lately contributed an important paper in the "Nineteenth Century," Nov. 1890, 
on the "Aryan Question and Prehistoric Man," the general tlrift of which may be considered to show 
the reasonable probability of the primitive Aryan Race having existed in Europe at least prior to the 
Neolithic period, if not in Pahrolithio times, and not improbably at a time even before the present 
Aryan langudges were themselves evolved. Professor Huxley enters largely on the interesting question 
as "to the pnjbablo physical characters of the skulls of the earlier races (jf Europe. Generally, I should 
incline to think he would seem to be in favour of the "Primitive Aryan" being a distinct and well- 
marked race of men, and that the original area of its distribution lay rather in Europe than in Asia. 
The matter as to whether these primitive Aryans were llond or brunet are still hotly contested 
questions. 

The Scandinavians and Teutons were tall and had " ilond long-heads," and doliehocephalic; and 
as we proceed South we gradually find short brunet broad-heads and brachi/eej)I/alic.^ 

The Slavonic people are now probably a mixture of three races or peoples, viz. : the blond long- 
heads, the European brunet broad-heads, and the Asiatic brunet broad-heads; and most likely the Aryan 
blond long-heads were the earliest. Most of the Fins (or l^inno-Tatars) are brunet Asiatic broad-heads, 
and have become much mixed. 

Professor Huxley thinks the areas occupied by the Aryan blond long-heads may have extended at 
one time from the Baltic to Central Asia. But where their' speech was developed may have either 
been in the East or West of that area ; but the Aryan race came or was present first, and its language 
differention and development subsequently. " Like other languages this pre-Aryan one must have been 
built up by a secular process of development." No one can say during what period of time ! nor how 
far back again that our Arj^an race was differentiated from the primitive stock of mankind ; quite 
probably in the Pleistocene period, when the blond-heads could have hardly lived in the glacial cold of 
Europe. Eurasia was then, or soon afterwards, probably a vast inland lake, like a Ponto-Mediter- 
ranean, and the olimatal conditions very different^ and with greater extremes of heat and cold. The 
more Eastern climatal limitation of the beech could not have existed, and too much stress should not be 
relied on that as an argument in deciding where was the "cradle of the Aryan Race."f The Aryans, if 
existing in these regions of Southern Russia and in these Pleistocene times, must necessarily have been 
much cut off fi'om admixture or intrusion on the part of Asiatic Turanians to the East. 

Professor Huxley would rather seem to favour Latham's " Sarmatian," older hypothesis, as to the 
oldest geographical area of the early Aryan race; ^•iz. : "That it may have probably included the 
higher parts and a good deal of the northern slopes of Europe, between the Urals and the German 
Ocean, a vast area some 1500 miles broad; and whilst the blond long-headed I'ace originally spread 
over this vast area, their language was in course of formation," and variously so naturally ; "so that, 
strictly speaking, there may have been no primitive Aryan language at all." From the district, " say 
cast of the central highlands of Europe, and west of the Urals, this blond long-headed race, so to 
speak, tended to spread westward to the North Sea, Britain, etc., where it met the brunet long- 
heads; to France, where it found both these brunet short -heads, and so on southwards towards Italy 
and Macedonia." The original South-east Eurojiean tribes wen^ probably those which became Iranian 
and proceeded to the plains of India. On this "Sarmatian" hypothesis, the Celts could never well 
have proceeded westwards from Pamir and the Hindoo-Koosh. 

Professor IIuxlcj' then ])i-oceeds to consider the (juestion more from an arcliacological and anthropo- 
logical point of view, by which alone there can be mucli chance of the Aryan question being ultimately 
decided. As to their burial ])laees, there often are found a considerable mixture of short and long- 
headed skulls. Even at the present day blonds and brnnets may be met with in the same parts. It is 
clear that the oldest of these peoples were then only in the Neolithic stage of civilization, and of the 

* The Cephalic Index is a number expressing the relations of the breadth to the length of skull, taking the latter at 100. 
Therefore, broad heads have the Cephalic hitlex above 80, and the long heads below 80. 

t With the existences of a large inland Enrasiau sea, of which the lakes of Aral, Cas]iiaii and Black Seas are )iow 
merely the smaller remnants, there would be no occasion to go to the Baltic to find a sea {man}. — 11. 1'. G. 



INTEODUCTION. xxxix 

polished stonn, copper and bronze ptaf^cs. It will bo necessary to go further hack than the .lOOO or 
6000 years of the historic period ; and J'rofessor Huxley does not oonsiih.T it yet settled whether bronze 
was first discovered within this Aiyan area or not. In Sweden and Norway nine-tenths of this 
Neolithic hlond race had long-heads, while in Denmark, hard by, there was a larger proportion of broad- 
heads; in fact, the broad and long-heailed were often much mixed during the " llccent Period." 
Doubtless man existed in Europe during the Pleistocene or Quaternary jieriod, inhabiting caves and rocks. 

There must, Professor Huxley proceeds to argue, have been a considerable hialua b(-tween the 
paleolithic and glacial ago and the neolithic ;* but some good authorities, who may not unlik(dy prove 
in the main to be correct, maintain that the races of men now inhabiting Europe may be traced back to 
the Great Ice age. 

Professor Huxley then refers to what few likely genuine human palaeolithic remains have been 
discovered. He does not a])pear to think there is anything to warrant the supposition that the 
pala3olimctallic culture in Euro])c commenced amongst the Aryan blond long-headed race itself. The 
skeletons so far found indicate shortness of stature and bent legs, and depressed low .skulls with heavy 
jaws, as seen in the so-called Neanderthal skull. Men may have existed before even the Pleistocene 
age. Human skulls of the present day do sometimes present an approximation to the Spy and 
Neanderthal ones, especially some found in some of the Irish river beds. In some respects also the 
Neanderthal and Spy skulls are seen among the Frisians who are tall and blond, but with sk\ills tending 
to show a flattening or depression, which may indicate some distant connection or continuity with the 
Pleistocene, Ncan<lerthal, and Spy ones ; or, the Frisian type may be the result of admixture with 
those, or with the Canstadt (Gibraltar) ones. These lower tyi^es of skull indicate development however 
and may be expected to be found in all the lower and earliest ty]ies of mankind all over the world. 
The Australian skulls show considerable likeness with the Neanderthal ones ; whilst Neanderthaloid 
features may bo met with the ancient broad-headed peoples entombed at Borreby in Denmark. " The 
remains of the Quaternarj- or Pleistocene age from ours is immense, and, doidstless, there is a vast 
difference between the Neanderthaloid race and comely living specimens of the blond long-heads with 
whom we are so familiar." 

So far, Professor Huxley. The "Academy" of November 29th, 1890, thus refers to the above 
article : — 

" Professor Huxley urges in support of Latham's Sarmatian hypothesis, the novel argument that when 
the Aryan race came into existence the Bosphorus had not been formed, Europe being sundered from Asia by 
what he calls the Ponto-JIediterranean, a vast sea including the Aral, Caspian, and Euxine Seas, together 
with the plains of the Danube and Volga, and discharging into the Arctic Ocean by the valley of the Obi. 

Professor Huxley considers there are fom' European types, one of which must be that of the Primitive 
Aryan, and others only Aryan by speech. These, he thinks, are : — 1st, The tall, blond, long-headed, 
Scandinavian type ; 2nd, the short, dark, broad-headed Auvernat ty^ie ; .3rd, the short, dark, broad-headed 
' Mongoloid ' (Finnic ?) type ; 4th, the short, dark, long-headed Iberian or Silurian (Basque ?) type. 

The objection to this classification is that his second and t/iird types, both of them short, dark and broad- 
headed, are not discriminated ; while he takes no account of the tall, broad-headed type, whose remains are 
found in the round barrows of Britain, and who, if we identify them, as is usually done with the Britons of the 
Roman period, must have been blond or rufous. Nor is there any place given for the tall, fair, broad-heads of 
Poland and West Russia, who agree with the Kurds and Galtchas in stature, complexion and skull shape. 

Professor Huxley's scheme would be more consistent and complete if he had described his t/iird class, as 
the tall, rufous, broad-headed Ugric type of the round-barrow Celts of Britain. The primitive Aryan race 
would, therefore, be either the Scandinavian or the Celto-Slavo-Lettic type ; and it might be a question for 
Philologists to say whether both Celto-Latin and Celto-Slavic speech could more easily be derived from 
Teutonic, or on the other hand, Teutonic from Celto-Latin or Slavo-Lettic." 

THE EUEASIAN— MEDITEREANEAN AND ARYAN ORIGINS. 

Mr. J. S. Stuart Glennie in the "Academy" of December 13th, 1890, in connection with the theory of a large 
inland Eurasian sea, once serving possibly as a line of demarcation between the Aryan and Turanian races 
likewise thus refers to Profe.s.sor Huxley's paper in the " Nineteenth Century " on " the Aryan Question," in 
which " special attention is called to the ' novel argument ' which he draws from the fonner existence of ' a 
vast inland sea, including the Aral, the Caspian, the Euxine, together with the plains of the Danube and the 
Volga, and discharging itself into the Arctic Ocean by the valley of the Obi.' This midland sea Dr. Huxley 
calls the ' Ponto-Ai'alian Mediterranean ' (p. 764). But as its eastern shores are in Asia and its western in 
Europe, I venture to think that ' Eurasian '• would be a preferable adjective ; and that the sea usually called 
the Mediterranean might, when necessary, be similarly distinguished as the Eurasian. 

As to the 'novel argument,' will you permit me to say that I had already, in the Babylonian and 
Oriental Record of last August, pointed out some of the important historical consequences of the recognition 
of this former geogi-aphical feet, and of the geological convulsions which probably led to the draining-oft' of this 
Eurasian Mediterranean ; that, in the paper read before the Historical Society, which was reported in the 

* In New Jersey, U.S., alnnfj the Delaware, there have recently been discovered stone implements of a decided inter- 
mediate type between the paUeolithic and neohthic. 



xl IXTRODUCTIUX. 

same numljer of the Academy, I drew certain further conclusions frOm the same fact ; and that these 
conclusions were illustrated by a large map, on which, with the assistance of Mr. Bolton, of Stanford's 
Geographical Department, I had corrected, from the orographical maps of Ramsay and the geological maps 
of Berghans, the somewhat conjectural sketch of this Em-asiaa sea given long ago by Lenormant in his 
Atlas cVHisloire Ancienne ? 

Let me add that, for all questions of ultimate historical origins, no less important than recognition of this 
former Eurasian Mediterranean is recognition of the wide distribution of non-Ar-yan and non-Semitic u-hite 
races, and — considering ethnogi-aphical monuments, traditions, and observations — of the very high probability, 
to say the least, that the ruling classes of the ancient empires both of Egypt and of Chaldea belonged to the 
widespread stock of white races. 

Combining the considerations arising from these two sets of facts — geological and ethnological — I have 
been led to a conclusion which appeai-s to reconcile the old Asiatic and the new European theories of Aryan 
origins. So far as the problem was treated as a question of the origin of the white race, the Asiatic solution 
was probably right. Tlie white race did, as I have endeavom-ed to show, ]irobably originate in Asia, and not 
in Europe, at the time when Europe and Asia were separated by a Mediterranean stretching from the Arctic 
Ocean almost to the Jigean. But so far as the question of Aryan origins is a question simjily of the locality 
of the origin of Aryan speech among white tribes, the European solution will proliably hold good ; and that 
form of it, particularly, which regards the South Russian Steppes, after the draining-oft' of the Eurasian 
Mediterranean and the consequent inrush of various white and otiier tribes in these ' pastures new,' as the 
most likely ' Aryan cradleland,' properly so-called. I need not here point out how the theory thus briefly 
indicated diii'ers from Professor Huxley's." 

Mr. J. S. Stuart Glcnnio, also in a paper road before the British Association at Leeds, tas the 
following remarks in their Keport, 1890, p. 971, which I give in extenso on the same subject. 

On the Aryan Cradleland. By J. S. Stu.^rt Glennie. 

Iiitroduction. — After sixty years' discussion of exclusively Asian hypotheses, and twenty years' discussion 
of Asian and European hyiio theses , the question now is not so much as to the respective probabilities of an 
Asian or of a European, as to the respective probabilities of a North German or of a South Russian 
Cradleland ; and the author is disposed, on the whole, to consider the South Russian Cradleland the more 
probable, and for the following reasons : — 

First. — Because of the extraordinary correspondence, as lately pointed out by Dr. Schrader, not only 
between the flora and fauna indicated by the common words of the Aryan languages, and the flora and fauna 
of the South Russian Steppes, but also between the mode and conditions of hfe indicated by the language, 
and the mode and conditions of life actually now to be seen on the Steppes. 

Secondly. — Because in South Russia, between the 4.5th and 5()th (or 55th) parallels of latitude there were 
the conditions of such a racial intermixture as might naturally have given rise to such a new variety of the 
white race as the original Aryan clans. For here, from time immemorial, white Alarodians from the south, 
white Turkomans from the east, and white Finns from the north have met and mingled. And here, also, 
there may have been gi-eat environmental changes caused by the drainiug-ofF of the ancient Eurasian 
Mediterranean. 

TIdrdly. — Because of such indications of hybridity in primitive Aryan .speech, and of connection 
particularly with the Finnic group of languages, as would correspond with such a racial intermixture as 
would seem probably to have been eflfected in this region. 

Fourtldy. — Because tliat interlinking of Aryan languages, which is inexplicable on the hypothesis of 
•successive migi'ations from Asia, may, on the contrary, be at once exjilained by a commoii speech in the South 
Russian area indicated, and by differentiations caused by the reaction of the speech of the Aryanised 
non- Aryan tribes encountered in the progress of the Aryans eastwards and westwards. 

And Fifthly.— Hecaiise westwards, in the country lietween the Dnieper and the Carpathians, and 
eastwards in the country on the upper waters of the Jaxartes and Oxus, there were the conditions of the 
passage of the Aryans from the pastoral into the agricultiu-al stage ; and because, in moving southward from 
these regions, they woidd come into contact with, and have their fm-ther develojjmont fostered by, moi-e highly 
cinlised peoples. 

Conclmion. — As will be seen from the last reason assigned in favour of Southern Rassia, the question of 
the Aryan Cradleland connects itself with all these various researches which tend to limit the primitive 
civilisations to tho.sc of Egypt and of Chaldea, and to derive from these civihsations, and particularly from 
that of Chaldea, all the later civihsations. (See elsewhere.) 

Though not entirely bearing in tlie matter of the connection of race and language, as between the 
Old and New Worlds, I may shortly quote from Mr. Gerald lleudall's Essay in " The Cradle of tlio 
Aryan Race," who takes Penka's and Professor Saj'ce's vic\\'s on the subject, viz. : that tlie Aryans 
had their origins in Ijithuania or near the Baltic. Greek stands nearer, it would seem, tlian Sanskrit to 
the archytypc of the Aryan language, and the Sanskrit alphabet- but a remnant of old Indo-Kuropeau 
sounds, though as a literary language Sanskrit is more faithful, probably to primitive sounds ; but even 
Sanskrit must lia\e originated in a colder climate than India. Professor .1. Schmidt does not believe in 
a singht limited and homogeneous Asiatic centre of the Indo-European race and language. There is a 
strong relati<jnslup between Sanskrit and Greek, and a decided conni'ction between Jjatin and Celtic. 
The question as to the earliest intercourse between the Aryan and Semitic is not yet setth'd ; later 
authorities arc disposed to assign a direction of the Semitic race from the North towards the South and 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

to Arabia, ratlicr tliun tlio rovorsc* The- Iluns arc now consiilcrc'd of Tliil)ntan orif^iii. I'enka uses the 
term Aryan as upplicil " to the blond dolichocepliulic- North l']uro])euii race, with whicli he tries to 
associate tlio origination of tlie Indo-l<]uro])<'an race " ; thougli soiue jjrefer to consider all Aryans who 
use the Indo-Euro]H'un language whether dolichoeejihalic or brachycephalic. Kendall considers, p. 46, 
there is no reason for believing that the blond white of the North, with his dolichocephalic skull-index, 
was ever identical with his brachycephalic-skulled brother-white of more Southern Europe. Laps and 
Finns, Eskimo, Sainoyed, Mongol, and many American Indians, are dark skinned and l)rachyce])halio. 
There are tiro ])rincipal types of Aryan, viz. : Indian, Iranian, and the South I'airopean ; and the Slavic, 
Celtic and Teutonic or Germauo-Scandinaviau. 

The original South European type, i.e., the aborigines of Greece and Italy, as the Pelasgians and 
Etruscans, were not of Aryan speech. Then^ were two Celtii^ stocks, one the Mih^sian ; perhaps 
connected with the old Cro-maguon pedigree ; the other of strong Slavic affinity, short and dark and 
brachycephalic. 

Pcnka and his school consider that the true Aryan belonged to the blond dolichocephalic Germano- 
Scandinavian family. Professor Sayce is quoted as considering the red Celt identical with the Algerian 
Kabyles. The melanochroic Caucasians of the neolithic period came from Asia, and were no doubt 
Turanian. [This might account in part for Caucasian words appearing, as I think, both Ellis and Hyde 
Clarke reasonably affirm in America.] 

Kendall considers the Asiatic origin of the Aryans does not support the theory of the general unity 
of Western speech so well as that of a North European origin. In Finland there is found both the 
agglutinative Turanian and a considerable number of Aryan inflexions and also words ; at all events an 
intermixture of Scandinavian and Finnish. | Dolichocephalic skulls may probably specially belong to 
the Palsoolithic age. In Scandinavia both long and short skulls are found much mixed. [In America 
they are also mixed, though the brachycephalic predominates.] Since the North Aryan skull usually is 
dolichocephalic, the Aryan race may even be older than the Turanian. The Neolithic age appears in 
Europe to have introduced the brachv'cephalic form of skull. The Iberians, probably pressed up from 
the S.AV. of Europe, and the Turanians from the East rid the Caucasus. Between the Palaeolithic and 
Quaternary in Europe and the Neolithic there is, however, a great gull. [Dr. Abbott, of New Jersey, 
U.S., I have noticed elsewhere, speaks in America of an intermediate type of stone implements.] 

Mr. Kendall, in his " Cradle of the Aryan Kace," states, p. 44, that the more recent classifications 
have reduced the most distinct types or races of mankind to three or four. This Triple Division 
recognizes : — 

I. The Ethiopian or Neyroid includes the Australoid division, which Huxley, however, groups as a 
distinct fourth ty|ie, thus including the negroes of Africa [Hottentots and Bushmen], the Oceanic and 
Melanesian negroes, and the Negrito of the Pacific and ^Vuclaman Isles. 

II. The Mongolian, including the natives of Northern and Eastern Asia, the Malays, the compre- 
hensive American group and even the Eskimo. 

III. The so-called Caucasian which embraces the Xanthochroic and Melanochroic types of Professor 
Huxley. This so-called Caucasian race, divides itself into two divisions,, the Northern blond type 
(Xanthochroic) including the people of Scandinavia, Denmark and Iceland ; and the southern or darker 
(Melanochroic) type, appearing tyincally in N. Africa and S.W. Asia. J Between these two occur great 
varieties of modification as from the Scandinavian of the North, and the Arab and Persian of the South. 
Mr. Kendall rather disputes this hy])othesis; " 1st, because it fails to give an adequate explanation of 
the marked variations between the white and dark types of Caucasian derivation ; and 2nd, fails to 
explain the (supposed) presence of the purest specimens of the white tj-pc in North Europe, especially 
the Scandinavians." The Negroid race is moi-e dolichocephalic even than the blond or Xanthochroic. 
[Professor Flower, I believe, considers the Negrito may have been the earlier ancestor of the African 
Negro and of the Melanesians. The dolichocephalic element in America jn'obably came in from ihv 
North West of Africa, the South West of Europe, and from Polynesia. The Chinese are not a 
dolichocephalic race and go with the Turanians ; though some think that there is an Aryan element in 
the Chinese. On the whole I am inclined to think that any Aryan element in the New World is to be 
found most strongly marked in South America, appertains more to the Southern Aryan or Melanochi'oic 
type than to the Northern, and would not have come in by way of Behring Straits.] 

Dr. John Bcddoe, F.R.S., in the Anniversary Address, "Anthropological Journal," May, 1890, 
refers favourably to Gerald Kendall's Essay, "Cradle of the Human Race"; also to Isaac Taylor's 
" Origin of the Aryans." " They differ as to their conclusions. Dr. Taylor thinks that the typical 

* Does not the white colour of the Jewish nation rather favour this idea ? They miglit have come either from a 
prehistoric Armenia or from the country about the Oxus. It ha.s been observed that emigration, both in Asia and Europe, 
has generally assumed a Southern trend. Edkins has supposed some connection between Hebrew and Thibetan. Some 
consider the Semitic was Caucasian. 

t According to Du Chaillu, the Scandinavian tradition is that they came from the N.E. side of the Euxine. I believe 
that Petrie has discovered on an old monument in Egvpt, men and faces of the Aryan t}'pe. 

X .Would not this division include the Semites, and possibly the Amorites and Libyans ? 



xlii . INTRODUCTION. 

Aryans are the Celto-Slavic peoples, and that their afimities are TJgric. Mr. Eenclall thinks that the 
Aryan centre, where the Aryan tongue was developefl, was in Scandinavia and about the Baltic, and 
that the long-headed blond race was its parent or earliest proprietor." 

Evidently this question as to the origin of the Aryans is not yet settled. Dr. Beddoe thinks that 
that type most clearly common to Europe and Asia is more likely to be the original one. The old 
Lithuanian form of skull has not yet been properly described. 

As far as I have considered the question from the New World point of view, I should not incline to 
the Scandinavian origin. Might not the Aiyan, as a highly specialized race, have been originally placed 
securely as between the Turanians on the East and the Ilicrians on the "West, possibly in the neighbour- 
hood of the Caucasus ? There are found snow mountains with the beech, the fir, the birch, and the 
oak, and two large inland seas ; and to the South in Armenia a warm climate prevails, leading tlii-cctly 
to Persia and India to the South East ; to Greece and Italy by the shores of the Black Sea on the 
"West ; and readily to Germany and the Baltic on the North West. This solution would certainly 
reconcile some of the many difficulties connected with the Aryan question. That there are so many 
diiferent races and languages now found in the district of the Caucasus, is no reason why 10,000 years 
ago it may not have been exclusively occupied by Aiyans. 

The "National Observer," June 20, 1891, has a notice by Karl Blind of Dr. Krause's Tuisho-Land, 
who strongly advocates the new Scandina^"ian theory of the Aryan origin, and of even the Teutonic 
character of the Scyths (=" shooters of the bow," and who certainly had blue eyes and fair hair). He 
probably is right in his endeavours to trace out the connection between the Thracian stock with the 
Teutonic one, or the high antiquity of the Scandinavian mythology. Dr. Krause thinks the Gauls or 
true Celts physically were like Germans ; also that the mythical tales of Hollar and India bear the 
manifest stamp of a more Northern origin, and that the Sicasiihi, Thors hammer, or hooked cross, was 
really of Scandinavian origin in connection with fire. He also believes the ancient Amorites and 
Libyans were clearly tall, fair haired, blue eyed races, men of the Northern World, as settled by the 
Egyptians ; and Karl Blind liimsclf thinks their customs and names betray a likeness to the Norsemen 
and Gennans, and that the Thraciaus in prehistoric times had worked their way southward from the 
north, and that at a later period, a war-class under a semi-mythical leader Odin pushed back again this 
time northward through Soutliem Eussia and Germany towards the Baltic, and that they may have 
reduced the Laps and Finns to the position of Serfs, as described in the Edda ; * and he finally highly 
praises Dr. Ki'aiise's work as being a mine of information, even if all its theories and deductions may 
not be absolutely correct. 

The following Extract in reference to Dr. Krause's book is mostly in Karl Blind's own words : — 

" Ethnologists formerly assumed in Europe a prehistoric Turanian, Mongoloid, or Ugi-o-Fiunish population, 
which was overcome by an Ai-yan race. The author of Tuisko-Land goes by that more modern view which 
asserts the aboriginal existence, in Scandinavia and in a large part of central and even southern Europe, of a 
fair-haired, blue-eyed Aryan people, identical with the Germanic type. This tall race of blond long-heads is 
supposed to have been followed by an equally dolichocephalic, or long-headed, but dark-haired and smaller 
race, which probably came from Africa. These were the Basques, Iberians, or Silures whom Tacitus already 
knew to have come from Spain into Britain, where they are to this day represented by some of the Welsh. 
Later on — so the theory now is — a short-headed, Mongoloid type made its appearance, penetrating from the 
east into parts of Scandinavia, Russia, and the southern parts of central and western Europe. This race was 
afterwards followed by the Slavs. Through the combined action of the Ugro-Finuish, the Slav, and the 
Iberian elements, the pure Aryan stock of Germanic type was — so the contention goes — gradually absorbed in 
the eastern, southera, and western parts of Evu'ope : a mixed poijulation being the result. In France the tall, 
fair-haired race has become nearly extinct, with the exception of a small section of the north-western coast, 
where the Normans brought in fresh Teutonic blood." 

I am mo.stly inclined to agree with Dr. Isaac Taylor's theory as to the origin of the Aryans, and 
that the Celto-Slavic races offer the best solution of the question, as far as language is concerned as well 
as the best natural geogi'aphical centre. 

1 further give here two short notices recently given in the newspapers respecting this pait of the 
" Aryan Cradle " question, by Mr. J. S. Glennie and Prof. J. Schmidt. [Sec Ante.'] 

Mr. J. S. Glennie said until lately it was universally sup]ioscd that the Aryans had their origin in Asia, 
but the notion tliat they )iad, after all, originated in Europe, had latterly gained ground, until the latter 
liypothesi.s now held the field, and recent investigation went to show that the Aryan cradleland was in 
Southern Rus.sia. Some lield that it was in Scandinavia. He favom-ed the theory that the Aryans came from 
the Ste]>])es of Rus.sia. The language of the early Aryans showed that tlieii- life was pastoral, and indicated 
that tlieir hou.se.s were holes in the ground in Winter and w.-ittlcd huts in Summer, similar to those now 
occupied \>y the nr)mads of the South Russian Ste)ipcs. 'I'lierc were other white races besides the Ai-yans and 
the Semites, and the Aryan language contained evidence of having been a liiii/ua franca of former times. As 
to the high level of culture imputed to the Aryans by Prof. Max Muller, recent researches went to show that it 

• The Tliracians went, wc know, nfter having gone from Easteni Europe into Asia Minor, and sent their war-clans back 
again into Europe, founding Tirvns and Mycene. In the same way we find, says Karl lilind, Swedes, Norwegians, Angles 
and Goths, going under the name of Varangians, or " confederates, eastwards to found the Kussian Empire. 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

was much exaggerated ; and there was strong reason to suppose tliat Hellenic culture was not original, but 
derived from a previously existing Asiatic civilisation. The new ideas thus brought forward as to the unity of 
history wci'C most important and far-reaching. — Dr. Pliene said, as the result of many years' investigation in 
Asia, ho came to the conclusion that the l'ela.sgian civilisation had extended even to Kngland. — The Itev. Mr. 
Maclure, speaking on the evidence from language, remarked that it might safely be said that any Knglish word 
beginning with a "p" was a borrowed one. 

THE HOMK OF THE ARYANS. 

Prof. J. Schmidt has pulilished in the Traiisactioiu of the Royal Prussian Academy the paper which he 
read at the Oriental Congress at Stoc'kholm, "On the Original Home of the Indo-Ucrmans.'' This essay 
created some sensation at the time. After it had been read, the President asked the assembled members of 
the Aryan Section whether, as they were assembled on Scandinavian soil, there was anybody present who 
would say a word in fevour of the Scandinavian origin of the Aryan family, or against their emigration from 
Asia. No one rose, not a single dissentient voice was licai'd. The President, Prof. Max Miiller, was the only 
one who, in returning thanks to Prof. Schmidt, cxi)rcssed some doubts on the force of the argunjent, though 
he gladly took note of the apparently unanimous agreement of the Oriental scholars pi-csent in support of the 
non-European origin of the Aryan languages. The title of Prof. Schmidt's paper is "Die Urheimath der 
Indogcrmanen und das Europiiische Zahlsystem." 

Dr. Sohradcr, I believe, holds that the cradle of the Aiyan race is in the middle Volga, as in 
Southern Russia. 

In his address to the Oriental C!ongress in London, September, 1892, Professor Ma.^ Miiller is 
reported to have observed, "that the ilediterrancan with the Black Sea, the Caspian w'ith the Ural 
Mountains, may be considered as the physical Ijoundary that separates the East from the West." I 
gather that Professor Max Miiller does not hold it yet fully proved that the Sumcro-Accadian came from 
N.E. Asia, or were closely connected even with the Chinese. Nor has he, in the least, changed his 
opinions in respect to the " Cradle of the Aryan Race" having been otherwise than "somewhere in 
Asia." * 

" All theories in favour of other localities, of which we have heard so nnich of late, whether in favour of 
Scandinavia, Russia, or Germany, rest on evidence far more precarious than that which was collected by the 
fomuiers of comparative philology. There is the same dift'erence of opinion as to the original home of the 
Semites, but all Semitic scholars agree that it was " somewhere in Asia." The idea that the Semites 
proceeded from Armenia has hardly any defenders left, though it is founded on an ancient tradition preserved 
in Genesis. An eminent scholar who was at the last moment pi'eventei_l by domestic affliction from attending 
our Congress, Professor Guidi, holds that the Semites came probably from the Lower Euphrates. Other 
scholars, particularly Dr. Spi'enger, place the Semitic cradle in Arabia. Professor Noldeke takes much the 
same view with regard to the homo of the Semites which I take with regard to the home of the Aryans. We 
cannot with certainty fix any particular spot, but that it was somewhere in Asia no scholar would ever doubt. 
With regard to time our difficulties are greater still, and to attempt to solve ditficidties which cannot lie solved 
seems to me no better than the old attempt to square the circle. If people are satisfied with approximate 
estimates, such as we are accu.stomed to in geology, they may say that some of the Aryan languages, such as 
Sanskrit in India and Zend in Media, must have been finished and used in metrical form about 2000 B.C. ; 
that means simply that they had become independent vai-ieties of that tjqiical Ar^-an language which had itself 
reached a higldy finished state long before it was broken up into these dialects. This typical language has 
been called the Proto-Aryan language. Its whole grammatical framework must have been finished before 
5000 B.C., so that little had to be added afterwards. Not only was there a common .stock of roots, but all 
thematic suffixes for the formation of nouns, adjectives, and derivative words had been settled, the terminations 
of declension and conjugation had become fixed, the formation of feminines was recognised as well as the 
degi-ees of comparison, and there was a whole treasury of words, many of them already with secondary and 
tertiary meanings. All this must have been finished before there was a Sanski'it language diflereut froln 
Greek, or a Greek language diflereut from Latin. These common Aryan words have often been used as 
reflecting the state of thought and civilisation previous to what I call the Aryan separation, previous to 5000 
B.C., nowhere more completely than in Schrader's useful work "Prehistoric Antiquities." When I say that 
the elaboration of a whole system of grammatical forms imist have taken more time than its later differentiation, 
what I mean is that many of the features which distinguish Sanskrit from Greek, and Greek from Latin, need 
not be considered at all as new creations, but should rather be looked upon as remnants of a great mass of 
dialectic variety which existed in the common Aryan speech, and were retained, some by Sanskrit, others by 
Greek. What applied to the Aryan sjieakers applies even with gi'eater force to the Semitic, because the earliest 
monuments of Semitic speech, diflerentiated as Babylonian, Phceuician, Hebrew, and Arabic, go back, as we 
are told, far beyond the earliest documents of Sanskrit or Greek." 

I have already alluded to the opinions of other writers as to the vexed question of the "Cradle " or 
origin of the Aryans, and rather agree with those who would place it in Europe, say, to the "West of the 
quasi Eurasian and Caspian Sea boundary, and to the Noi'th of the Caucasus, looking to the Iranian and 
Sanskritic branches as somewhat later offshoots to the S.W. by Armenia or the Southern shoi-e of 
the Caspian Sea. In that district and in South European Russia may be fomid many varieties of climate 

• I understand Dr. Daniel Whitney, the well-known American Philologist, as well as others, hy no means agree with 
Professor Max Miiller on some important points, and especially as regards the " Cradle of the Aryans " ; and "root." 



xllv IXTRODUCTIOX. 

and a varied fauna, and plenty of sea, to account, may be, for certain- widespread special Aryan tree or 
marine words. Had the Cradle of the Aryans been in Asia, surely there would be found 'in Aryan 
languages more Turanian words ? 

I "also append a notice of Prof. Rhys Davids (from the "Academy" of 29th Xov. 1890) paper read 
before the " Historical Society," Xov. "20th, on the "Aryan Kelations to Egyptians and Chaldeans," 
and their reference to " Archaic " or Prehistoric Philology : — 

" Professor Davids pointed out, first, the various classes of evidence— ancient portraits and mummies, 
probably still more ancient traditions, and contemporary ethnograiihic observations — proving that the ruling 
classes of the Egy|:)tiaus and Chaldeans were a ifhite race Ijelouging to the great stock of non-Semitic and 
non-Aryan white races now found distributed all over the world. From the recognition of this fact it would 
follow that the problem of the origin of the white species should be connected with Archaian rather than with 
either Semitic or Aiyan origins, which should be treated simply as problems of the origin of Semitic and Aryan 
languages among certain white triljes. And it was then shown that the Egyptians and Chaldeans had each 
three traditions of racial origin, and that one of these, in each case, pointed to the north, and was at the same 
time, perfectly in harmony mth the two other traditions of later localities of origin. The question then arose 
whether there was any tradition through which we might make some approximation to the locality of the 
original centre of dispersion and to the date of the first emigration of white races from the north. And it was 
suggested that such an approximation might possibly be made through the Chaldean Deluge tradition, if 
compared with certain geological facts. These facts were, first, the former existence of a great Central Asian 
MediteiTanean separating Asia from Europe ; and, secondly, the geological facts rendering it probable that the 
Bosphorus and Dardanelles were primarily formed by volcanic convulsion, rather than by gradual erosion 
alone. If so, the sudden bursting through of the Central Asian Mediterranean would certainly have given 
rise to a deluge in the Aegean lands and adjacent countries. And if this was' the deluge of which the 
Chaldeans had preserved a tradition, then they mu.st have migrated from the north while the Central Asian 
MediteiTanean still existed, and have come from Northern Asia, not from Northern Europe. Returning, then, 
to the problem of Aryan origins, and treating it as subsidiary to the problem of Archaian organs, and hence, 
as the problem of the origin of a language rather than of a race, it was pointed out that it was certainly a mere 
scientific procedure to start from where we have our first historical knowledge of Aryans, and trace them 
upward to their camp of origin, rather than, as is usually done, start from some purely hypothetical centre of 
origin, and trace them downward to where history first knows of them. Hence, as it is in Thrace about 
1500 B.C. that we first certainly know of men with Aryan features and Aiyan speech, it was shown that they 
would then have come in contact with a mainly Oriental or 'Pelasgic' civilisation; that, in the region 
northeastwards, between the Caipathians and the Dniester, conditions existed which would both have 
compelled and invited nomad shepherds to become partially agriculturists ; and that, in the steppes beyond 
the Dniester eastwards, a favourable enviromnent existed for the previous social condition indicated by 
comparative philology. And it was further pointed out that, in the region between the Carjjathians and the 
Ural, such conditions probably existed, in the way of tribal intercourse and otherwi.se, as w'ould natiu'ally have 
given rise to a new linguistic development." 

I have, in the appendices of this work, given various tables and lists for comparison, showing how 
many Aryan, and notably even English and Teutonic words and roots, often remarkably agree with 
Egyptian,* Chinese, and Turanian ones, more so, perhaps than even Sanskrit ones ; tending rather to 
show that the Teutonic languages, and possibly the Scandinavian, as well as the Greek, are either 
older fundamentally than Sanskrit, or at least contain not a little of the Archaic or Prehistoric 
residuum, along with Egyjitian and Chinese ; though to what extent this may bear on the question of 
an "Archaic Aryan" language being more in touch, so to say, with the PaliEolithio than a Neolithic 
Finnic or Ugro-Neolithicenc, I do not venture to decide. The whole question is still an imsettled 
as well as an interesting one, and hardly yet touched upon by Philologists, viz., as to the origin of the 
so-called Turanian element, in the Aryan, Semitic, and Iberian languages ; and whether the so-called 
Turanian itself is nearer or not to the "-Archaic" than may be the Aryan or American languagcs.f 

"Without settling these questions, it is yet in this direction that I have endeavoured to work; and 
to show generally that in nearly all ancient and modern languages, there exists a residuum, as it were, 
of the Archaic, and of the si]n]ilcr and more natural forms and outpourings of human speech; speech or 
utterance, fii'st, then lanf/uar/e, and finally grammar ; agglutination and reduplication beh)re inficxion^ 
inflexion taking the place of gesture and accentuation. (Sec Ante.) 



That the Australian and Polynesian (especially the !^^aori) tongues have with South-East Africa 
considerable connection is now generally admitted ; and that both the Polynesian and Australian, as 
well as Pa])uan, have likewise analogies with the American, would appear to be equally probable. 
(Sec Appendix Xl\'.) 

• Consult nlso Prof. Carl Abel, of Berlin, on the connexion between the Indo-European and ancient Egyptian languages. 

+ I have already refciTcd to Wiillaee,who seems to look ii])i>n the JIonf;nlian as nearest the earlier fiirmdt man. I have 
(fiven elsewhere a short list of Fimiii^ and Lap Hiirds eorresiiondiiif; with similar ca- like ones toiiiid in tlie ,\mi ricaa languages, 
there are a fair number of agiecments, Ijut not prohably mure than is tlie case with other purer types of .\siatic Northern 
Turanian. I um far mon^ inclined to connect the J.ap and Knin with the Siberian and Altaic languages than with the 
Scandinavian or Aryan ; the numerous agreements are probably borrowed. 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

Mr. Gcrulil irassoj-, in his "Book of the Bep;inninKs," has apparently produced a hiborious ami 
origiual worl<,* hut far too fanciful, and ingenious in its details, and whieli would require thorough 
experts in Philology to sift the grain from the chaff. 

In a general way, although not directly concerned with America, and as considerable attention i.s 
now being directed to African languages, I may be .iiermitted to make a few remarks on this book. 
Vol. I. chierty concerns with Egyptian ^' orii/iiif.i" in Great Britain and Ireland; Vol. II. with 
Egyptian " orif/int's" in Hebrew; Accado- Assyrian; and Maori; and lastly with roots in Modern 
iVfrican, outside the (Ancient) Egy])tian itself. 

In the various extensive comparative lists of words given, there are doubtless many remarkable 
coincident analogies, some accidental, and not a few real in all pi'obability-, and well worthy of future 
further examination, though the Accadian and Egyjitian words require considerable revision. A 
certain number of these coincidt^nccs may arise from some more or less remote direct intercommunica- 
tion; but some, probably not a few, from more or less world-wide, so to .speak, primitive roots or 
simple sounds. Short, slang, and provincial words usually, prescnit a greater number of wide-spread 
analogic's than later or more classical, with primitive roots and language. 

The general idea of Mr. Massey is that Egypt is, or was, the centre of the earliest civilization, and 
is essentially African. That the dolichocephalic African negro represents the earliest type of man, 
even of the pala!olithic period, and that Africa consequently is the Cradle of the human race. " Every 
road leads back to Egypt, and we may safely infer that every road proceeded from Egypt." f 

Mr. Massey evidently docs not agree with those who say that "sound etymology has little or 
nothing to do with sound." "Philologists," says one Sanskrit writer, " who bring in Chinese, New 
Zealand, and Fiiuiic ?inalogies to explain Indo-European words are thoroughly unsound." This 
Mr. Massey does not agree •with; nor with any hard and fast Grimm's law. [I have attempted, 
I hope successfully, in my Comparative Vocabularies and Appendices, to show that there are not 
a few words as well as roots common to both Old and New Worlds. When we know more of 
fundamental sounds and primary roots and of their origin and growth, and of their wide-spread 
prevalence ; that they frequently had several distinct original meanings, sometimes only, however, either 
cognate or synonymous ones, and know more as to the interchangeable value of letters (outside the 
Indo-European family of languages) more reliance may be placed on the study and application of 
simple roots, and less on graninmr and inflexion and construction.] 

Mr. Massey notices Lubbock's remark that the number of reduplications, in forming the plural, or 
for extending or emphasizing tlie sense, increases generally with the degree of remoteness or primitive- 
ness ; varying from about four per thousand for the Indo-European, to about 200 in some of the 
Polynesian languages. 

In my Appendices, XIV. and XVI., I give a number of comparisons with the similar class of 
Modem African, Papuan, Polynesian, and American ; the analogies are so frecpient that one can only 
best account for them by the universality of certain sounds, having had analogous or at least 
synonymous meanings, arising in part from the original unity of the Human race, and that all mankind 
have common organs of speech, habit, and feeling. (See p. Ix.) 

Examples are not uncommon of even similar words with nearly similar meanings, as between 
Egyptian, Accadian, Chinese, and American, with modern or provincial English, as well as with German. 
(See Appendices, and pp. 52, 117, 121.) 

I gather from some correspondence with ilr. Massey with reference to the sound of two words in 
different languages being the result of mere accident that he thinks there is much less of chance in it, 
that many Philologists are inclined to admit. That root formation after the creation of Egyptian 
hieroglyphs and of Chinese ideographic letters, had already ceased.;]: He limits his primary roots to 
ttvo consonants expressed by a gesture or picto-graph ; also that the "type" may help to identify the 
word" (? as in Chinese). He looks on the consonants MM, NN, IIR, TT, PP, as ancient ideographic 
fomis [Kolbe gives K, T, P, and M as the earliest Afiican Bantu primary consonants]. That Pap is 
earlier than Pa, since the duplicated P was necessary to form a word. 

The verbal matter of speech, from a long continued study of Comparative Philology, is one in 
origin ; that some simple sounds or words may have lasted without material change for many thousands 
of years ; and one word originally had to do duty for more or less distinct, or at least synonymous, 
ideas. § That the vowel is inherent in the syllable ; that PA preceded the phonetic P and A ; and 

* This work contains "an attempt to recover and reconstitnte tlie lost origins of the myths and mysteries, types and 
symbols, reliaion and language, with Egypt for the mouth-piece, and Africa as the birth-place." Two vols. Williams and 
Norgate, 1881. 

t Mr. Massey adds, p. .599, vol. ii., that he has applied the same comparative process with the language and mythology 
of India, China, Europe, and America, with those of Egypt, and finds that all lead up to or are connected with the latter. 
Prof. Owen considered the Ancient Egyptian skull very different from the Australian modern one. 

J The Pictorial hieroglyphs of the Central American Maya language is now found to have phonetic values. 

§ As kha, for 'mouth, cave, womb, hole, etc. ; or ak or kak, for dark, night, bad, ngly, ache, sick, etc. 

G 



xlvi INTRODUCTION'. 

Pa -was only au earlier form of p-p. The Egyptian nek^unlch=.\, or the first Personal Prononn, is 
■world-wide," and equivalent to man, male, and p/uinus. [See p. 123, and Appendices LI. Lla. LIJ.] 

Mr. Massey had also studied the North American Indian gesture signs, and thinks their attempts 
at hierogiyphy" simUar to the Egyptian, both being equally and originally representative. Captain 
Burton considered the Egyptian and Central African skulls showed considerable resemblance to those 
of the American Indian ; and tliat many different types of colour may be found on the African continent. 



Ignatius Donnelly, in a little book entitled " Atlantis," gives or rather has perhaps collected from 
very miscellaneous sources, a good deal that is interesting in connection with what might appear to be 
common to the Old and New Worlds, as regards Arclia^ology, Zoology, Physiology, and Ethnographical 
peculiarities ; Geology, Eeligion, Customs, and Myths, arc also included, as well as some reference to 
language ; but which do not require to be here si)ecially alluded to. The main object of Mr. Donnelly's 
work is to show that the g^eat connecting link between America and the Old World was the lost 
and mythical Island of Atlantis, which, according to him, must have been a very considerable island ! 

EGYPTIAN. 

Mr. Tilliers Stuart in his work "The Funeral Tent of an Egy|5tian Queen," 1882, has an 
interesting chapter on Philology (p. HI, ef seq.). He considers ^Jy«,sm/« (see also Stanley's Darkest 
Africa, 1890),* as the first African home of the Ancient Egyptians before entering the Valley of the 
jVile, and gives various reasons in favour of that theoiy from the more physical and archaiological 
point of view. Prior to that the .4ncient Egyptians were probably of the Indo-Germanic race, and 
that they had migrated via the Straits of Pab-el-JIandob. Their language, features, and pottery, as 
well as mythological traditions, all betoken this ; and there had also been a considerable and early 
migration from the Nile Yalley and Delta to the Mechterranean, and to Southern Europe itself, since, 
as regards language, the monosyllabic roots are found in Egyptian, and the polysyllabic development in 
Europe. The affinities, especially with the German language (and so possibly with Old English simple 
words, see Tables and Gerald Massey), are numerous and curious. Take the radical Men. It signifies 
stability, pennanence, etc. ; it is the root of the Greek ^levetv ; Latin manere (to remaiu) ; from which 
also the Greek td'tjfn/ (memory) ; the Egyjjtian Menou=monuments ; also the Latin mens ; the Greek 
^icveOo'i (strength), and men in Celtic. Men is also used for mansion (or house) ; Greek fiovi], etc. 

The Egyiitian word siest is used for a country ; German Menschen, people ; (English man, men ?) 
TJgro- Altaic, man, mii, mah, land, earth. Egyjitian is one ; same as in German, man ; man sagt. 
For other examples taken from Mr. Villiers Stuart, see Table (pp. 121 and 298) for common Aryan 
and Egyptian roots or words. The instances given by Mr. Stuart are sufiicient to show these 
affinities are real and not accidental, or mere later degraded compoimd words ; and are often parallelisms 
that run through several languages. Not a few of these roots appear in N.E. Asia and in America. 
Mr. Stuart considers the Sanskrit element, perhaps 3000 years before the time of the Egyptian Menes, 
is much more recent than the Egyptian element, and not so marked ; and only from being a more 
perfect vehicle of tliought has nearly quite supplanted the Eg}']^)tiau element in South Europe, f 

Egyptian colonization or emigration in Smith Europe may liave commenced before the advent, even 
of Menes, in the Xorthem Nile Valley. The darker races would, in a more northern climate, have 
gradually got lighter. The Abyssiuians of the highlands are nearly as fair as Europeans ; whilst the 
lowlands have much darker inhabitants of the same race or origin. Thus was a fair race manufactured 
in the Caucasus, to become the type of the fair races of Europe. The Jews of Northern Europe are less 
swai'thy than those of North African ; and the Indo-Gcrmanic race in Imlia are dark. Even in ancient 
Egy])t Mr. Stuart says there was a small proportion of fairer people. Stanley in " Darkest Africa," 
also speaks of the Abyssinians as of Caucasian origin. 

Messrs. Perrot and Chipicz in their work on "Art in .Vncient Egyjit," translati^l from the 
French by W. Armstrong, 1883, state that "it is now generally allowed that the Egyi)tian race was' 
etlmographically connected with the wliitc races of Europe and Western Asia ; the anatomical 
examination of the bodies recovered fi'om ancient tombs, etc., point to this conclusion." " Increased 
knowledge of the ancient Egyptian language enable us to go further than Champollion could, and to 
show by many of its roots, by its system of pronouns, by its nouns of number, and by some of the 
arrangements of its conjugation it seems to have been attached to the Semitic family of languages. 
Some of tliese idioms of the Semitic tongues arc found in Egyptian in a rudimentary state. From 
tliis it lias been concluded that Egyptian and its cognate lariguagcs, after having belonged to that 

* Stanley considers from Abyssinia, nnioh of the modified nen;ro clement in tlic Sonth-E.ist of .\frica and of the Nilo- 
I.alje Basin has been derived. 1 liave refi'rred more in detail to this in amitlicr portion of this Introduction. From this 
common source may possibly bo derived wliat may be common to botli Modern African and .\ncient Hf^yptian language. 

t May not the Soiithern Celts have thus picked up a number of I'lgyjitian words and carried them into England long 
before the time of the Romans ? I'rofessor Carl Abel, of Berlin, the learned Egyptian scliolar, favours the direct connection 
between Egyptian and the Indo-European languages. (See elsewhere, and Appendix LI A. Man.) 



INTRODUCTION. xlvii 

group, scpar.'itrd from it at a very early period, whilst their grammatieal structure was still in course of 
formation. Tims disunited and -subject to div(n'se influences, the two families made a different use of 
tlie elements wliieli they possessed in common." " The Egyptians are, therefore, said to belong to the 
proto-Semitic races." -M. M. Lepsius, lieiiiey, Bunsen, and Maspero have sustained this o])inion ; 
others, as M. Rcnan, prefer to rank the Copts and Libyans and Berbers in a family whicli he would call 
Chamitic* 

The question Messrs. Perrot and Chiiiiez consider cannot be entirely, however, decided by 
language only. "The people, whose physical characters we have desci-ibcd (vol. i. p. 9), and whose 
idiom we have defined, came froTU Asia, jirobably by the Isthmus of [Suez. Perhaps they found 
established on the banks of the NiU^ another race, ])robably black, and indigenous to the African 
Continent, and which race they gradually fcn'ced back in a Southerly direction." In their chapter on 
"Sepulchral Architecture" it further states that, "there arc some striking points of resemblance 
between the religion of China and tliat of ancient Egypt; in both one and the other the same want of 
power to develop may be found. Taking them as a whole, both the Chinese and tlie Egyptians failed to 
emerge from the conditions of ftiticism." 

In my own opinion the physical peculiarities of the ancient Egyptians, would lead one to suppose 
that its more ancient intrusive characters contained a not inoonsideral)le Tartar element, and conseijuently 
a Turanian one, and undoubtedly there arc in it both Aryan as well as Tiu-aniau linguistic affinities after 
eliminating the later Semitic admixture. (See elsewhere.) 

Should it be more clearly shown that the ancient Egyptian language contained a certain proportion 
of Aryan or of proto-Aryan elements, that may have arisen from residence in S. W. Asia, where it came 
into contact either with a S.E. Aryan race, south of the Caucasus, or yet earlier, of the gi'cat Eurasian 
sea referred to by Professor Huxley and the geologists. This, again, raises the question as to bow 
nearly the so-called proto-Aryan speech of S.E. Europe, or of S.W. Asia, resembled the earliest form 
of Semitic speech, and either or both to an Archaic Turanian original one. 

There is still much to be done to settle as to what may remain in common as between Jlodcrn 
Afi'ica and the ancient Egyptians. In my vocabularies I have given many possible useful African 
words, which may be of some use to future linguistic investigation in this direction. 

Professor Carl Abel, the Egy]3tian scholar of Berlin, has recently completed his work (^gyptisch 
und ludo-Germanic, 1889), on the supposed connexion between the ancient Egyptian and the Indo- 
Germanic Family of languages. This work I have not been able to study ; I had prepared a special 
translation of one or two of his shorter Treatises, published 1889-91, at Leipzic, relating to his own 
larger work, but it is too long for the present general Introduction. His analysis of the Egyptian 
root 5'c/'=circlo ('? Enclosure) is especially full and interesting as well as important in its connexion 
with the Indo-Gcrmanic. Under the sound gar, Icar, etc. (Jc and r often changeable into h, I, etc.), 
I have partially considered (pp. 1, 19-22, etc.), this root-sound; not as applying merely to the 
Indo-Germanic families of Languages, but to most of the principal families of Languages, and 
presume it may distinctly be considered a very Archaic root, with cjuite a number of allied or 
cognate meanings. 

In the meantime I append a short epi/oiiic of Professor Abel's last paper at the late 1891 Congress 
of Orientalists held in London : — 

Professor Abel introduced the morning's proceedings by referring to the results of the work done in various 
branches of Oriental research. " Speaking of the new classifioation of Russian verbs proposed by Mr. Michell, 
for many years secretary to the Briti.sh Embassy at St. Petersburg, he expressed the hope that this suggestion 
would receive all the attention wliich it deserved. The scheme %vent beyond the ordinary explanation of 
Russian verbal divisions, and was intended to prove that terminal vowels signified more than the mere 
determination of tense and mood. There was ample evidence adduced in support of the new theory, in the 
shape of classified lists which Mr. Micliell intended shortly to submit to the examination of the learned world. 
The publication would take the form of a Russian grammar, embodying Mr. Miohell's lahom- during his long 
residence in the Russian capital. With regard to the Egypto-Indo-Europoan affinities, so palpably visible in 
the languages of the two races, these affinities had lately been also obsei'ved in religious rites and symbols. 
These symbols, which apparently went back to the most ancient period of the existing religion, were neither 
generally-known liy Hindoos nor very willingly commimicatcd by the peculiarly sacred Brahmin castes, in 
which the knowledge of them was vested. Mr. Hugh Nevill, of Ceylon, was one of the few Eiu'opeans 
acquainted with tlie secret lore of the priestly caste, and he would make a communication on the subject. 
The Indo-Germanic and Egyptian languages not only contained the same roots, but in many instances the 
same derivatives. In Egyptian the co-existence of the various forms attributable to these roots in primitive 
speech explained the etymology of each form ; whereas in the Indo-European family, each language, as a I'ule, 
containing only one of the several forms of the root, in the absence of the other cognate forms could not be 

* In ISSO, Professor Sayce, in a note to me in reference to the Egyptians, said : "Judging from photographs, I should 
say that the physical type of the Egyptians of the Old Empire was essentially different from that of the Egj-ptians of iater 
days, as also from that of the Semites. Tlie current opinion now seems to be: 1st, That the Egyptians of the Old Empire 
belonged to the Libyan race ; 2nd, That the upper classes of the Middle Empire had Nubian blond in their veins ; .3rd, The 
Sphinx of Gizeh is older than the times of Menes." I do not know whether it has been ever noticed by Egyptologists that 
one of the Libyan words for water is esuf or arif, which reminds one of the celebrated Bahr Yoosef Canal. 



xlviii INTEODUCTIOX. 

etymologized by means of its own preserved material alone. Egyptian, supplying this want both for itself and 
ludo-Eiu'opean, aft'orded the means of explaining the origin of many of our words, i.e., of the prehistoric 
creation and growth of reason in the cultivated races of the world. Hence Egyi^tian etymology some day 
would do for the hi.story of the verbal and intellectual creations of our brain what the Darwinian discoveries 
did for the gradual evohition of the corporal world. Professor Abel concluded by recommending the formation 
of professorships for the joint comparative study of Egyptian and Indo-Germauic etymology as one of the great 
philological and scientific wants of the time." 

Professor Abel tells me that the consonantal changes in Egyptian and Indo-European are numerous, 
and many of them almost certainly are identical, dating from before their separation. 

The views of Professor Abel may be gathered from a short analysis of his " Ilchester Lectures 
on Comparative Lexicogi'aphy," deli^'ered at the Taylor Institution, at Oxford. (Triibner & Co., 1883.) 
Professor Abel considers that a too purely gi-ammatical study is apt to make us lose sight of ideas by 
inflexion, and the same concepts as conveyed by independent root words. The Slave nations are much 
mixed and diversified ; the Serbs and Croats perhaps the purest. They, the Slaves, are ilivided into 
two main branches. Great or FLnno-Eiissian and Little Russia or Slavo-Russian. These two branches 
were formerly probably of one stem, but the former rather a descendant of the latter as well as of 
Southern Slavonia. They often present curious nuances of moaning for the same word. A change of 
meaning often accompanies the preservation of the same outward form, especially in Russia proper. 
The roots arc much added to prefixed prepositions, as well as to many terminations, so that many 
new compounds are formed, each causing, more or less, difference of meaning. The Slavo-Eussian 
and the Einno-Russian do not, however, often agree in their selection of affixes and prefixes, and 
many Slavo-Russian roots arc not found in Finno-Russian, and vice versa. 

I.— IXYERSIOX OE MEAXING. 

BJaffi=hMl or evil, is a good example of primeval linguistic inversion of meaning. It is of 
very common occurence in ancient Egyptian and probably belongs to a practice of primitive humanity, 
and was assisted by gesture (p. 76). It must have arisen from a natural wish for contrast,* and may 
be considered as a condition of aboriginal speech. Gesture was likewise a most important thing in 
savage or primordial s])eech, words were comparatively few, and often (as others also have observed), 
had not only several ditferent meanings, but not unfreiiuently actually opposite meanings. The ancient 
Egy])tian shows this best ; next to it perhaps the more modern Slavonic languages, and, accoriling to 
Professor Bang, who, on similar lines as Professor Abel with the Indo-Europeans, has most thoroughly 
worked out these Tartar roots, following most closely the Egyptian ker ; kel ; Z,'«?i=round, to turn, 
crooked, etc. (see his " TJral-Altaische forshungen "), lias come to the same conclusion, vi%. : that the 
Asiatic Turanian languages likewise offer the same phenomena as to inversion of moaning 
[see also pp. 19-21 of this work, Part I.). Professor Abel even sees in English a similar thing, in such 
words as get, go, lid, have, which still show a considerable variety of meanings. 

Egyptian, possibly of an ancient Caucasian origin (?) is like the Aryan, a gender language, and there 
are also many identical, radical, and affirmative elements in the Egyptian and Aryan ; and primitive 
laws of speech in one may be supposed to interpret peculiarities, even in grammar, in the constitution of 
the other ; plain enough to be seen in Egyptian, but much lost in the higher and later stage of Aryan 
linguistic development. 

In Russian, har rai^master V slave ; this may be found in other Indo-European languages (also 
in Coptic). [In Semitic, rah=.greai.^ In hieroglyphic grammar Egyptian roots may be enlarged by the 
vepetition of the initial consonant at the end. 

n.— INVERSION OE SOLXD. 

In Egyptian Jeer ({'fr):=to turn round may become her-k; and ker-rclc, and subsequently even rek-=i 
to rotate — fes^to wash^/ts, and tlum fes-ef^to moisten, puiify — hcnz=.to bind, gives nel:=zto separate 
(tie ?). The added second syllable is found by the last letter of the first + th(.' first letter of the first is 
therefore the inversion of the first (p. 82) ; hence, as regards meaning, the ])honetic inversion is as often 
identical with the root, as it is also opposed to it. Ijikewise in other Arj'an languages; e.g. in English, 
tip or pit ; stem {tree) A mast; tap A pat; grip A prig ; boat A tub. Low-German, schag A loch '^ 
Scotch, lug (ear) A Latin loq-ui. Gei-raan, lief f\ lieb (Greek 0(\-os-). 

I. Examples of Slave inversion of sense, tem-e=to\) of a hill or tree V tem-er=^Aee]}. .£'«i=plenty, 
V c7(yi^dearth. -x^udi^a pauper, V • x'"^"^*— ^^''''•Itli. II. Examples of inversion of sound, ves A sef 
:=all. Cap-as A pol-a=^lcai, palka^ia cudgel, A Iclep-ati=-to beat. Kazatg, A sak-yii=zio speak. 
Kol-o, A /MA":=circle, arc. tern A »)o/=dark. 

♦ >fr. Hyde Clarke also has drawn attention, I believe, to the not unfroquent occurrence in savage languages, to the 
jmtapositiou of word^ of negutious and their ojiposite, being of common occurrcuee. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlix 



[As regards the Anglo-Teutonic languages, it appears to me tliat Professor Abel carries las theory 
of primeval inversion of sound rather too far. It would alriiost seem to bo rather a matter of spelling. 
There would scarcely ajjpear to bo much natural connexion between, say rek and ker ; or between ak 
and ka ? or hen and neh. It might be strictly true as r(!gards the Egyptian language in its earlier 
hieroglyiiliio stage, but hardly traceable in so advanced a language as Greek or Latin or English ; in 
some cases possibly the pbcnomeuon might be explained by ordinary interchange of the radical letters. 
Professor Abel, howcvei-, strongly argues and examples his case, and to some extent there ajjpcars to be 
some real truth in it.*j 



III.— INVEllSION OF SOUND AND SENSE. 

Examples, Russian; •wrfl'f-H(y=dark ^ (rr««-«///=ligbt ; shiniug. Litlniauian ; 

tamsi^dark ^ iiiai-ifi=zto 



p/ik-as=:n'akc(\. 



^ Servian, po-klop-ifi^to cover up. Lith. ; tamsi = dark ^ mai-ifi=zto see. [Polynesian, mata=:.cju ; 
sun ; surely root ma is a widespread word for eye and see ; (juite independently of any inversion, say, a 
possible fain; and I know of no case of fa for eye.] Lith. : rek-fi=to clamour J kiiro=zdva'i; [here kii is 
a Turanian word^ear, and hardly could have anything to do with uk, unless /i.-=r ; but ka, kak, ak, rak 
are all archaic for call, cry.] These examples are only a few of those Professor Abel includes as 
instances of "Phonetic clumge." (See p. 122, Part II.) At page 119, etc., he appends an interesting 
list of nearly 200 words in Egyptian, showing the phenomena of " Inversion of Sound," some 50 more 
of presumed instances of " Inversion of Sense." 

Examples of Inversion of Hound (Ilchester Lectures on Comparative Lexicography, p. 119), the first 
14 examples out of 200 cases as given by Professor C. Abel : — 

ab A ba ^ stone, wall. 



ab 


A ba =; stone. 


abab 


A babe = to vanish. 


am 


A ma ^ equally. 


am 


A ma ^ place. 


am 


A ma = come. 


at 


A tan = to give. 



an 


A 


na =: catalogue. 


an 


A 


na = similarly. 


fin 


A 


nua = colour. 


ar 


A 


ra ^ to make. 


as 


A 


sa := beautiful. 


as 


A 


sa = miserable. 


at 


A 


tu = to give. 



of 



bah 



tiense. 

sam = darkness V sem = to become visible. 
^ to throw away V set ^ to recover. . 
^ to jump V = to rest quiet. 
== weak V strong. 



sat 
aft 
ken 



Of Inversion 
. full or empty, 
mex = empty ; meh ^ full, 
tem ^ to sunder V tern := to join, 
uash ^ small V nesh-t = big. 
xer-s := to divide, xei'-sh =: to join. 

From my own vocabularies I might instance a very few examples, easily, however, extended, of 
similar words, having (juite different meanings. f 

Africa. — Kako (keka, koka, kaka)=bad ; pot ; hand ; leg ; slave. 

,, god; crooked. kaki=stoue. keku^axe. koke=little. koko^fowl ; chicken. baka=great. 

Various. — Hu ; hue; hua=son; house; great; tree; fire; water. 
America. — Kaka^bad. caki^leg. kakka^sun. 

;, Haca:=firc ; demon. taka=;feather. 
Africa. — No. l=asso. No. 2:=edsi; so. Nos. .5 and 7^isa. No. 7=edsa. No. 9^isa. 
Various. — Oca, (oke, oka, aka, oko)=bird; fly; high; great; water; mountain; tree; leg; house; boat. 

,, Afi=firc in Egyptian ; afi:=water in Polynesian. 

,, Ta=water; fire. mu=fire; water. (Seep. 122.) 
As an instance of what Professor Abel calls " accretion of sound " he instances in the Egyptian ken, 
kcn-n, k-ken, ken-k ; and of '■'■counter-sound, ken^neh. 

Professor Abel considers the Chinese also offers many examples of " Conversity of Thought," e.g. 
Z««^both order and disorder. Dr. Brintou is quoted as an authority that the Tinne N. W. A. language 
often presents instances of a sound-meaning, for both a notion and its opposite ; also in the Cree language 
accorcliug to Howse ; and in the Ancient llexican. Dr. Brintou, like Professor Abel, appears to think 
this peculiarity is a characteristic alike of human thought aud of primitive speech. The American 
Indian consonants alternate, the vowels are permutable, and strict rules for the transmutation of letters 
can hardly be given. The Araucanian of Chili shows «, tv, b, gh, J] g, h, as permutable. Professor 
Abel considers the Indo-Eurcjpean dialect is accustomed to give only one sound and sense-variant to 

* I have mysflt little di)iibt but tliat this so-called inversion often arose from a dropped vowel ; as with mtr, [ama) =iiiii, 
all words for mother; pa {njM) = ap; as well possibly from some shortening of reduplicative sounds, as in ka, {k-aka, 
kttk)=ak. 

t Naturally in a more primitive stage of langnage a few simple sounds would frequently have to do service for quite a 
number of ideas. 



I INTRODUCTION. 

form each incliTiclual word, the old souncl-interchangcability of the root in the relationship of different 
allied -n-ords is, however, often shown by a comparison of sister ihalccts, differs from the Egyirtian 
only through an uidividualisation of single words in a more advanced stage. I have no space to 
give many of his arguments or examples. The EgjiJtian qer and Icol-i/ circle may he traced in many 
Indo-European languages, as in corona ; ^■o/o=circles (hole ; hall, etc.) ; ^•(?;'-(7.n=iiug. [Also see my 
own Ajipendices and Vocabularies, pp. 20-22.] 

Professor Gustavo Meyer does not agree with Professor Abel, nor does the latter actually claim that 
Egyptian is the primitive language, or that the later Egyptian forms are aU descendants of older ones, 
but frequently may be independent derivatives from a common root, while the more recent Indo- 
Eiu'opean foi-ms, so far as they recall the old variability of the Indo-European Egyptian period, are as 
far as Egyjitian comparison is "concerned, equivalent to the older Indo-European. The word " to strike, 
heat," oecm-s in Egyptian, as peq, pek, peg, pcx, pee, i)es ; pet, beh, hex, hes, etc. (See p. 122, Part II.*) 



PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY. 

If, as seems almost impossible to doubt, there exists a strong Turanian element not only in K.W. 
America, but more or less generally all over the American continent, tiiough less so in South America, 
that element may have been introduced in two ways, as I have already intimated, viz. either by the 
original immigration of .the North Eastern Asiatic man in early pleistocene or pre-glacial times, by 
BehiTQg Straits and the Aleutian Islands, and when possibly the existing so-called 1000 fathom line 
was mostlv, though not entirely, dry land ; or from time to time at a much later period, comparatively 
in driblets, to the N.W. Paciiic Coast, importing, it may be, a certain number of Turanian words, 
though not greatly affecting the pre-existing Red Indian race and language in America, as pro-existent 
fromPleistocene or even possibly from the later Tertiary periods. 

I am inclined to think, ^-iewing the question both of race and language, that both these causes 
have operated. 

That man existed in glacial or even in pro-glacial times in America is evident fi'om the occurrence 
of paleolithic stone implements, as at Trenton in New Jersey along the banks of the Delaware as 
discovered by Dr. C. Abbott ; they differ a Little in type hut not materially so from those found in 
Europe and Asia. Dr. Abbott says still more recent discoveries near the Delaware Bay, show a class 
of stone implements made of argillite, which distinctly come between the paloeolithic New Jersey 
implements and those'of the more modem Red Indian ones, thus proving better than in Europe or Asia 
even, a coutinmty from the earliest times. — ("Popular Science Review," Dec. 1889.) 



CEANIOLOGY AND RACE. 



With reference to the somewhat rUfficult and important question closely appertaining to the races 
of mankind, viz. that of the shape and size of the skull, it would appear that though the tendency of 
American skull is towards the brachi/cephalic, which corresponds witli the Mangoloid, there is a very 
considerable variety and intermixture of brachyce])lialic and dolichocephalic types ; but it is universally 
admitted that the Eskimo are a distinct race, and that they have undoubted dolichocephalic skulls. 

Professor Rusk says that the Ohio mound skulls, as well as most of the Red Indians, Chinooks, 
Flatheads, and Pel1l^ians are brachyceijhalic ; hut that some of the central American lutUans have 
skuUs more or less dolichocephalic. 

Retzius states that American skulls of the doliohoce])halio or long-headed type resemble those of 
the Guanches, Libyan, Azores, and floors, i.e., of the N.W. Coast of Africa and the Mediterranean. f 

Dr. Daniel Wilson also states that the Caribs are dolichocephalic, and do not, as some have thought, 
belong to Florida and Southem North America ; resembling even the Polynesians and some South 
iVmerican tribes; they also employ, like the Polynesians, two forms of speech applicable to male and' 
female, different from Central America ; and generally hints at a transatlantic influence in South and 
Central America. 

Rertholet says the Libyans and Berbers are the Iberians in Africa, and connected also with the 
old families of the C'anaiy Isles. It would not be unreasonable, I think, for occasional migi-ation 
to have occurred from North-East Africa into South America, via the Canary Isles and Azores, a 

* In a recent letter to me Professor Abel savs : " All fertile Eg:yptian roots seem to recur in both forms in the Indo- 
Germanic family as well, though in this family tlie original and the inverted form do not always appear in the same language. 
Tk is J.atin for to see, but Kp is Greek. Wo are, therefore, obliged to consider inrcraion us a generic pheuomena ; but to 
assume that J'k has merely become Kp by ^ being replaced by k, and k being replaced by^, would bo dillioult to prove. The 
mere fact of there being one root I'k and anotlier Kp does not prove their connexion." 

t The linguistic analogies between certain parts of Central and Western America and tlio Lilivan and Celto-Iberian 
have been noticed by Prof. Campbell and Mr. Uyde Clarke, and embodied in some of my Comparative Tables iu the body 
of this work. 



INTRODUCTION. li 

distance of only some 1200 miles, and with trade winds to assist. Some of the Banama Indians, as the 
Lucayan, have skulls eijual in capacitj' to the daucasian and brachyceiilialic ; they are not Ijlack, but 
like tlie Canary Islanders in complexion, with straight and well-t'onneil liiiiljs ; and use jioLished stone 
impkanents. 

Dr. Wilson states that in Peru, two distinct classes of ancient skulls occur, one round and one 
long ; the hair long, coarse and black, and witli complexion dark -brown, very ditferent from the usual 
Kortli American Indian; the one with rounder skulls would appear to have bi'longed to the noble 
oi: predominant and ruling class ; the other, who also had larger bones, to the serf or conciuered class ; 
much like what also has been noticed in Egypt. 

Pruner Bey says that the old Egyptians had Jlongolian characteristics, and rather prominent 
cheek bones. 

Dr. WUson (page 109, Prehistoric Man) says: "The tendency of American writers has been 
towai'ds the unity and isolation of the American races. Later investigations tend to show that though 
the American typo of skull may tend to brachyce])halic, theii^ are nearly as many exc'eptions, in s])ite 
of Dr. Morton, to the contrary, as in the Old World ; and that so far from any simple subdivision 
into two or three groups sufficing for American C'raniology, there are abundant traces of a tendency of 
development into the extreme of brachycephalic and dolichocephalic or kumbocephalii; (cup-shaped) 
forms ; and again towards intermediate or mesocephalic gradations." * The Eskimo, however, being an 
absolute exception. Humboldt noticed even in South America a tendency to the Mongolian type 
of feature. 

Schoolcraft generally describes the North American Indian as ha^^ng a roundish and rather flat 
skull, sloping at the top ; and forehead lowish and seldom arched as in the Old World ; differing rather 
even from the Mongolian. The check -bones are high. The maxillary very large. Somewhat similar 
characters may be seen even to the extreme of South America ; though the Missouri and North- Western 
races have a less rounded or brachycephalic form of skull. The European facial angle may average 
about 80° ; that of the North Americans 75°. The American hair is always cylindiical ; for the 
Caucasian it is oval. The American Indian is generally beardless, and their hair never woolly or 
frizzled ; and the eyes not so obliiiue as with the Malays and Mongolians. The skulls are very 
fre([uently artificially flattened, and in ditferent ways ; this habit is also found in South America, and 
especially among the Old Peruvians ; but this practice was by no means confined to the New World. 
Wilson considers it was first practised in South America ; the custom is also known to Pacific Islanders, 
and as formerly understood no doubt by the Asiatic, so-called Marco-cephalic (as in some parts of the 
Russian empire, and at Kortch on the Euxine). 

The Marquis de Nadaillac, in his excellent work "Prehistoric America" (London, 188.5, John 
Murray), page 516, says: "Between the men of the New World and those of the Old, there is 
no essential difference. The Unity of the Human Race stands out as the ' great law dominating the 
history of humanity ; ' and that doubtless, as with the ancient races of Europe, those of America were 
made up of diverse elements and of ditferent varieties. 

" A. primeval dolichocephalic race appears, in the first instance, to have invaded the vast regions 
between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The men of this race were contemporary with the huge 
pachydermal and edentate animals ; and like those in Europe, they passed through various stages of the 
stone age. (Jther races arrived by successive migrations, some of which dated fi-om very remote ages, 
and brought about various modifications, as in the Old World. Hence we find ' moimd ' skulls in 
Ohio, N. A., along with the more ancient form associated with those of a more modern and brachycephalic 
type. This might also seem to indicate that if America was peoijled by emigrations from the Old 
World, it must have taken place at a very early period." The light-coloured Northern Aryans are also 
dolichocephalic, and may be of very old standing. Nadaillac considers that the Patagonians of 
S. America have not a few physical analogies in common with the Northern Eskimo. This is what 
has to some extent happened in Europe, e.ff., the Basques and Fins (? also the Irish Celts) diiven to 
the extreme limits of Europe ; possibly these may have been physically nearer the original contem- 
poraries of the Palaeolithic period than other superior or existent races, and that everything rather 
points to the conclusion that the earliest inhabitants of America were little inferior to those of the 
Old World." 

On the subject of the origin of the American population, M. Paul Marcoy, in his interesting 
"Travels in South America" (Blackie & Son, Edinburgh, 1875), remarks (p. 174, vol. i.), that "the 
Anthropology of the American population, all whose varieties may be traced to two fixed and 
primcjrdial types, the indigenous type, which we will call the Mongolo-American, and the Irano- Aryan 
(Indo-European) type, naturally raises the fidlowing question : — Is the American race autochthonous 
or must we regard it as a race of immigrants, rid Behring's Straits, from the Asiatic Stock ? Without 
prejudging the question, we would, however, remark, that if it is reaUy autochthonous as held by 

* "The Cephalic index gives the proportion of the breadth of the head to the length, and is obtained by dividing the 
breadth by the length from the front to back, and then multiplying by 100." 



Ill INTRODUCTION. 

M;irtm, Pritclwrd, Eobertson, (Bancroft?), and Blnmcnhuch, its singular analogy -witli tlio Mongol race 
is inexplicable ; -whereas, if its presence on the Kew Continent results from a displacement of Asiatic 
hordes, its perfect resemblance to them (this has also been noticed by Humbolt), with which one has 
reason to be suiin-ised, is naturally accounted for."* 

" Of the two aforesaid types, the indigenous or Mongolo-Amcrican is that which pri'dominates 
in both North and South America ; nevertheless, at root, we recognize in it merely a co/onizinff or 
swarming element. The civilizuig element is represented by the Irano-Aryan race, [ride Signor Lopez 
on the Aryan tendencies in the Quichuan, and P]llis' Peru^-ia Scythica,] the type of which still endures, 
if not in its original purity, yet so distinctly marked that it cannot be mistaken. This type is probably 
that of the first nations who established themselves in New Spain, from whence it passed into Canada, 
Lonsiana, the Floridus and Yucatan, and penetrated into the Southern hemisphere by the plains of 
Popayan and Guiana. The sculptures of the Thascaltes, the Mayas, the Chichimecs, and the Toltecs, 
and the hieroglyphic paintings of the Aztec M.S. have faithfully transmitted tliis type, still existent 
among some of the nomad tribes of North America ; and in South America among the • Aymaras, the 
Quichnas, and a great number of Antis and Ohontaquiros savage tribes living on the East of the 

Andes." t 

M. Marcoy then goes on to the question of the probable or possible early spread and migration of 
simdry Aiyan South-East peoples, notably of Iranians ; of the prevalence of Sun worship, and of certain 
resemblances also to both Hindoo ami Egyptian culture, architecture, etc., in Central America ; and also 
to the -well-known trailition of a ichite man in ancient Mexioa, and of the mythical Manco of the 
Peruvians, etc. 



In a valuable paper entitled " The Ancient Peoples of Ireland and Scotland," in the November 
1890 Number of the "Anthropological Institute Journal," Mr. Hector MacLean, besides referring in 
detail to various local, historical matters and Celtic words, refers to the evident probability of a certain 
number of Celtic ones (Gaelic more especially), having, along with corresponding Basque (or Iberian) 
words, a common origin from some older or pre-Aryan source, either a Turanian or prehistoric one. 
Original pre-Aryan roots or words, say for man, family, tribe, -village, etc. ; like mi, mid, lu, car, damh, 
etc., may be found, not in Scotland or Ireland only, but in other languages and jn distant parts of the 
world, as North Asia, the Non-Aryan tribes of India, Caucasia, Thibet and Burmah, and even in the 
New World. [See my vocabularies and comparative word-iists.J Ba in Pictish- Gaelic is two ; in 
Georgia, ori ; in Chinese, ttrh ; iu Gyami, dr. The common Gaelic ^«Y (as in Pitloclu'ie) probably 
meaiung village, occurs elsewhere (according to Mr. Hyde Clarke), in India as Hattu, Patti, Patlum ; 
and as Pita, Putu in Pern ; Peto in Yucatan ; Patura in Lycia ; Pidc in Pontus ; Batn iu South India. J 
The Georgian daha, [Africa, dcha ; America, deba~\ is no doubt the Gaelic dabhocJi^arm, field ; Gaelic 
ac/idh, a plain (English acre ?), is probably the same as the Hittite, ftir/M ; the Etruscan, a(/er, field ; 
Lapp, «/.-«•, etc. The Gaelic siii/Ii, moistui'e ; Kirghiz, .ti'ik flowing ('? English suck ?). The Gaelic 
tairyhen, a lord or chief; Hittite, ttirJca ; Etruscan <«r('/«(=Tarquiu. The Gaelic tor, noble (hill?) 
high=the Hittite tur=zc\\iei. [Fin, Tara^^od ; Egyptian tur, fer, tu, great, high ; TJgro-Altaic, tait, 
tu, etc, ; see vocabuhnies.] In the discussion Mr. Hyde Clai'ke observed, "that Races and Language 
were not always equivalent or correlative." There was evidence of a continuous intermixture of races. 
Dr. Beddoe considered the Iberians jjreceded the Celts in Britain ; this was doubtless more or less 
correct, and followed by Professor Rhys and Mr. MacLean. The spread of great dominant languages, 
East and West, marked great historical and anthropological epochs. The earlier peoples in these 
islands adapted Celtic." § [See pp. 120, 291.] 

[The simplest and most reasonable explanation of the undoubtedly curious and frequent occiUTence 
and re-occurrence of almost the same words and roots, having often similar or at least cognate meanings, 
occuri'ing thousands of miles apart is, as I have already suggested, that there was an original prehistoric 
and simpler under stratum, of language before Aryani?, Iberians, or even the Chinese or Accadians were 
differentiated, before grammar and syntax were clearly developcnl, and from which all nations and tribes, 
as they subsc(iuently becamt^ more individualized, borrowed or inherited much in common, of which not 
a few fragnumts are still preserved, not only in the (.)ld World but in the New Wm-ld as w(!ll, and 
which it has Ijeen my chief (Midcjavour and object in the in'csent work on Comparative Philology to point 
out more fully and clearly than has yet been attempted.] 

• M. Marcoy gives in his ]!i)ok many excellent engravings of the natK'es of South America, not a few have really a 
marvellous mixture of the Japanese and Esquimaux. 

t 'I'he old JIaya hieroglyphic writing has recently heen shown to he phonetic. 

J If II = P in Turanian, thi-xi pit may also = hut (house) ; also hait in Semitic? 

9 Mr. Hyde Clarke is inclined now to consider the Aryans to originally have been white Turanians, and tlieir adoption 
of a system of language was conse(|Upnt on their branching olF; though, however, ahuig with the Semites they developed a 
true Grammar. [White Turanians, I suppose, would he the Allophyllians of some writers ?) 



INTRODUCTION. liii 

[Addendum to Intiioduction, page xxi.] 

The folli)\viiig intiTcstint; rcsuini' of a paper road at the Oriental Congress, licld in London, 
September, 1892, by the ilov. Dr. Edkins, bears closely on what I have previously noticed in relation 
to the Turanian and Chinese peoples and languages : — 

"The Chinese is of an older type than any other known language. It is richest in old letters, and 
poorest in new letters. Egyptian, Tliil]etaii, and Tartar follow it, and of these, the Thilietan and Tailar are, 
in some respects, older. The Semitic typo follows these three in age, liut tlie Semitic languages are youthful 
comi>ared with these. The Indo-1'^uropean type is the newest, and is built upon the shoulders of the others. 
The laws of order in sentences being lixed in Chinese (and either fixed or variable in other languages), we 
have in these laws the moans of determining tlie age and kinship of languages, keeping in view the etiects of 
geographical contiguity and joint occupation of the same countries. 'i'lie antiquity of the Tartar and 
Thibetan types of language may be estimated with the help of Chinese facts fairly considered. The Accadian 
is Tartar and at the same time younger in type than the Chinese. An immense anticpiity must bo assigned 
to this Tartar type of speech, although it is juvenile compared with Chinese. The Semite race probaUy once 
roamed as tent-dwelling nomads over the Persian plateau, and may have been driven westward 5000 years 
ago by the Aryans coming down from the north before they passed on to invade and conquer India. The 
Thibetans might at that time become mixed with the Semites. This would account for some .similar features 
in grammar and for a fair number of identical words, such as rab ' chief,' aba ' magician,' 7/ab ' father.' 
Here we may try to look deeper into the prehistoric fortunes of the Semites. When they pushed forward 
to the Arabian plateau they continued then- nomad life till they reached Egypt. The basis of Semite sijeech 
was Asiatic, for we find in it both Tartar and Thibetan features. Now, it became in part Egyptian. Every 
Semite feature w'hich resembles some similar featin-e in the old Egyptian language would be borrowed 
from the Egyptians in time of joint occupation of territory. There are Tartar, Thibetan, and Egyptian 
contributions to the Semitic language, which is a compomid system, worked up into the form which the 
Semite people themselves preferred. Light is thrown by the Chinese language on the growth of inflexion 
out of agglutination. The oldest types have agglutination without inflexion. China has preserved the old 
roots of Tartar, Semitic, Egyptian, and Aryan languages in a specially complete form. Chinese teaches that 
homo ' man ' was not formed from humm ' the ground,' as Cicero and Varro judged, but means ' the brave one,' 
' the noble one,' in Chinese hue// ' brave ' from koin, in Mongol humwi ' man.' This word grew up in Northern 
Asia as a word for man and is an honorific term. So also the word used in speaking of witchcraft, magic, 
and demoniacal possession in cases of disease, can all be traced from their modern form in Semitic and Aryan 
speech to the earlier types in Eastern Asia. The magic of Persia was Tartar before it was Persian ; the 
Persians added the fire element and the Babylonian and Egyptian philosophy and chemistry. Magic, 
medicine, and demonolatry are all of them older than the Indo-European languages, and all the words 
necessary in the early stages of these arts are found in the old type languages. The admission of Chinese 
and its sister languages into the fold of European philology will pave the way for desirable improvements 
in the mode of teaching grammar. Thus, in a verb, the imperative ought to stand first. The verb becomes 
a substantive and the infinitive and gerund are formed. Then the participle and past indicative are formed 
and the verb sense is recovered. 'The Tartar languages show how the past is formed from the gerund. 
The futiu'e should be taught as a transformed imperative or infinitive. The pupil ought to l>e told that loved 
as a past tense is formed from loved as a gerund. The process is seen more clearly than elsewhere in the 
Tartar languages, because they were formed directly from the monosyllabic type. Lastly, if the preceding 
classes of facts be well considered, the brachycephalic tyjae of head, which is that of all the races of Eastern 
Asia, will assume its rightful place. This shape of the head is conjointly uniform with yellow skin, black 
eyes, and black, thick hair. The languages being older in that part of the continent, the type of man 
existing there is the oldest known type. But while the Chinese race is so old it comes from the West, as its 
early history shows. Mankind originated in Westei-u rather than Eastern Asia, but the type of primeval 
man is found in Eastern Asia now. The languages are one, and the races one ; and the black and white 
only probably modifications of the yellow." 



[Addendum to page 258.] 
THE TINNEH NORTH-WEST AMEEICAN. 



The Journal of the Anthropological Institute in an article on "Language as a Test of Mental 
Capacity," by Horatio Hale, M.A., for May, 1892, p. 418, et seq., notices the remarkable work of the 
Eev. Father E. Potitot on the language of the Dene, Diudjie, Tinneh or Athabascan Indians of 
N. W. America, published 1876 by Pinart : — Tinne or (Une means in their language 'man.' They differ 
from the Eskimo, and more nearly resemble the Sioux. Their colour varies, generally a pale brown. 
They are tall, slender, with wide cheek bones and large eyes, and with vei-y long shining black hair. 
Their language is most remarkable, rich in varied expi-ession, aptitude for word-formation ; rich in 
inflection and in substantive and even in auxilianj verbs. The primary roots are all like Siuiskrit — 
monosyllabic. 7%(7y = sand = " the minute broken up objects" — then secondary roots, ^/(rtt-e'=minute ; 
dedhai/ = so.\t, i.e. what resembles sand; derived roots as de, ne, in, and acting as particles. Avery 
noticeable derived form is ni or ne, 7ini or ?(Wf =man=homo, in the Tinneh root-word for ' earth.' 

[N.B. — na, ni, nan, nin, etc., means 'man,' I, me, in many languages, see Ajipendices II. III. 
L. and LI.] 



esli 


I am. 


itlli . . . 


we two are. 


nenli . . 


tliou art. 


ali . . , 


yc two are. 


enli 


lie is. 


kenli . . , 


they two are. 



Ify introduct:'on. 

The particles di, de, te, etc. means 'of (French dc?), (belonging to). The Tinneh verb is very 
curiously rich and complex, far more so than Greek or Sanskrit, and has along with some other 
American languages numerous conjugations ; and employs the substantive verb in various forms and 
ways. The root of the principal form is li, of which the present tense, with the personal pronoun 
attached, is esli : — 

Six«. Dual. Plural. 

yaidli .... we are. 
yau'li .... ye are. 
k'eyonli. . . . they are. 

With, dene ne»Ii=t]ioxi art a man; nezun esli=l am good; and, as in Aryan languages, the sub- 
stantive verb becomes an auxiliary verb in forming secondary tenses with other verbs ; daedi=i\iej say ; 
daedi tc(Uli=thej will or would say. Another auxiliary verb M. Petitot has for its root le, probably = 
hand; and resembles our English do. Present tense, asre = l do. Past tense, asra=I did, and anla = 
he did, etc. Which surely shows the 'inflective' as much as facit and fecit in Latin ! Verbs "of 
mental actions and feelings " may be classed in eight conjugations, distinguished by their enilings, 
each conjugation having its own special form in the Present, Past, and Future tenses ; e.ff. yenesshen 
= 1 think, with its pretorite=y(;»iWi« = I thought ; yenusshi^l shall or may think; daurtsar = we weep; 
da-ne-nurtsar = -we cause thee to weep ; the insertion of the I sound from le = to do, making a neuter 
or intransitive verb into a transitive or causative one. All this seems to indicate a strange wealth 
of linguistic powers of expression in very unoi\-ilizcd savages, and should surely be borne in mind by 
the etymologists of more civilized languages. The ' Tinneh ' (or Athabascan) are, however, a very 
wide-spread North American race or family, as important as the Algonkin are, and must clearly have 
extended from Alaska to Oregon and North California; where they came in contact with the Pueblos; 
and were known to the early Spaniards as ' Navajos.' (The Hupas and Alpaches also seem to have 
been a southern branch of the Tinnehs.) The Southern TLnnehs or Navajos are more civilized than 
the Northern and earlier ones ; and M. Petitot considers that as regards the language of their original 
stock they must have been a people possessing high powers of observation, reflection, and discrimination, 
to have spoken or developed in the course of some 500 years such a language, and, to ascertain degree, 
like the Irroquois, have been "powerful reasoners and accurate classifiers." And Dr. Brinton fully 
endorses M. Petitot's opinions. — [See also Introduction pp. vii.-xvi. and p. 258.] 

Mr. Horatio Hale agrees with Prof. Max Miiller in considering any absolute division of the 
Human Race, based on Craniology and purely physical characteristics, as imsatisfactory as compared 
with that based on language ; and Dr. D. Brinton, of Philadelphia, United States, in his exceUent 
work on " The American Races," entirely bases his chief classification of American Tribes and Races 
on the distinction of linguistic stocks. [Still, sui'ely it is difficult to always decide where both race 
and language are often so much mixed.] 

There is much similarity, Mr. Hale states, between the Dravidian and Australian languages,* 
especially so in the pronouns. He states that Mr. Howitt has found the Australian dialects on the 
North-East coasts of Australia coming nearest to the more complex Dravidian forms, than those more 
to the South and Westward ; an argument in favour of the Dravidians ha-\-ing come in by way of the 
Gulf of Carpentaria. 

Mr. Horatio Hale refers to the work of the Rev. L. E. Thi-elkeld, a missionary to South Australia, 
published in 1834, as of importance in the study of the Australian languages, which arc described as 
being simple and euphonious (page 434, et seq.), and -at the same time rich as some Aryan languages 
in declensions, tenses, and conjugations, and in nice distinctions. 

Mr. Hale says: "It is now ascertained that all the tribes of Australia speak dialect-languages, 
belonging to 07ie stock ; there is, however, a tendency to grammatical decay. They are, as a race, of 
middle height and fairly well proportioned. The cast of face is a medium between the African and 
Malay ; forehead narrow and rather interesting ; eyes small and deep-set ; nose depressed and widened 
at base ; cheek bonc's prominent ; mouth large with thickish lips ; jaws projecting ; skull thick ; neck 
short. Colour chocolate, like the Guinea negro. Hair long, fine, and wavy, like Europeans, and dark 
glossy -black to brown ; skin rather hairy. Though aiijiarently often very stupid and brutal, the 
children are capable of mucli ajjtituch^ in acquiring knowledge ; wliich might indeed be expected if 
they are really the descendants of the Dravidians of India." Iilr. Hale considers the Rev. Dr. Farrar 
("Chapters on Language") is not correct or fair in his estimate of the American and Polynesian 
languages, which are often I'ich in shades of meaning, taken in connection with their jiresent apparent 
savagery, aiul that both Nortli American Athabascans and Atistralians make frequent use of the 
substantive verb, and of cases in nouns. "The Polynesian is one of the simplest and least wordy of 

• In my own Comparative Vocabularies there are not many Australian words given, and I have grouped tlieso along 
with the Papuan. Any possible connexion between Australian and Dravidian hardly explains how so many Papuan ana 
perhaps Australian words are found, say in South America. Nay and tale = toiic/i(c ; kat and kut = /i«"(/; and nga; uau = /, 
are almost the only ordinary words I can find common to the Australian and Dravidian ! 



INTRODUCTION. It 

]ann;unp;os, without inflection, and with little aKKlutination." Its grammar full and analytical (p. 447). 
Nouns and moods and stems of verbs are well indicated by separate particles, e.f^. J'uk=\iouin:; ie J'ale = 
the house; o te fale = oi the house. Thiral, ne fak = t]ui houses; and there are generic names as well 
as special ones for nouns. "The truth is," says Mr. Hale, " not simplicity, but rather complexity is 
tlie evidence of progress ; and the complexity, say of the North American and Australian languages, 
rightly regarded, is the evidence not of poverty of their powers of absti'action and analysis, but of the 
very reverse." Duponceau long ago well explained the origin of this wealth of forms found in many 
so-called harbarous languages. (8ee his " Memoir on the Grammatical System of certain Indian 
Nations in North America," 183.5.) He says, "The pride of civilization is often reluctant to admit 
that the idioms of barbarous tribes arc greatly inferior to those of more civilized nations," though they 
may not be so often inflected like the Aryan ; yet Delaware verbs have inflected forms. In short, 
a state of actual barbarism does not necessarily imply inferiority of intellectual power. Athabascans 
and Dravidians, and even Australians, placed in suitalde circumstances, or ])reserved from inferior 
conditions, would rapidly improve and develop. Duponceau reasonably preferred to consider that 
America was not necessarily inhabited by a ci\'ilized race, as some would imagine, but " that men 
in America were endowed with a natural power of logic which lead them as it were by instinct to 
such methods in the formation of their idioms as were best calculated to facilitate their use." " Culture 
may stand for something, but not comparatively for much." Mr. Hale then refers, as I have already 
done, to the opinions of Quatrefages and Mr. Wallace as to the cradle of the human race in Asia, etc. 
Dr. lirinton, however, is inclined to look for it further westward, say near the Atlantic in North- 
Westcrn Africa. 



AUSTRALIAN AND DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES. 

According to Mr. Horatio Hale's Journal of the Antliropological Institution, May 1892, p. 441, it 
is now considered " that the Australians belong to the Dravidian race family of India; " which, prior to 
the Aryan Inversion, say 1500 B.C., occupied nearly the whole of Hindoostan in some ten or twelve 
tribes, speaking closely allied languages, and still numbering nearly 50 millions. They are, according 
to Sir Monier ^Yilliams, a patient, industrious, brave and apt race, with a literature of their own, and a 
rather complicated, highly accentuated and complete language. At the time of the Aryan invasion 
however, they were cjuite barbarous, at once both agricultural and nomadic. They became gradually 
much incorporated with intrusive Aryans, though remaining purer in blood than language. The 
Dravidian languages are not much inferior to the Aryans according to !Monier Williams ; and, according 
to Dr. Whitney, have certain peculiar "phonetic elements and are richly polysyllabic, with a general 
highly agglutinative structure, and soft in tone." The agglutination is like the Finnish and Hungarian, 
and is an admirable language to think and speak in. 

It is a mistake, it would seem, of the older school of Philologists to look down on the Australian 
family of mankind, and to consider them in their present low condition as at best representing an 
earlier form of primeval man. They have merely sunk so low owing to climate and circumstances 
(p. 443) ; as conversely the now degraded North-West American " Tinneh " can be seen to improve so 
rapidly when migrated southwards to California and Pueblo. They, i.e. the Dravidians (,?(>) gradually 
on arriving in Aiistralasia, probably by the Gulf of CaiiJcntaria, spread southwards, supplanting the 
Icwer savages of aboriginal Negritos, who last disappeared in Tasmania. The Dravidians were and 
still are bold navigators, and most likely passed through the Straits between New Guinea and North 
Australia. When this may have happened cannot be certainly known ; possibly about the time of 
the Aryan invasion into India. 



[Addendum (see pages 220, 257) ; also Introduction xv. xvi., and Topinaed.] 

DRAVIDIAN, PAPUAN, AUSTRALIAN, AND OCEANIC. 

In my Vocabularies, No. VI.,* I have arranged in parallel columns on same page, Dravidian, 
Malay, Achinese and Microneria ; Polynesian (Fiji, Maori, Melanesia, Borneo in part); Papuan, New 
Guinea ? Australian and Tasnianian. This has been done partly for convenient bre\-ity, and rather for 
comparison with American words ; not altogether because it is necessarily clear that these languages 
and races may strictly be connected. There is, in those parts of the world, considerable confusion and 
uncertainty and evident admixture as well as of difference of opinion. Malay words may often be found 
in Polynesian and Papuan, and even in Australian. Some writers consider Tasmanian distinct from 

* The list of Dravidian words I have given, Professor Pope tells me, is not very correct, and contains a numher of words 
either Sanskrit or of later vernacular origin. I may possibly, at the end of the Appendices of this work, give a list of older 
and purer Dravidian words and roots. 



Ivi INTEODUCTION. 

Australian ; some nearly connected ; others, as Topinard, that Australians are nearly identical with the 
earlier black races of Hindoostan (though hartUy with jiurc Dravidiaus as Hale states). 

Pui-e Dravidians, according to Edkins and others, are of Tartar or Turanian origin, and even possibly 
the Japanese ; and there is much linguistically in common apparently between Malay and Polynesian ; 
and both possibly with Himalaic and Chinese. I understand that Professor G. TJ. Pope, D.D., of 
Oxford, considers Tamil as the Mother language of all the Dravidian dialectic languages ; :md that it 
is rich in tone and expression ; largely capable of being compounded or even agglutiuized ; also that he 
inclines to believe it to be of early Aryan (pre-Sanskritic) origin, rather in contradistinction to the 
present generally received opinion as to its being Turanian, see page 1 G2._ Dr. Pope considers in a 
general way that in all languages, agglutination as a form of compounding is common to aU languages 
as even in Homeric Greek and German ; and that the older inflections of all languages are the result 
of agglutinaticm, and that when any language parts with its inflection it glues on new ones. This is 
applicable to Tamil and to some of its cognate languages. There is a considerable amount of Sanskrit 
in Tamil, and most vernaculars are much mixed, and that a certain admixture of ISTegritos arc found in 
the sea-ports of South India.* 

Professor Max Miiller (Science of Language, vol. ii., p. 191), says that the syllabic structure of 
the Dravidian or Southern Asiatic Tiu-auian resembles the Northern (or Ural-Altaic) Turanian, and 
that it has 'great simplicity and a dislike of compound "or concurrent consonants," and that many 
Dravidian words are connected with or are derived from the Sanskrit. At the beginning of every 
syllable only one consonant is observed. Every word in Tclugu and Canarese must end in a vowel ; 
in Tamil, either a vowel or half-vowel as I or r, or a single nasal as n or m. Usually i or u is 
employed in Tamil to separate two inadmissible consonants. In other than the Aryan language 
vowels may be dropped, and have sounding double consonants found at the end or beginning of words ; 
and one of the consonants for simpler euphonic pronunciation afterwards left out : c.ff. The Sanskrit 
pra in Tamil would be pira, and in Tcherimis (Ugrian) si/in = mouth, if from a root su = to speak, must 
originally have been suma, and Sanskrit Jnd = to know, probably from an original Jana. Polynesian 
is said to otter much resemblance to Malay. — [See A'ocabulary, Xo. TI.] 

Mr. Horatio Hale in stating that the Australians are derived from the Dravidians of S. India, if 
I understand him correctly, must have confused the more primitive dlack race of Topinard with the 
Dra-sidians,f for Topinard (p. 456) states that three types are found in Hindustan : — 1st. The Black, of 
short stature (1-61 metre), in Central India, consisting of Bliills, Mahairs, Ghonds, and Khonds ; in 
Southern India of Tenadis, Maravers, Todas, Kommbas, Iruhas and the Yeddahs of Ceylon. 2nd. The 
Dravidic or Tamil, and the Jahts, mostly in Central India. 3rd. The Aryans (Bengalese, Hindoos, 
etc.). That the so-caUcd black races of India are very like the Au.stralians (especially of the North-east 
coast), both have long wavy black hair, flatfish noses, are short in stature, and very dolichocephalic, 
71-72 ; Cephalic Index, 75-6; that they difi^cr, however, from the Negrito, though short like them. 

Prof. Huxley thinks that the black races of India are identical with the most ancient inhabitants 
of the Deccan, and even also that there is some similarity common to the Australians and Dravidian. J 

Professor Monier Williams in his "Indian Wisdom," states that soon after the first Ai-yan 
settlement in India, rival immigrant tribes called Kiirus, or An-Arijans, entered India ; not, however, 
to be confounded (p. 112) with the chief Dravidian races of the Mach-as Presidency, and who were 
gradually (biven further south by the Aryans, who were more civilized, with languages agglutiuized 
in structure. But that wild liill-tribcs (often symbolized as monkey-demons by the Aryans), included 
the present Ghonds of Central India, Bliils, Khonds or Kus, of the Eastern Central, the Santhals 
and Kols of "West Bengal, the Khasias anil Garos of the Eastern border, who are all mo.stly the 
representatives of Wilil Tartar or Thibetan tribes, speaking languages almost mutually unintelligible. 
" The term Turanian should hardly be used to embrace all these as well as Dravidian tribes. There 
were two great classes of Turanian languages, the Northern and the Southern ones ; the foriner, viz. 
the Tungusic or Mantchu ; the ]\Iongol ; and the Turkish ; besides Samoyedian and Finnish ; while the 
latter (Indian) included the Thibetan, Siamese, Burmese and the Dravidian languages ; the monosyllabic 
Chinese, say ])ct\vixt the two ; that perhaps tlie dialects of the Himalayan hill-tribes should be ranked 
among the South Tui-anian class. Dr. Caklwell also considers (see his ' ('ompai-ative (irammar of the 
South Indian Languages'), the Dravidians as the first regular inhabitants of ImUa ; subsequently 
driven southwards by the Aryans. Tlie dialects of the more soutliern hill-tribes, arc only partially 
connected witli the Dravidian, especially tin; Tudas or Kotas (of the Nil-gui Hills), the Ghond and 
Khond (Ku). The barliarous Yedars inhabited the forests of Ceylon." 

* Dr. I'opc also writes mo tliat Dr;ivi(li:in idioms arc niixod, not unfrequently like tlic Tartaric, and that tlio skulls 
are Arj'au. Tliat Tamil Aryan words, when not Sanskritic. approacli the Greek, Celtic, and Tentoiiic. 

t I can fiml hardly any words eomraou to Dravidian and An.stralian, except perhaps «ni/ and (f/(-'=tonnfue; hit, kat^ 
hair (see Part IV. p. 220), but a considerahle nnnibov of words commou to Polynesian, Papuan, and Australian words 
connectf;d with Malay, and even with African and American ones. 

X Colonel Wood'thorp considers the Nngas of India arc probably a mixed race. — Anthrop. Journal, August and 
November, 1881. 



INTRODUCTION. Ivii 

AUSTRALIAN AND MELANESIAN TITES. 

Topinard says the Australians arc ratlicr mixed witli Polynesians and Malays (pp. 501, 501), and 
tliat they are very doliclioceplialic and distiuet tVoni Negritos. Hair long, black, and smooth ; perhaps 
divided into two class(!s, a shorter and a taller oni-; and that the old Tasmanians are probably a cross 
between the Melanesians and i'olyncsians, rather than Papuan. 

The Papuan is to be found purest in Melanesia, the Pellew, Solomon and New Hebrides Islands, 
and are rather taller than the Negritos ; also very doliehocephalie, with the black frizzled or tufty hair. 

The Fijians arc a good deal mi.Kcid with I'olynesiaus. The Negritos (Topinard, p. -198) are now 
best represented by the Mioropies of Andaman, the Scmangs of Malacca, and the Ai'gtar of the 
Phillippines ; hair black and woidly or twisted, like Papuans and Tasmanians ; heads llattish and 
sub-braehycephalio. Cephalic index under 82'.5 ; height 1'47 metres; foi'ehead retreating; skin 
blackish. [Possibly the Negrito class might have been the common ancestors of both Papuan and 
Negro.— R. P. G.] 

Dr. T(jpinard says the Polynesian nose approaches that of the North American Indians, rather 
than the snubby one of the Mongolians ; and that the North American Indians seem as though possibly 
crossed between the European and Asiatic. 

Dr. Garson considers that the Tasmanians, though having the hair more frizzled than the 
Australians proi^er, are in most other respects much the same type. 

Mr. Sidiiey Ray, at the last meeting (September, 1892) of the Oriental Congress, in a paper on 
the Languages of British New Guinea stated that — 

" Recent advances in our knowledge of the languages of British New Guinea have rendered it possible 
to use them as the basis of a classification which, though not perhaps satisfactory to every anthropologist, 
may be of some value in the determination of racial diflerences. An examination of vocabularies and 
specimens shows that the language of British New Ciiiinea may be arranged under two distinct heads as 
Melanesian and Papuan. The Melauesian languages are found only on the coast eastward of Cape Possession, 
usually in distinct settlements and never far inland. The typical language is the Motu of Port Moresby, and 
this and its allies are as distinctly Melanesian as the languages treated in the Rev. Dr. Codrington's work on 
the Melanesian languages. The irregular variations in phonology have the same character ; pronominal roots 
are the same ; verbal particles and suffixes are used as in the Solomon Islands and New Hebrides ; nouns and 
prepositions show the same methods of construction, and have the same constructive particles. The 
vocabulary also is full of words common in the island languages. It is impossible to avoid the conclusion 
that these tongues of New Guinea are in every essential Melanesian and derived from the islands of the 
south-east. The Papuan languages present the greatest possible contrast to the Jlelanesian. They are 
spoken on the coast west of Cape Possession, in Torres Straits, in a few districts on the south-eastern coast, 
and in the island districts generally. They have no apparent agreement with the Melanesian in structure 
but have borrowed a few words. Nouns and pronouns are declined through a variety of cases by suffixes 
as in Australian, and the verbal forms are extremely complex and difficult. One language agi'ees yaVa another 
neither in grammatical details, in constructive particles, nor in vocabulary. They apparently belong to 
separate linguistic stocks. There seems little doubt but that they are the aboriginal languages of New 
Guinea. The languages of the Louisiades cannot be definitely arranged under either of the foregoing heads. 
They present differences among themselves, but have a common Melanesian element. They are classified as 
Blelano-Papuan, or Papuan influenced by Melanesian. The same tyi:ie of language probably exists in the 
northern Solomon Islands. Some modifications in this arrangement of the languages may hereafter be found 
necessary, especially as regards the imperfectly-understood Papuan tongues, which may perhaps be found 
more closely connected with the Australian than is now apparent." 

Mr. W. S. Vaux (Journal of the Anthropological Institute, April, 1876), in an article on the 
probable origin of the Maoris, or natives of New Zealand, states: (1st) "That nearly all the 
insular Polynesian languages (except the Tongan and Figi, which arc mucli influenced by Melanesian), 
are closely connected ; (2nd) That there is a certain amount of connection between the Polynesian, 
Malay, and Japanese." What is their real antiquity is uncertain. The Maoris are neither "white" 
or " black," but light yellowish-brown, and much superior to the Melanesian Negrito or the 
Micronesian ; they are fond of na^-igating, even 1 500 miles, and may have come, probably, fi'om 
Central Asia ; i.e. arc Mongolio and Turanian. The few Malay words in Maori are probably borrowed; 
their hair neither lank or woolly. 

Lastly, in a discussion on Mr. Stanisland Wake's paper, the Papuans and Polynesians (Anthro- 
pological journal, November, 1882) : 

1. Mr. Kcane is reported as observing that Mr. H. G. Wallace's views were hardly correct, 
especially in their possible connection with African Negroes or with the Siamese ; and that the dark 
frizzled sticky-haired hysistene-c.ephalic Papuan could have little connection with the brachycephalic 
Eastern Polynesian. The linguistic element is here important, Mr. Keane considers, and he agrees 
with Gabolcntz and Dr. Meyer that the purer Polj-ncsian and Papuan languages are quite distinct. 
[There seem to be more or less admixture amongst all these Oceanic, Malay, Papuan, and Australian 
races and languages ; and it is difficult to avoid not thinking that under most of them exists a strain 



Iviii INTRODUCTION. 

of the old N'egTito. Topinard thought the Australian consisted hoth of a short and taller ty|ic ; the 
former purely Negrito ; and that a Negrito substratum seems very general in those parts.] 

2. Mr. S. Wake in reply concluded that the Eastern Archipelago was at an early period inhabited 
by a straight haired race of so-called Caucasian stock, the purest modeiTi representative of which are 
the Australians ; who, however, again are not a pure race, some being quite of sliort stature. 

3. To this race belonged the ancestoi-s of all the Oceanic races, including Papuans, Mieronesians, 
Tasmanians, and Polynesians, is shown by their possessing certain physical characteristics in common ; 
and that there is even a decided Caucasian element to be found. 

4. The special peculiarities of the several dark races are due to the introduction of variovis foreign 
elements, chiefly Negritic. [This has been denied by some writers, though Quatrefages (and I think 
Professor Flower also) thought the Negrito element widely spread.] 

5. The lighter coloiu'ed Oceanic races may even exhibit traces of Negrito influence, but have 
more Asiatic intermixture, giving rise on one hand to the so-called Malay, and on the other to the 
Polynesian, who may also again be mixed with the Malay. 

6. Traces of an Arab or Semitic element are ap])arent likewise among both the darker and lighter 
Oceanic races, more so, however, with the Papuan and Melancsian; and the Negrites were probably 
the earliest people of the Eastern Archipelago. [Some think there is even an Aryan admixture in the 
modem Chinese, who are not unfrequently lighter in colour than many Oriental and Oceanic natives. 
The sun and atmospheric exposure have of course a considerable influence on skin and colour.] ■ 

I understand from Mr. Hyde Clarke that both Prof. Huxley and Dr. Bleek have written on the 
probable connection between the black races of Australia, India, and Africa. 



[Addendum to Introduction, page xl.] 

I have already noticed some remarks by Mr. Stuart Glennio, and others, in connection with the 
"Cradle of the Aiyan Eace;" and I add here a short Epitome of his more recent paper read before 
the Oriental Congress (London, September, 1892) on the same subject, and referring to several points 
of interest. 

" The Origin and Cradle-land of the Aryans, illustrated by a large map of the former sea which separated 
Asia from Europe, and of which the Aral, Caspian, and Black Seas were the deeper basins. The object of 
the pa])er was to point out the bearing of three great groups of facts on the question of Aryan origins. 
The first of these sets of facts — ancient ethnographical portraits, still more ancient traditions, and con- 
temporary ethnographical observations — compel to the conclusion that the ruling classes of the Egyptians 
and Chaldeans had the characteristics of a white race. If, however, there is not only, as Pritchard pointed 
out sixty years ago, another set of white races than those distingui.shed as Semites and Aryans, the races 
which he termed 'Allophyllian,' but if a certain .section of these races, those which Mr. Stuart Glennie had 
termed 'Archaian,' are historically far older than either the Semites or the Aryans, then the question as 
to the origin and cradle-land of the white race must be connected with the Archaian rather than with the 
later Semitic or Aryan variety of that race. But with reference to this question, another important set of 
facts must be considered, those which he had endeavoured to represent on his map of the former Eurasian 
IMediterranean. It would be seen that thi.s former sea had cut oft' Europe from Asia, and had, in fact, made 
of Em'ope an island. If, therefore, this sea existed when tlie white races, which founded the Chaldean and 
Egyjitian civilizations, migrated from the north, as their traditions and other facts appear to indicate, then 
their original home nmst have been in Asia and not in Europe. And geologists appear to agree iu thinking 
that this Eurasian Mediterranean still existed at so recent a period geologically, but so remote a period 
historically, as that which preceded the original colonization by white races of the valleys of the Eiqihratcs 
and the Nile. Proceeding, then, to discuss the special question of the cradle-land of the Aryans, Mr. Stuart 
Glennie said that, in approaching this question, he thought it desirable to start from those regions where we 
have our first historical knowledge of Aryans — namely, Transoxiana and Thrace ; and probably the majority 
of .scholars would not now admit that Aryans appeared in these regions much earlier than, if so early as, 
l.'jOO B.C. But if Transoxiana and Thrace were the secondary centres of dispersion of the Eastern and 
Western Aryans respectively, then their primary centre of dispersion was jjrobably some region from which 
they could easily liavc migi-atcd into Transoxiana and Tbracc. Such a region were the plains of Southern 
Russia, north of the Caucasus, the Caspian, and the Enxine. And to the elaborate proofs of this hypothesis 
given Ijy Professor Schrader, in his recent book, Mr. Stuart (ilennie desired to add such considerations as 
these. On the drying up of the Eurasian Mediterranean, and the consequent formation of the great river- 
plains of Southern Russia, the nomad tribes of lioth the white and yellow races of Asia would naturally pour 
into these great ])lains, and such conditions of intermixture would arise as might naturally result in such 
a new variety of the white race, with languages of such a new character, as the Ai'yan." 

I have also i-eferrcd to the probability of an Eurasian Sea, including tlic present Black, 
Caspian, and Aral inland seas in connection with the ^Mediterranean iu ])rchistoric times. It seems 
to me to afford both a simple and plausible theory ; and one calculated maybe to ex])lain 
the situs or cradle of the Ai-yan ami proto-Scmitic peoples. The Aryan as consideral)ly 
separated fi'om tlie Asiatic Tui'anian races to the Nortli of the Caucasus, on the borders of the 
two great lilack and Caspian seas ; the proto-Semitic to the South of the Caucasus or Oxus, in S. W. 



INTRODUCTION. lix 

Asia to tlic Euphrates. The former gradually advancinp; in the direction of tlic S.E. towards Persia 
and India ; and jjossibly even earlier to the ^V(^'^t and Xorth-West of Europe ; mixing with the 
Turanian Finnic element in the North; and re])lacing the Iherians of further AVesteni Europe. 
The latter, or the proto-Semitcs, subsciiuently extending into Arabia, as the later lSemit(^s and Arabs. 
In this way also might be explained any very early linguistic couuection between Semite, Egj'ptian, 
and Aryan or Turanian, before the later Semitic tirammar and Syntax was fully dc\'eloped. It is 
possible, too, that the white proto-Aryan element or even " Allophyllian" of I'ritchard and Quati'efages 
might have lingered on later in prehistoric Greece.* The proto-Aryan and Semitic languages may at 
a still earlier period even, have had much more in common with the Asiatic Turanian tliau can now 
well be traced ; and philologists yet discover a more intimate Archaic connection between these three 
great branc'hes of speech than has hitherto been shown. There may, indeed, ha\'e once been but one 
•white race (whether "Allophyllian" or not); and one yellow race ; ami to what extent these were 
blended is a matter for future philologists and anthropologists to decide. Clearly, before our "Aryans" 
were evolved, there pre-existed a white proto-iVjyan people, whether styled (Allophyllian) Caucasian, 
or Archaian ; broadly speaking perhaps, say an Asiatic and an European, white race. 



IJ3EEIANS. 

According to Professor Boyd Dawkins ("Early Man in Britain," 1880), the only remains of the 
Basque language is lost in Europe, except in the Pyrenese ; even old local Iberian names in West of 
Europe have disappeared, or been absorbed by the intrusive Celts. [There are, however, not a few 
Basque words to be found in Celtic] The "Cave" men were like the "Cro-Magnon skull-men" 
now probably best represented by the Eskimos, and quite different from the modern European type ; 
but resembling the round-long-headed races of Neolithic Europe. The earlier Palffiolithic Kiver Drift 
Men were hunters of a low order, and not artistic, like the old Cave Men and Modem Eskimos. 
The Neolithic inhabitants of Great Britain (p. 315) belonged to the same non-Aryan section of mankind 
as the Basques, with aquiline nose and of small stature, with dark eyes and complexion and long 
oval-shaped skull ; dolichocephalic-occipital ; and having the tihia laterally flattened (like the American 
Eed Indians). All western Neolithic Europe, and even Danish and North German Peat-moss skulls, 
according to Virchow, are similar. In North Europe they got mixed with the Celt, as in Belgium 
more particularly. The Neolithic Iberians extended from Gibraltar to Scotland and Wales, and even 
to the Ilhine before the Celtic invasion which took jilace in X'l'ehistorio times. The Etruscans were 
small and swarthy and probably belonged to the same earlier Neolithic non-Aryan race ; also the 
Ligures and Silures. The Moors were physically like the Iberians (taller?) and connected by the 
Berbers, whom Prof. Busk considers to be Iberian. [I do not find, linguistically, much connection, 
however, between the Berbers and Libyans and Basque, beyond a few words, as a.T:\=stone ; tcgun = 
house. See p. 170.] The Iberians and modern Welsh are now. Professor Boyd Dawkins considers, 
become much mixed in Wales and even in some parts of Scotland. In Scotland the small dark 
Highlander is of Iberian descent ; and the taller reddish haired Gaelic ones Celtic. [A few Etruscan 
words may agree with Basque (see Ellis), and Professor Sayce considers the Libyans were Amorites. 
Bertholet also considered the Libyans and Berbers as Iberians ia Africa.] 



[Addenditm to Inteoduction, pages XV. -XVI. ; also page 270.] 

Mr. Hyde Clarke has more recently reminded me that both Prof. Huxley and Dr. Bleek have 
written on the probable relationship of the black races of Australia, India, and Africa, though they 
may have partly mixed up race and language. Also that he had himself long since pointed out the 
probable connection as to "Culture" in Chaldfea, China, and Egypt; and that there was previous 
to the invention or extension of language, a long epoch of " gesture language ; " that there was 
not strictly speaking really any single primitive Aryan or Semitic language, and that in the nature 
of things there would first be an Aryan language, constituted by several tribes ; none, perhaps, at 
first predominant. In some respects Mr. Hyde Clarke, as well as myself, is in agreement with 
Mr. Stuai't Glennic. (See ante.) Also, that the Highlands of Afiica, now attracting so much 
attention, were a centre of primitive immigrant culture and then of emigration, and which was, in 
course of time, replaced by their aboriginal black subjects who had partially acquired their language. f 
I think Mr. Gerald Massey agrees a good deal with Mr. Hyde Clarke as to a prehistoric connection 
between Polynesian, Papuan, and African. (See my Vocab. p. 270.) Also, that possibly the Negritos 
may have been the oldest connecting link. Still, may not the existence of an archaic residuum of human 
speech, in general, solve some of the difficulties of apparently distantly located linguistic analogies ? 

* Professor Sayce (Comparative Philology), and I believe also Prof. Max Miiller, would reject the idea of any proto- 
Aryan or Allophyllian white race. 

t Mr. Stanley in "Darkest Africa," etc., gives a number of Central African Vocabularies ; also considers that an 
ancient Caucasian emigration, via Ethiopia\iixs much improved the more nomadic Kaffir tribes of S.E. and East Central 
Africa. (See p. xix. Introduction.) 



Ix 



INTRODUCTION. 



[Addendum to Istroductiox, page xxxi. ; also page 270, etc.] • 

The "Academy" for September 17, 1892, p. 241, in a short notice, by Mr. A. Werner, of the 
Eev. D. Clement Scott's Cyclopa?dic Dictionaiy of the !Mang'aiija Language of Central Africa, weU 
says: "there would appear to be a widespread homogeneity of language in the African Congo Basin, 
and even with Bantu and Zidu." Mr. "Werner observes that language in Bantu-speaking districts 
and really Afiican proper, is seen in the making; and that fuller knowledge will doubtless throw 
much light on linguistic science, and help to set aside many of the older current theories. Here we 
seem to have come into close contact with those simple sounds expressing general ideas ge7ierallij called 
"root"; and existing as a kind of legal fiction and represented by supposed Sanskrit fornndce as 
VAR and •v/PAD. The essential characteristic of the Bantu speech is, according to Mr. Scott, "its 
Unng touch with its root ideas." Moreover, there is no language which comes near it for expressing 
abstractions. It is likewise very flexible and has great power of marking minute distinctions possessed 
by no Aiyan tongue ! [See also Rev. F. W. Kolbe on the Bantu, as well as on some of the American 
languages ; and p. sxi. etc. (Zulu gutterals are by, nd, nj, dz, etc.).] 

Note. — There are not a few remarkable word-analogies as between Polynesian, Australian, and 
Papuan words, vrith both ^\irican and American ones, betokening either an ancient direct connection, 
or as furnishing important means of detecting the earlier elements of human speech ; far superior to 
anytliiug that Sanskrit, perhaps least of aU the Aryan languages can yield. (See Vocabulaiy XIV. 
p. 270, etc.) The list for Kaffir- and Australian words I have given might be largely extended (see 
words for Sun, Fire, Light, etc., and for parts of the human body, etc.), also compare weU with 
corresponding American ones. Many Malay words are stiU found in Madagascar. 



Aeyan. 


Austeailan and Paptjan. 


POLTITESIAN, ETC. 


Afeican. . 


American. 


Mouth, etc. 


kane. kame. kone. 


ta. 


kana = ^ eat. 


kana. kona = f/oor. 


kama. kanik. 




kanik. anka. kun. 




manga, cha ? 


kun. akhuan. 


ka. manka = <o eat. 


me? ego? (I). 


moan, manua. 




muan = »ifl». 


da. ka. mia. 


maku. maima. 


man ? can ? 


ngan. mena = /. 




'kona = ivomh. 


kam= M-owffs. 


kan-nee-X)a. noka 


f/vvij^tcoman. 


ngn' ; i;^aioa=/. 




ku=/. mai=me. 


mano. minu. 


=/. manco=»i(7». 


KVVI'Vt ? b.lTll'' . 


kt'jui = !voman. 
mima = Jiand. 




an em a 1 , , 
„ J =hand. 
mama i ) 


ngi = /. I 
kama = w;(r«. ) 


mena=w(««. mma 
= /. mana. menu. 


(See elsewhere.) 


kanga=iyo. 10. 






manee =)««». 
manka=M.'0Wfl:». 


'koviC=iooman. 
aman ; mamat ; 
pana=/i««rf. 



Malay. — mucu=_/«c«. mulut. maken = <o eat. pana=Aa«(^ 
Egyptian. — ken. ha.n=lox. makata=(;a»«. anuk=/. 



English. 



Eye (see). 
Sun (fire). 



"Water, etc. 

(mare.) 

Stone. 

(cut.) 

Foot, etc. 

(KO.) 

Hand. 

keep. 

(take, give.) 

Personal 

Pronouns. 

me. thee. ho. 



EOTPTIAN. 



mer. merti. 
na. nenuu. 
tcka. ra. 



suax'. atcn ? ( 
ma. mer. 
nit. a.!i.=to wash 
tex'tu. aar. 
paht. aku. tu. 
pet. kep. 
kenken = f/(7»M. 
tot. ker. 
kat. qcb. 

anuk=/. 



nen =?<•<•. 



Malay. 



mata. 

uir. 

tai. mata. la. 

hai; m.\i = fire. 

nay am =Jire. 

ai. 

batu. 
Voh =ct(t. 
kaki. pat. 



kana. pana. 



tong. 
aku. na. 
kah. lu. 
kan. dia. 



Indo-Chinese. 
E. HniALAic ? 



mat. mi. 
nyu. nir. 
sak. na. 



nayn. 

to. nam. ni. 

ka. 

kawa. ken. 

dali.toka.ky"auk. 
kau. klio. 



ka. mo. lok. 



ku. no. n'ga. 



unUa. Kau. 



Thibetan. 

"W. HiJIAlAIC ? 



mik. mo. 
nik. 
ri. nyi. 



sa —fre. 
kia. ku. 
tsu. 
gorri. chhu. 



ko. takha. 



la" 



8'kur=y(V«. 
na. ned. 



ko. 



Polynesian, etc. 
Papuan.* 



mut. mata. 
mir.* nun.* mata 
tai. ra. 



la. 

tai. vai. wai. 

kai. 

velu. teka. hat. 

koti. 

pao. kapuai. ko.* 



pa. lima. 

tuk*; ]ia])*=fake. 

Vik =give. tone.* 

aliau. van. hoe. na 

io. nin.* ma.* ku. 

ngai. 

(ngau, j\jidaman.) 



INTRODUCTION. Ixi 

I have givpn in Appendix XIY. a list of comparisons for Epy])tian, Afriran, Polynosian, and 
Papuan words. To that Tabic I niipjlit also have added Malay. ThuuRli not a few lndo-(iermanic 
words may occur in (common with ancient Egyptian as well as Tartar, and even modem African ones, 
there would seem to bo a curious linguistic connection l)etween EKy])tian, Malayan, and Polynesian. 
I here append a few special words. It would apjjcar that Archaic M consf)nant might be a very 
important criterion in comparing certain language families, as connection with words connected with 
Eye, Sun, etc., seldom found in Ugro-Altaic langmigcs; where a K or S is frcrjuent — in the radical. 
Tlic personal pronoun me instead of ngo, ego, na, nak, also, as I think Edkins has observed, is essentially 
L'gro-Altaic and North Turanian ; whilst both forms occur in the Aryan languages ; and in Semitic, 
Accadian, Egyptian, and the American, nijo, n-k, arc more common than me. The personal' pronoun, 
and words as for Eye, Foot, Hand, Sun, Fire, Light, Stone (Cut), House, Heath, and Water, are 
especially important for both linguistic and racial c(;mparisoas. 

SUPPLEMEXTAEY— 0^' LAJS'GUAGE, Etc. 

Professor Max Miillcr, in the Report of his Address to the British Association, at Cardiff, 1891, 
specially referred to Baron Bunscn's older work on Egyjjtian Researches into Asiatic and African 
Ethnology and the Classification of Languages, as being still of much value. Both Bunsen and 
W. von Humboldt and Max Miiller would seem to agi'ee as to the vast diifcrence between man and 
monkey as to reason and speech ; and the almost non-probability of an imperceptible, yet steady 
development from mere animal cries to articulate language. Prof. Max Miillcr does not consider 
the modem savage necessarily represents the nearest approaili to primeval Man ; and Bunsen considers 
the languages of modern savages are only "the degraded fragments of nobler formations;" with 
which opinion Herbert Spencer would now seem to agree, though not Sir J. Lubbock and others. The 
Professor agrees with Bunsen that the more modern strata of speech should first be studied ; and 
that language begins with the sentence (with which, in 1875, Prof. Sayce Likewise agreed). Bunsen 
is quoted as stating, "the supreme law of progress in all language shows itself to be the progress 
of the substantial isolated word, as an undeveloped expression of the whole sentence, making each 
single word subservient to the general idea;" and again, " every sound in language must originally 
have been significant of something; and every word must imply a complete proportion with its 
subject predicate and copula." 

The old school of Philology maintained that every sound consisted of an independent significant 
word or root, with certain derivative suffixes, prefixes, and infixes ; the modem one, that there never 
existed such, in or by themselves, and that the theory of agglutination was absurd. Professor 
Max Miillcr thinks more accurate scholars are coming back to the opinion held by the old school, 
e.g. "that all formal elements of language were original, substantial, and also significant, though not 
always proveable." A suffix does not often continue to exist by itself ; and Bunsen was no doubt 
correct in saying that everything in language was originally significative and real, before it became 
formal. Armenian is now shown to be a separate branch of Aryan speech, and the Afghan probably 
of the Persian ; both of which facts Bunsen long ago predicated. Again, that Comparative Philology 
should go hand in hand with Anthropology and Ethnology was the older idea of Bunsen, Latham, 
and others ; but Professor Max Miiller protests against the present rage for separating or classifying 
language according to skulls being dolichocephalic or brachycephalie ; and he does not believe in 
such a thing as " an Aryan skid.1," any more than in the propriety of calling a certain language a 
dolichocephalic one. 

Linguistic Ethnology so called, as a science, is a misnomer or else quite misleading ; and instead 
of classifying mankind as a whole, students are now engaged in classifying skulls, hair, teeth, 
skin, etc. ; probably the old classification according to the colour of the skin may prove the best. 
Skulls may doubtless be arranged in classes, with short, long, or medium diametre (extreme 70: 100) ; 
but we should still find hopeless confusion, so Prof. Max ilullcr thinks, as to their precise nationality ; 
even the same mother may produce a long or short-skulled child. In the same old tombs not 
unfrequently the skulls vary. Two great national divisions of races naturally distinguish by the hair 
being smooth or woolly, again subdivided into wavy, straight or fleecy. Of course there are doubtless 
some advantages in these various classifications, and it is generally supposed that dolichocephalic races 
are also prognathic and more or less woolly-haired, though not the Eskimos. As a matter of fact, 
Prof. Max Miiller thinks it random speaking, to say that dolichocephalic skulls are necessarily Aryan, 
or mesooephalic Semitic, or brachycepalic Turanian ; but if true how can that help us? Each of those 
language-families must contain foreign words. Finnish is full of Aryan words ; and Egyptian of 
Semitic ones. Now the remoter ancestors of Aryan, Semitic, and Turanian peoples must liave lived 
in close proximity, and naturally we must now find great variety of shape in skulls, hair, etc. "They 
might indeed in fact select to speak an Aryan language, but can hardly choose the type of the own 
skull!" ""Who, then, can now say that such and such a skvdl must have spoken an Aryan 
language ? " "When philologists speak of Aryan, they mean people speaking an Aryan langiuige ; and 

I 



Ixli INTRODUCTION. 

Prof. Miiller 'believes that no honest student can admit of any compromise between Physiology and 
Philology, or "that any honest pliilologist can suppijse tliat the original home of the Aryans was not 
somewhere in Asia." Still, the study of anthropology must not he neglected, any more than religion. 

The languages of Africa, Arjerica, Australia, and Polynesia are now heiug far more studied by 
real scholars, and may yield good results. 

Finally, Prof. Max Miiller again quotes ft-om Bunsen (1847), that " if man is the apex of creation, 
then Ethnological Philology (anthropology?) once -established on principles as clear as the Physiological 
are, becomes of the highest interest and importance." 



Professor Max Miiller, in bis " Elements of Language," divides Sanskrit roots into predicative and 
demonstrative ; seen best in the Turanian and Semitic. The two classes may explain everything ia 
language except the roots themselves ; and even the highly inflectional Sanskrit may have been, 
preceded by a stage of great simplicity ; even the 3rd person singular may have been compounded 
of a predicative and demonstrative root. [See my Appendix LI. where it might appear that na, ne, 
nan, etc., standing probably for 'man,' may have at first stood for the primitive pronouns I, thou, 
and he ; and in Appendices LI b. and LV. I have tried to show that even the Aryan root AR itself, as 
well as other Aiyan roots, as IIomo=»(fl«, may be traced back into an An -Aryan Language.] Prof. Max 
Miiller states that roots are necessarih' monosyllabic with 1st one vowel sound only; orV -f- consonant ; 
or C + Y. 2ud, C +V+ C ; or 3rd, with three or four consonants and vowels (see p. x\-ii. Kolbe). The 
first is the most important in primitive language ; but naturally gives too limited and indefinite a power 
for the pui-poses of ever advancing thought ; thus necessitating as it were the second and tliird stages. 
[Was not reduplication one of the principal and earliest sources of the lengthening or strengthening 
of the simplest early sounds of speech ?] and that the Aryan has the third or final stage most highly 
modified. The number of roots in Sanskrit, including all parts of speech, is said to be 1700. Hebrew 
may have 500; Chinese 450 simple radicals without sound-variation; but some 40,000 words possibly 
as soimded, though limited to about 15,000 in ordinary practice. Prof. Max Miiller considers from 
400-500 would give all absolutely necessary human requirements. Persian Cuneiform had 380 ; 
Egyptian hieroglyphics 658 words. Primitive man also might often have employed only one word 
or root, expressive say of light and splendour [eye, sun, etc.]. Roots may also be used as separate 
words, or two roots to form a compound word ; both subsequently losiug their original significance. 
The Chinese is the simplest of all existing languages, and truly monosyllabic ; the so-called Turanian 
with terminal agglutiuative independence ; the Aryan and Semitic is inflectional, and admits of much 
phonetic corruption, both as to roots and terminations. In Chinese the noun is usually distinguished 
from the verb by its collocation in the sentence. In other languages no predicative root can form a 
word by itself. In the agglutinative Turanian, conjugation and declension can be taken to pieces; 
not so in Sanskrit or Hebrew. The Turanian is of great importance in language [but surely requires 
much more investigation in comparing with an Aryan language than it has yet received. — E. P. G.]. 
There are two great divisions of the so-called Turanian, Prof. Max Miiller states, viz. : the Northern 
one, or Ural-Altaic or Uro-Altaic, consisting of the Tungusic, Mongolic, Turkic, Finnic and Samoyic ; 
and the Southern in South Asia, inchuling the Tamulio language of the Deccan ; the Bhotiya, or 
dialect of Thibet and Bhotan, the Taic and the Malay. 

[Perhaps most of the American languages show the " root-form," as well as the Asiatic Turanian.] 



Dr. 0. Schrader in "Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples, and Manual of its Comparative 
Philology and Earliest Culture," second edition, translated by F. B. Jevons, 1890, gives a vast amount 
of valuable matter relative to the resemblance and differences of the different branches of the Indo- 
European peoples, their culture, haliits, myths, family life and kinship, domestic animals, ])lants, 
metals, and weapons, and their equational-cognatc; nauu's, etc., to which I can barely allude in this 
more general work on Archaic Philology. He also gives a very complete reaume of the opinions of the 
prin(i])al writers on the Iiulo-Europeau origin (juestion, both as to race and langiuigc. He finally 
considers the most probable and convenient locus for the "Cradle of tlie Aryan Race" (who must 
originally have been but one people, witli possibly two or three dialects), to have been in tlie country 
of the Soutlieni Volga, extending north of the Danube and Black Sea, from tlu; Cai-])athian Jlountains 
to the Dnieper, and including the (•clehrated "black land" of the Soutliern Russic Steppes, incluiHng 
Gallicia and Bessarabia, still the granaries of Europe; and that at first they were evidently a pastoral 
people. They were inclined to 1)(! peaceable and did not know the Lion, Ass, or Camel ; but the 
Horse, and most of the well-known domestic animals they wore accjuainted with, or had words in 
common for. Also in the suiTounding forests they would find the Oak, Beech, and Birch. This centre, 
too, would be a very favourable one from which to spread North, West or Soutli. It would also well 
explain the early linguistic conn(xtion with the Finns. Salt is also to be foimd in these Steppes (or 
on the shores of the Caspian Sea ?) The Wolf, Marten, Polecat, Mouse, and WUd Boar occur in these 



INTRODUCTION. Ixiii 

ronioiis. [With tliis rontrc of tlic Aryan race Canon Cook and Canon Taylor and others nffroe ; I 
should mysi'lf be inclined to include all the country to the north of the Caucasus.] l)r. Sclirader 
would further consider that the Irano-Indian lu'anches nuiy have formed us they preceded to the .S.E., 
])robably by way of the Sea of Aral and the O.xus, a secondary and at first stationary centre as it were, 
in or about Bactriana, before penetrating into India, as 1 understand him.* Also that words for boat 
and navigation were not well linguistically developed; the earliest pastoral Aryans of the Steppes 
were rather later; but tliat common tonus connecteil with agriculture, and building of waggons or 
carts, etc., were evidently well marked. They were well aci[uainted with barley and lye, but not 
with M'hcat. [Professor Virchow has lately shown that the I^ake Dwellers of Switzei'land arc 
brachycephalic] lint words for Sea {marc), etc., are found in most of the iirimeval European 
Aryan langimges. [Similar water-words are often nearly univer.sal. — li. 1*. G.] Dr. Schrader 
goes very largely into the question of Aiyan words for metals, and I think would seem to consider 
it doubtful to what extent such words are purely Aryan. Latin aes, copper, may come of the oldest 
and most general. Sanskrit, dyas ; Gothic, aiz ; /end, ayand. From various writers, quoted by 
Dr. Schrader, 1 gath(-r the most Eastern Teutonic is the oldest ; the Slavonic is nearest the Lithuanian ; 
the Indian to the Persian. Sonne thought that the Turanians subsequently closed in between the 
European and Iranian branches, quite separating them. The Teutons branched out into the 
Scandinavians; the Agennis to Danes. Some think Celtic most near to Latin, but possibly one branch 
of it to the Slavs. Dr. Schrader gives what he considers the special earliest centres for each division 
of the Aryan family, and the probable natural order of their status, e.g. : (1) Steppe and Forest land; 
(2) Pasture and Agriculture ; (3) Divisions into European and Indo-European — the European-Aryans 
first. J. Schmidt, as well as Dr. Schrader, considers the tracing of the phonetic changes in the letters 
of the different Aryan languages important. An original K changed sometimes into a sibilant, as 
Sanskrit, f?'rtH = dog; Armenian, sun; Greek, kvwu (German, Jtund) ; Greek, o7o^Sanskrit, dsti ; 
Greek, ^e'A:a=Latin, decern. [The common change of K into S is nearly universal in all languages, 
see p. 49.] 

Armenian is i-ather intermediate between Iranian and Slavo-Lettish ; and Slavo-Lettish perhaps 
nearer Irano-Indian than with Greek and other European Languages. Dr. Schrader himself considers 
that the Indo-Germanic languages must involve a single primitive one, e.y. : all have pater, pitar, 
and mater, etc., for father and mothtr, rather than the ordinary and widespread ab, aba, pa ; am, 
ma, etc. There were probably very early differences even before migrations ; and in new countries and 
climates many new words loaned or acquired. The population of Genuany embraced two types, one 
fair one dark, and so with Iranian and Slaves (and Finns), and is more brachycephalic in the South 
than North; as also in France, India, and Italy. The Aryan type is not a very unifoiTU one, either 
historically, physically, or as regards skulls ; it requires comparative philology and a study of culture to 
succeed more fully. The general word for /-ed is very widespread, and similar words amongst most of 
the Aryan nations ; also for some kinds of grain, plants, and domestic animals. Similar words may also 
have arisen by an instinctive linguistic process, and many new ones coined as occasion required ; in 
this way any new words of course, to say nothing of loan and merely onomatopic ones, must have 
arisen from time to time in the different branches of the Aryan family as they spread into new 
countries (having autochthonous popidation). Thei'e is a closer connection betwixt Teutonic with 
both Celtic and Slavonic than with Greek or Latin ; but which was the older is not clear. [The root 
AR, to plough, land, etc., I have already referred to, see Appendix LIV. and also Max Miiller and 
Schrader, p. 283.] 

In Aryan languages the suifix is as important as the root ; but Benfey observes that some caution 
is reqmsite in comparing similar Aryan words having relation to culture and cognates, which even 
seem most closely to agree. Some Aryan suffixes may have been primeval, or co-existent with the 
older roots ; others nuiy Iwve been lost or casual. The original meaning also in an Indo-Gennanic 
■word-equation is important both in itself and grammatically ; e.g. dni^trce or oak. Words like 
pater, mater, must have been primcvally peculiar to the Aryan family, and very antiquated. The 
original meaning, say of oka, oiku?, veca, is not clear, nor that of Latin ^/w;/»(.s=;house, home ; Sanskrit 
dama ; Slavonic domu. 

[N.B. — Oka is probably of old Turanic origin, and a widespread Archaic name for house or hut ; 
see page 56 Vocabulary, also 7iO!M«:=hut, hu, hat, haz ; page 304 ; the original meaning may have 
been, skin, cover, tent, as cog-nates ; and the Sanskrit j!?i</-=village, fort '? Accadian hir, and 
Mongol gur (? nru)^iov:n. I agree with Professor Abel and some others, that the ancient Egyptian 
language requires a careful examination in connection with Sanskrit and Indo-European words. It is 
not yet settled from whence or when sprung the ancient dominant Egyptians ; they are stated to be 
sub-doliohocephalic by Topinard ; (and throwing out Semitic words) there are not a few words closely 

* Might it not be natural to consider Armenian to have been the intermedi.ite step to Iran and Indian, of the S.E. 
Aryans than by the Oxus and Caspian ; and that they would have remained a considerable time in Iran or Bactriana, before 
proceeding on to India ? If so, may not old Zend be older than Sanskrit ? Or contain words as old, or less specialized ? 



IxIt introduction. 

agreeing witli both Mongol and Aiyan, more especially with the latter (see elsewhere). Topinard 
states that the Celts were probably the first to leave the Aryan parent stock. The so-called Caucasian 
Allophyles were whites ; but it is not clear \\liut peoples were included by that designation, nor who 
were the autochthonous (? white pre-Aryan population in Em-ope prior to the Aryan invasions)]. 

Kremer says, according to Schrader, that there are a considerable number of Teutonic and Letto- 
Slavic loan words in West Finnic, and which may be some of the oldest of Teutonic words ; the most 
genuine Finnic words, as Jcota=z\n\t, belong to the East Finnic division {i.e. Ostiaes, Woguls, and 
Mordvins). Vambery considers the more widcl}' extended Turko-Tartaric languages do not, inter se, 
vary nearly so mucli as do the Aryan. Its original home was probably between the Altaic mountains 
and' the Caspian. The Magyars come nearer the Ural-Altaic than to the Finnic, and perhaps later. 
The earliest limits of the Ural-Altaic Turanians in S.E. Asia are not at present thoroughly understood. 

Dr. Schrader gives very many interesting Aryan words and word-equations in his book, some of 
which may be useful for comparison with Turanian words, etc., but I received the book too late for 
the purposes of my own rather meagre Vocabulary of Aryan words. 



SEMITIC. 

Kremer (Dr. Schrader states, page 96) thought Central Asia to have been the cradle of the 
Semites, about Bokhara and the Oxus, whence they got the Camel, Ass, Dog, etc., and came on thence 
southwards to Arabia through Mesopotamia. Semite words are richer than Aryan in warlike words 
and for wild beasts; and they may first have used the Horse for war purposes (? the Assyrians). Some 
writers, as E. Schrader and Sprcnger, have considered, however, Arabia was the original home of the 
Semites, who proceeded northwards into Mesopotamia ; but tlie later and more scientific idea now is 
that the Semites first went southwards from Mesopotamia, and which must have been their earlier 
home, as Kremer well shows. The Semites are liighly dolichocephalic, a white race, and have a fine 
physique, and I should myself be inclined to place the Semitic primeval cradle further north, say 
either in Ai-menia before the arrival of the S.E. Aryans, by whom they may have been cbiven out 
into Mesopotamia ; or else say in Central or Northern Persia, wliere there are large deserts somewhat 
similar to Arabia, where they woxild be acquainted with the Camel and the Ass ; and that they may 
have at first crossed over into South Arabia by the narrow Straits of Omiuz (as they afterwards did 
into Ethiopia and Abyssinia), and gradually worked their way up north into Mesopotamia ; or in 
fact have arrived in South Arabia either way. All this, however, is mere conjecture. As I have 
previously stated, I do not find the siiiipler class of Semitic words or roots throw much light on Archaic 
Philology of America. Edkins has noticed some Thibetan words (see p. 164), and at p. 163 I have 
given a few comparisons for Semitic and Turanian words. There are said to be about 100 Semitic. 
words in Greek ; these may have come in through the Phffinieians. There are of course many Semitic 
words in later Egyptian ; and I believe the matter of linguistic analogies between the Arj-an and the 
Semitic has been fuller discussed by the learned. The possible question as to how the so-called 
proto-Aryans, Cushites, and proto-Semites, and even early northern intruders into Egypt, may have 
been connected, remains, I fancy, at present unsolved. Also as to who were the Libyans ; or who 
were the Allophyllic whites and Caucasians of Quatrcfage ? or the autochthonous ■ndiite races of 
Europe prior to the spread of the Aryans, and whether brachycephalic* Any way there must have 
been other white races in Europe and S.W. Asia than the early Aryans and Semites, and the so-called 
Caucasian races, or Asiatic whites, may have to be included. 



In his Preface to "The Principles of Comparative Philology" (2nd edition, 187.5), Prof. A. H. 
Sayce remarks, that "ultimate phoiu^tic elements are to be found in groups of allied words," but 
never could alone have formed a real language, but the " root -period" may represent an early .synthetic 
stage of language, and might pos.sibly represent "a sentence-word" which in a later stage would be 
broken up into se])arate words and forms. "Each class of language would luive their own roots, 
though their is no cause to suppose that the roots of all languages are the same. Tlie phenomena of 
each language would have separately to explain their root-characteristics in the sense of sentence- words. 
Prof. Sayce (p. 136) consid(>rs that language deals with the sentence and not with the isolated word; 
and rather agrees with Waitz and others, wlio consider language has originated out of natural cries. 
Each cry is equivalent to a sentence however; and perception becoming knowledge, it becomes 
imj)ortant to determine liow a word assists other words in making up a sentence, rather than what 
a word signifies," and separate syllables may be often as significant as separate words. Possibly the 
incorporating langiiag(3s of America, in wliicli an individual action is shown in a single sentence, 
present a lower gradi! of consciousness than the more analytic agglutinative languages ; and not 
improbably the (Turanian) agglutinative ones whidi analyse the primitive sentence and distinguish 

* Professor YircUow has shown that the Swiss Lake Dwellers of the Stone .\go were biaehyeephalic. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixv 

its component parts arc really in advance of the inflectional ones. Pi-of. Max Miiller lias stated that 
all three classes of languaRcs, y'vz,., the isolating, the agglutinative, and the inflectional ones sometimes 
trespass on each other. The Aryan, however, has always appeared to be inflectional, and it is donbtful 
if it ever passed through an agglutinative j)rocess. Prof. Sayce considers the " IJcvelopment theory 
of language neither proved nor j)rovable." A family of language will long remain more or less tru(! 
to its type. Finnic idioms are always agglutinative, though its verbal forms may be inflectional or 
Aryan. Prof. Sayce, and I think correctly so, thinks it undesirable that the Aryan languages should 
be so generally taken to be the standard to judge all others, or as having been jjcrtectc'd after having 
first passed through the isolating agglutinative stages ; that the forms of grammar may often have 
arisen by phonetic decav, and that tlu; growth of our Aryan flections out of (pate ind(!pendent words 
may indicate not a primitive agglutinative process, but a pre-existing instinctive analogy. He does 
not believe men e\er spoke to each other in roots, and that "pro-nominal roots would never have been 
heard of had the Turanian tongues been the primary sul)ject of enquiry;" and that more, probably, 
is to be learnt from analogy and living speech than from dead literature ; and that comparative 
grammar and syntax has only recently been commenced in earnest. 

In Chapter I. Prof. Sayce, and also Schott (page 21), would include under Uyrian, the Finnic, 
Lapp, Mordvinian, Tchercmissian, Votiak, Zyrianian, and Vogulian ; and under Alfaie, Turkish-Tartar, 
Mongolian, Tungusian ; and that the Samoicdian nuiy lie midway between the Ugric and Altaic, and 
with which tlie Basque may probably be grouped, and of course the Accadian.* The Chinese depends 
greatly on Ihne, rather than syntax; in English it is the reverse. Accent generally would go with 
gesticulation, and represent syntax to primitive man. The principle of Phonetic decay tends to take 
the place of emphasis. In Language, consciousness first shows itself in the "period of roots," and 
then Comparative Philology commenced (p. 41); before that, only such instinctive beginnings existed 
as lead up to articulate. It is only where a group of cognate languages has changed but little, that 
wo can go back beyond the invention of writing. Prof. Whitney (p. 43) says, in reference to the study 
of Comparative Philology, "That language is the instrument of thought, and should deal with simple 
words and phrases, not with sentences ; and should follow out the successive steps of growth and of the 
laws which may govern its mutations, or best account for both its imity and variety." 

In the study of Language Professor Sayce considers Phonology is of much importance in the laws 
relating to speech, showing that both the changes and kinship of words phonetically identical may 
have little or nothing to do with each other. Words are valuable chiefly as they may reflect or 
embody thought. f Gutturals may not unfrequently be either dropped or retained (? and hard 
consonants softened). Some common cause must often bo at work in respect to phonetic changes 
{vide Grimm's Law). Language proper is not that of gesture, but of conscious articulate speech, and 
separates man from animals. We have to compare not mere sounds, but the process of thought 
involved. We may compare roots, but not derivatives. Words even from the same radical often 
assume different forms in Language. We should only compai-e roots together in (HfFerent languages, 
when both sound and meaning fairly agree, and not apply the rules of phonetic change in one language 
to those of another. I A specialist in only one or two languages can hardly succeed in the general 
Science of Comparative Philology. Much and varied division of labour is refjuisite, and a good deal 
of labour has often to be received on trust. A philologist rather than a linguist is more likely of 
success ; and even occasional en'oi's, spread over a wide field, are not always of so much importance. 

In Chapter II. Prof. Sayce proceeds to consider, that a too exclusive study, say of the Semitic 
or Aryan may be carried too far; the Aiyan is only one out of many families of languages; and 
probably an exceptional one. Aryan roots are monosyllabic ; and possibly the Chinese is less so than 
commonly supposed ; and Edkins thinks there were once longer railicals now graded down. Bleek 
thinks the primitive Bantu (of S.E. Africa), language consists even now chiefly of polysyllabic 
roots (see also Kolbe). If the Aryan and Semitic languages are to be duly compared, it must be in 
connection with the structure of their Grammar, rather than through the Lexicon. Some of the older 
forms of roots might be found in Egyptian and Assyrian."' The origin of the so-called " Semitic 
hiliteral roots arose either from phonetic decay or were loan words. The bulk of Egyptian words were 
not Semitic. In Aryan the roots were certainly verbal, though not necessarily so, or with all languages. 
Accadian has both nominal and verbal roots. The Semitic verb was frequently a noun, but not 
necessarily so the Aryan, where the object lay at the bottom of the language. Michigan states that 
the Tasmanian had words representing the objective, e.g. for hard they say "like a stone ; " § for round 
like a ball," or the "moon." 

The Korth American Cherokees had thirteen different ways to express particular kinds, say, 

• In my Vocabularies I have included the Altaic of Prof. Saj'ce, more generally as East Tartar including Mongolian, 
and his Ugric, including the Samoiediani as Ugro- Altaic as a mere convenient and comprehensive term. 

t As well also perhaps — emotion or feeling. — E. P. G. 

J It is curious how most philologists seem to have neglected the comparison of cognates for the same word or its 
analogies for different languages ; as well as attaching pei'haps undue importance to the Sanskrit. 

§ It constantly happens in most Archaic and Savage languages, that hard, strong, cut, knife, round = siOHc. 



Ixvi INTEODUCTION. 

of ■wasliing, but no abstract ■word for washing. [Does not this tend to sbow the importance in studying 
Ai'chaic laugiuige ; of considering cognate forms and ideas, as e.g. l(()le for botli moutli or cave ; son, 
shoot, or high, for tree ; shoulder, hcad:=i\nR (?) etc.] Dialects of Barbai-ian tribes often change rapidly, 
Polynesian and lied .Indian especially. Even amongst the Basques there are several patois. The 
study of Aryan alone is not sufficient to form any system of Glottology, though Aryan is the most 
perfect of languages in its verbal arrangements. In American languages the idea of time or tense 
is often deficient ; and only personal aiTangements fully indicated ; often giving very roundabout modes 
of linguistic expression. The Accadian even had only two tenses. The various words and tenses of 
the Aryan verb may have been created chiefly by suffixing various pronouns and verbal radicals, some 
of which might belong to an older period than otliers. The moods and tenses foiTued tlirough the 
help of another verb are of secondai-y antiquity. Sanski-it, however, has but few verbal roots. 

Chapter III. Idolum of Primitive Language Centres. — The Aryan and Semitic are not in any . 
way related. The Unity of Language is a more plausible than likely theory. Oue apparently radical 
sound may have a totally dift'erent meaning [often, however, with many cognates ?] The Basque is 
probably Turanian. Grammar is not so changeable as words or pronunciation. The modern races of 
men link a selected residuum of older ones. "VVe cannot say if early language was communistic or 
individual ; and primitive mankind probably lived in isolated groups or families ; and there were at 
a veiy early period already many dialects, as in America now. It was at first possibly diversity rather 
than unity. Different climates and conditions would tend to produce diversity of dialect and words. 
Even in Greek there are roots not found in more than one dialect. In short Prof. Sayce rather 
concludes that languages at first were more sliifting and numerous than subsequently. 

Chapter lY. The Theory of three stages of Development ; as well shown in Chinese, Tm-kish, 
and Sanskrit ; i.e. an isolating stage with roots, agglutinations, and inflections. 

The verb has the idea of action. Probably prepositions arc old substantives. Language is based 
rather on the sentence than on words and roots. [This is hardly susceptible of proof ? I doubt it, and I 
find the Eev. C. J. Ball rather agrees with me. — R. P. G.j Culture and civilization can seldom change 
the real character even of isolating languages. The North Amei'iean Indian languages are generally 
polys^-nthetic ; i.e. where the sentences may be fused together into a long compound [has not modern 
German the same tendency ?] The Accadian was an incoi-porating language, as in-bat^^c opened ; 
ni-nin-baf^n.' opened it; this also occurs in Basque; as didac:=jovi have it from uicz=d-id-aii-c (au 
being the verbal root). There is more difference between incorporation and polysynthctism than between 
incorporation and inflection. Prof. Sayce thinks an analysis of Aryan inflections might go far back 
towards an agglutinarive peiiod (and possibly of Semitic likewise) ; at least as far as the verb is 
concerned. Modem Aryan languages tend to return to the simplicity of the primitive Aryan verb, 
though the pronoun may have become subjective. But there would seem something in Aiyan that 
points to a primary inflectional instinct which tended to shape the sentences as soon as conscious speech 
arrived, and which led both Arj-an and Semitic to adopt almost meaningless suffixes, at first possibly 
phonetically, "to fonu grammatical inflection." The primary Semitic vowels were a, i, u. The 
flectional growth of the Aryan verb was later than that of the noun (tor=tlie present tense in the 
Sanski-it Yeda, fi-om whence father, mother^to cross?). Prof. Sayce (page 159) then goes into the 
question of the origin of Aryan inflection, which possibly might have been different from the earliest 
or more primitive one. "We cannot say what really may have been the earliest form or condition of 
the Aryan language ; and that the case-suffixes are grammatical forms, possibly of jihonetic origin ; 
now, their meaning connects one part of a sentence with another. Edkins says "the Turanian case- 
suffixes are alwaj's pronouns when the possessive and objective arc in ([uestion." 

Agghitinative langiuiges do not ex])ress the relations of granimai' by pronominal suffixes, but by 
help of ])ust-fixcd sulistantives and verbs or particles, each with a ditfercnt meaning of its own. The 
Aryan, so far as known to Glottology, has always been inflectional. We do not know enough about 
the ultimate Aryan roots, except as entangled in later words. j- 

Professor Whitney (]i. KiH) is a strong ad-\-ocate of the Aryan Language having descended from an 
original monosyllabic tongue, but this Prof. Sayce holds to be most improbable, however much assisted 
even by the use of gesture. 

Chapter V. Possibility of mixture in the Grammar and Vocabulary of a Language. 

Language alone is not a true index of race. The !Melanesians have a good deal in common with 
Papuans in language, but arc distinct races (see elsewhere). There is a tendency in some languages 
and civilizations to borrow \\'ords, and even to adopt grammar from others. The Tamil plural gal or 
kal has been traced to ta!a=ii crowd in Dravidiau. 

In North American Indian languages the plural affix is often inteicalated between the noun and 
the case, ending like a post-position; and also in Georgian with the plural suffix bi. The Berber (and 

• Tlint perhaps wmjki not exclude flie proljaliility of many natural early sounds of liumnn speech from being widely in 
use, as a/: sound for words expressive of pain, surprise, darkness, ete. ; also for aetion, motion, bigness, etc. — K. 1*. G. 

t See I'rof. Sehleirel on Aryan and Chinese roots. I'robably the Greek and Teutouie show the "root" better than 
the Sanskrit. Is not the idea of I'riiuary Aryau iufieetiunal instinct rather theoretical ? 



INTRODUCTION. ]xvii 

Amluirie ?) lias a strong Semitic influence. Sanskrit may have Tjon-owcd somcwliat from tlie Bravidian 
of South India (as well as vice vcrsd 'i). Labials have been in part lost by the inhabitants of the west 
coast of South America (see p. xxix.). Many words of languages perish in course of time. Sinular 
•words may liave been borrowed, or are ouly accidentally like, as the North American 2'oto»ific=zrivcT 
and the Greek tto'to/jo?. The laws which govern the comparison of phonetic sounds, enable us often 
to reach back to the earliest form of a word in each group of languages, and see if they may be or not, 
a loan word. 

Professor Sayce thinks that words connected with a higher civilization in the Semitic are derived 
from Accadian ; so that »<;-('=:city Accadian (Assyrian urii) may have been borrowed from the Turanian 
\_ur, ira, are also Dravidian]. 

Chapter VI. The Doctrine of Roots. — According to Professor Sayce, language would start with 
the sentence not with the word ; and that words must have grown out of the sentence.* In Aryan the 
indistinct sound r and I, branched out into two consonants [surely this interchange of r and I was 
not confined to the Aryan ; it was, I think, Archaic, and nearly universal] ; as e and t does in the 
Sandwi(!h Isles [« and t interchanges arc also Archaic, and very common]. The existence of 
coijipounds is pi-obably a mark of lateness in language. We must trace the growth of early phonetic 
distinctions by Glottology, which has nothing to do with the bow-wow or imitation theory. The 
earlier attempt to work out Aryan roots was a failure; "there was no primeval language," says 
Prof. Sayce, p. 2 1 9 ; f and it does not follow that words in different languages were necessarily derived 
in a similar way [how is it that so many similar short words or souuds in diiferent languages so often 
express a similar or cognate idea?]. The Aryan is rather diiferent in this respect from (jther languages. 
The Tasmanians said things round were " like the moon." [How is it so many words in most 
languages meaning round contain an I sound ? See Appendix XXXVIII.] 

The parent-Aryan language must even then have been comparatively the language of civilized 
man. It is doubtful if md meant originally to fashion or measure, but more jjrobably mother ; 
and that mdter was a later formation. The old Sanskritists wrongly supposed that a certain number 
of monosyllabic vocables, with a common vague meaning, ever necessarily formed part of an actual 
language. The root may have originally denoted an individual object or action, and afterwards in 
part been lost or phonetically altered. There may have been some attempt at inflection, even at 
a very early stage of the root-period, and even the Aryan may have possessed a much simpler or 
more Archaic form of language, and was succeeded, perhaps, by what Professor Sayce (p. 226) calls 
the Epithet period, and the inoon, say, might well be called " the measurer ; " many words may have 
been more epithets (? adjectives) ; and new words had to be coined often out of old material as it were. 
In some American languages na, ni, ?H<^my, are constantly prefixed to the substantive [as also in 
certain African languages, I believe], J and probably along with the epithet "period" came the personal 
pronouns, which, according to Bleek, may have at first been nouns of ceremony, as servant, lord, etc. 

The Caribs express the same idea by very different roots ; as in English or Sanskrit, so may words 
meaning to go. In Turanian, in a tribe of fifty persons, no less than four dialects have been noticed, 
each with a difitcrcut word for eye, head, etc. Prof. Sayce objects to the idea that roots are simply 
interjections or imitations of sounds [though why some roots or sounds as ma, ak, etc., should not have 
been I do not quite see]. "Roots are not interjectional or emotional, although they may have grown 
out of them." Semitic roots never have been resolved into ultimate elements. Many Aryan roots 
are even really compounds, as Sanskrit yudh^i/u-tha. Turanian and Accadian roots, though often 
apparently simple, contain also compounds, as in /s=a heap; ^=" house" forming; <;»■ = " a building"; 
and me "multitude "+cs = mes, "many." This shows a very remote period. Our own English 
simplicity of grammar is the result of a long series of generalisms, and is expressive of condensed 
thought, regardless of any ideal unity. Probably at first no distinction between r and I. Finnish has 
only eleven consonants. Polynesian seldom ten. Some nations cannot pronounce certain letters or 
Bounds. In the root-period there was probably much vagueness in sound, grammar, and meaning. 
Where the pronoun has been successfully analyzed, even in inflectional languages, it has turned out 
to be an old substantive. | The "Pronominal Root theory" is the result of the improbable theory 
that the inflectional stage of the Aryan was preceded by an agglutinative stage. 

Chapter VII. The Metaphysics of Language. — Treats in part of the question of Gender. Different 
nations have from two to even eighteen genders (as some of the Kafiirs) ; whilst according to Bleek 
there is no gender in agglutinative and isolating languages; but occasionally a difference in endings, 
as /M«=daughter ; fup=ison (as in Ostiac) ; and probably M. F. and X. were primarily merely so many 

* Surely a primeval savage could hardly have contemplated or perfected a grammatical sentence, as an Englishman or 
Frenchman, from his inner consciousness. — E. P. G. 

t There may have heen, as I have elsewhere tried to show, a considerable number of Archaic semi-natural simple 
expressive souuds, very early widely spread, arising out of emotional or imitative, or interjectional speech. — R. P. G. 

X I have attempted, in Appendix LI., to show that iia, ni, etc., appear to have been the equivalent of a nearly universal 
Archaic pronoun (I, thou, he) ; and may also have had an original meaning = ™«h. — E. P. G. 

5 Probably, originally, all the personal pronouns were iia, etc. =man. See Appendix LI. 



Ixviii IXTRODUCTIOX. 

difperent pronouns, each of -n-liicli appropriated a certain class of nouns. The Thihetan masculine 
suffix is: j)a-po=ziatlieY; feminine suffix, j«fl-MO=mother, where the primitive substantives have not 
yet become mere pronominal suffixes. [See also Kolbe's Bantu language.] Prof. Sayoe accepts 
Bleek's theory, slightly modiiied (p. 269). In some languages the numeral changes, according to the 
noun objects to be numbered. Articles may have begun as nouns, and then have their initial changed 
so as to harmonize with that of the attached substantive. Prof. Sayce considers gender a secondary 
accident of speech ; and Englisli has di'opped actual gender-distinction, except in the personal pronouns. 
(Dual.) Almost everywhere we meet still with a dual, both for substantives as well as verbs, which 
tends gradually to turn into the plural ; and there must have been a time when the idea of plurality 
could not have been fully conceived ; two of course being first used. Some savages can only count up 
to 2 or 3. Tlie Kharuatic languages often want a plural to nouns altogether. In Accadian bi^ 
cither he or they (in some languages ni?) Some nations have not even yet gone beyond the dual. 
Reduplication is of course both a natural as well as a common device.* Superlatives commenced with 
reduplication; as Accadian, (/(7/-/7«/=: very great ; Mandingo, diiii/-(7niff=Tery ]ittic child; reduplication 
also intensifies. In Cherokee, the first person is divided into duality ; and Papuan into a trinal form. 
In Annatom, ainijal^l; akaijan^yow two + I, you three, etc. In Malay M/««=:man=I. The Aryan 
plural is formed by a final .s. Hebrew plural -lin (amu). Assyrian, -a (masc. plu. -?'.) From numbers, 
Prof. Sayce goes on to cases, wldch need not here specially be refeiTcd to, as not sufficiently Archaic. 
As to verbs, in Chinese, positioti alone decides ; if a word is used as a noun, adjective, adverb, or 
preposition ; ng6 = I, is simply placed before a root as in English, e.g. I beat ; and likewise in Accadian. 
Generally, however, the personal pronoun is affixed or suffixed with the root. 
Chap. VIII. Philology and Religion. 

Chap. IX. Influence of Analogy in Language, in which Prof. Sayce notices the phenomena of 
the phonetic decay of words ; but new conceptions or grammatical relation are mostly due to habit 
or laziness. Italian is more readily learned, as smoother in its inflections, than German. The influence 
of the linguistic process leads to the reduction of the number of anomolous forms to one type. Post 
and arm are analogous in idea. Turanian idioms often only slightly conceal their radicals ; and very 
slightly add changes to alter the meaning, e.g. kah-isen^to liit ; keh-isen^io boil. Some languages 
accentuate the first syllable ; others the penultimate. (See Whitney, on Study of Languages.) Even 
our own English vowels have changed in sovmd the last three centuries ; e replaces /, and a and i have 
often become diphthongs. In Arabic u marks a passive sense ; a generally used in an active one ; and 
this was the tendency even in the older Semitic. There has been a general tendency in change from 
the Euplionic to the significant vowel. The tliree stages of language probably pass more or less 
insensibly into each other. The reduplicated perfect is the oldest contrivance of speech for marking 
the past and future extension of time. In the chief modern European languages, Lubbock calculated 
only 2 in 1000 words as evidently reduplicated ; in Savage ones 38-170 per 1000. Analogy may, 
however, sometimes change the whole character and even syntax of a language. Old Egyptian was 
once an affix-language, and Coptic its descendant, a prefix one. One nation or language may come to 
influence another. In English flection has nearly disappeared. [In Turanian Turkish flection is said 
to be only commencing]. Prof. \Yhitney (" Life and Growth of Language,") reduces the changes of 
word-signification constantly going on to two processes ; one, the specialization of the general ; the 
other, to the generalization of the .special. But the agent of change is generally through analogy, as 
Prof. Sayce calls it. " Language, as the expression of thought, is also the treasure-house of worn out 
metaphors." The mere .simple sound of a word, is its outer husk, and may call up new sounds and 
associations of new ideas and therefore of new words. A large part of our Aryan mythology, as 
Max M filler has pointed out, has been derived fi'om homonyms and synonyms by phonetic decay of 
forgotten words. Daphne^the laurel, and daphie=iih.c da'mi, both from the .Sanskrit root dah=zio biu'n. 
There was a natural tendency to repeat the same sound or combination (alliteration) ; and this may 
have led to rhyme in poetry. The influence of Analogy has always been immense to influence and _ 
fashion human speech. 

Appendix I. The routes followed by the "Western Aryans into Europe. 

Professor Sayce lias (since 1875) a good deal modified his views on this subject, and changed the 
supposed Cradle of the Aryan race from tlie Hindu-Kush to Lithuania and the Baltic (sec elsewliere.) 
The whole striji of land fi-om the Caspian Sea to tlie Persian Gidf was at tlie earliest time possessed 
by a Turanian population. f The present Finns would liave gone North. Tliere would seem to be no 
trace of Aryan in Accadian. AVhen tlic Aryans moved, they already had left tlie root-period behind, 
and could not have borrowed from the Accadian. Ilumlioldt thought the present Sea of Aral (then 
niudi enlarged, and including the Caspian Sea) divided the Western Aryan from the Eastern Ugric 
Turanians; in tliis I'rof. Sayce does not agree, though it has been lately again taken up by Professor 
Huxley and others (see elsewhere). 

* Expressive both of Plurnlity and Siiporlntivc. — K. P. G. 

t See elsewhere in this Intrndiiition. It nii^'lit lie rather in tlio regions between the Caucasus ami Volga that the 
Cradle of the Aryan liace only might naturally be sought 'i 



INTRODUCTION. Ixfx 

In tlic "Academy," September 5111, 1891, Professor Sayco gives a sliort notic'e of the <lth edition, 
Part I., of Prof. A. Fick's <^rv:it Dictionary of the Indo-European Langtiafi;es (Gottingen : Vanderhoc'ck 
and lluprecht). In tliia ^\■ork, the antliropological as well as linguistic proldenis of Comparative 
Philology have, Prof. Sayce observe.?, both been maturely and hand-in-hand cousiderod ; and contains 
a masterly and lucid though short Introduction of his views on the subject. 

"The tabic of different sounds possessed liy tlio Parent-Speech is not as largo as that which is found in 
the pages of Brugniann. Brugniann's neutral vowel, for example, is wanting, and Pick believes that the 
sonant 6 was unknown to the iiriniitive Aryans. He regards the Kast-Aryans y and /• as more original than 
the AVest-Aryan /■ and velar q ; and ho still holds, in a modified form, to the theory of the in(ie[)endei]t 
growth of the several Indo-European languages, which was once the .subject of so mucli controversy between 
himself and .lohaiuK's Schmidt. These languages he con.siders, fall into throe gmups, Kastern, Western, and 
Intermediate, each group developing separati;ly and without being iuHuenced by jinother. If .Si-hmidt'.s views 
were correct, ' the members of the intermediate group would exhibit original linguistic formations, peculiar 
only to it and one or other of the two gi'oups on cither side of it. In the case of the Eastern group, the 
common stock of words would exist in Iranian and Slavonic, Greek and Phrygo-Armcnian, Teutonic and 
Lithuanian. I find nothing in the common vocabularies of these langu.ages which would indicate a continual 
and fruitful contact.' The Eastern branch will have been the first to .separate itself from the mother-speech." 

"The Eastern or Iranian branch. Prof. Fick further argues, left the primitive hive before agriculture wa,s 
known to the Aryans, or at any rate was developed to any considerable extent. But here I think he depends 
too much upon negative evidence. A nomadic life is not favourable to agriculture and the retention of 
agricultm-al terms in a vocabulary ; and it therefore does not follow that such terms did not exi.st in the 
Parent-Speech, because the Iranian emigrants no longer possessed them when they first become known to us. 
Upon negative evidence only, we should be obliged to maintain that the jirimitive Aryans were unacquainted 
with seas, lakes, or rivers; and yet the existence of a word for 'boat' in both the Eastern and Western 
branches of the Indo-European family of speech shows that such a conclusion would be false. We must 
wait to see what light M. de Morgan will have thrown upon the subject by his excavations in the prehistoric 
tumuli of Northern Persia." 

" Prof. Fick does not touch upon the question, which has of late been so greatly exercising the minds of 
the anthropologists ; who were the primitive Aryans, the original speakers of the Indo-European languages, 
and from whence did they come ? Nor does he refer to Penka's suggestion, that the leading phonetic 
differences which mark oft' one Indo-European language from another are due to the inability of a conquered 
population to pronounce the language of their masters. Prof. Rhys has recently based an ingeniou.s theory 
upon this suggestion in order to account for the transformation of qii into p." 

" Professor Sayce wishes he could find space to reproduce Prof. Fick's words upon the nature of roots. 
But contents himself with quoting a passage from the Hindu grammarian Bhartrihari, which shows that even 
in India protests ha\'e been raised against the grammatical system which Bopp introduced into Europe, and 
translated into the materialistic terms of European logic. 

" ' The significant element in language is the sentence, not the letter or the word. Individual word.s 
have as little real existence as roots, stems, or suffixes ; like these, words are the artificial creations of the 
grammarian, whose object is to assist the defective intelligence.' 

" After this Prof. Sayce finds it difficult to understand Prof. Fick's attitude in regard to the primitive 
Indo-European suffixes ; what proof can there be, that they were ever separable from the forms to which they 
belong, much more that they were ever independent words ?" (See elsewhere.) 

[I have been unable to avail myself of Prof. Pick's work ; and any full consideration of the Aryan 
languages was scarcely included in my original intention.] 



Language, and Theories of its Origin, by E. Brown, jun., Esq., F.S A. (E. Stanford and Son.) 
In this essay the author considers Lang-uage and Religion to a large extent go hand-in-hand. 
Both in consequence have in course of time become greatly changed, and become more complicated.* 
As even in our present civilization the number of the ideas and words commonly used is very limited, 
it must have been still more simple in its earliest phases, and when population was more scanty. 
Language must postulate human tliought as well as religion. Even animals must have cognitions ; 
and man might almost be called a religious animal. Language has been "defined as a mode of 
expressing our thoughts by means of motions of tlie bodily organs," and we should first consider the 
main facts of touch, gesture, nide delineation, and of natural involuntary sound as well as of articulate 
speech. Articulate Speech divides into dialects and groups of families of languages; but is at first 
itself only a division of the original subject, which gradually became more complicated, and yet is 
a natural and progressive art, though still imperfect. Dr. Tylor considers that it was rather by rough 
and ready ingenuity, than by any .systematic, arbitrary, or scientific classification, that words arose or 
grew and became adapted. 

Language, Mr. IJrown holds, though so slowly developed, mu.st have had a beginning, "there 
must have been at least one primeval form of speech, which at present, however, it is almost hopeless 
to discover. He proceeds to illustrate what might however have been the earliest, or a very early form 

* In the first instance, probably the rclii/ioiis element in mankind must have largely included superstition and feticisra, 
incantation, magic, etc. 



Ixx INTRODUCTIOX. 

of tlic Engiisli -^-ord dog — as tlirough the old Aryan root dhar, dhan, etc., meaning the idea of 
motion, running, etc., and so on ; possibly through ktvan, svan, Jcudn, cu, cants, hund, etc. Assyrian, 
kalbu; Accadian, lih, etc. But which word for dog is the oldest? who can say? Yet there is no 
absolute bar to the discoveiy as to how certain words may have acquired their special later meaning.* 

Besides eye and gesture and imitative language, Mr. Brown alludes to efl/'-language, consisting of 
natural ejaculations, only often slightly variant. [I have alluded to this elsewhere, especially in 
relation to the sound ach ! ak, eh, uck, expressive of, more or less universally, surprise, joy, pain, 
darkness, evil, etc., and giving rise to vast numbers of allied or cognate forms.] 

Canon Farrar says : " We cannot suppose development in language possible without some connection 
between sounds and objects." Mr. Brown, like Prof. Max Miiller, considers the Bow-wow Theoiy, 
so called, of very minor importance, and jiroceeds to give a list of the principal groups and sub-groups 
of articulate speech, viz. : I. Isolating. II. Agglutinative. III. Inflexional. IV. Polysyuthetic, 
including — [a) Mexican; (/)) Peruvian; (c) various dialects of jS"orth and Soutli America; {d) Eskimo ; 
{e) Bas(|ue or (? pre-Aryan population of S.W. Europe). 

As regards Poh/si/nthetic languages Prof. Miiller has remarked that, " as long as in these long 
sesquipedalian compounds f the significative root remains distinct, they belong to the agglutinative 
stage ; as soon as they are absorbed by the terminations [suffixes and affixes), they belong to the 
inflexional stage." Mr. Brown proceeds to say, " Others see in Polysynthesisism a survival of the 
universal eaidy stage of language, and that the majority of Old World dialects are agglutinative. 
Prof. Sayce has remarked that one of the strongest points of the Aryan English language is that it 
has to a large extent abandoned inflection, though many high authorities (Mr. Brown remarks) have 
agreed in the Fixity of Typo in many languages, so that an inflectional language must always have 
been one. 

There may be many names for the same object or thing, or f(U' its qualities only. The arbitrary 
element in gesture language is small compared with what is indicated in spoken language. 

Professor Sayce well observes, says Mr. Brown, "that the origin of language is to be souglit in 
gestures, onomatopaia, and to a limited extent in interjcetional cries." Interjectional cries being to a 
certain extent almost imiversally the same, for the most part generally understood by different races, 
and that so, language can be traced back to a few simple elements ; representative of emotions rather 
than ideas especially as regards interjectional cries ; yet tlicre must be, as regards words generally, 
some connection between an idea and the word that first represented it. "It is hard for language 
.to admit of anything which was not from the first significant iu thought," continues Prof. Sayce, 
tliough many even imitative or interjectional words may have, more or less, lost thcu' original 
conceptional meaning. 

Mr. Brown thinks, even every Archaic-animal name is based on an excellent reason, "even as 
man himsell is he who means"; and that "original names do not exceed in nnmbcrs the distinct 
ideas entertained by the namer." By degrees some original natural utterance may have been . 
deliberately strengthened from a mere sound into a icord. Professor Sayce, Mr. Brown says, quotes 
a dictum of Proklos that " men may create speech, not deliberately, and with intention, but instinctively 
through tlie imiudse of tlicir nature." Mr. Brown tlnnks the m sound important, and often a natural 
one, e.g. Sanskrit root tnu=to tic; muka^dnmh; mu, in murmur; mud, to be shut; where the lips and 
mouth open and shut. English, mum, mumble, munch, mute, mouth? mutter, music? Tahiti, mamu, to 
be silent. Yei negroes, munm^zAuxah ; and nim, nam, etc., mean child in a number of languages. 
Mr. Brown then refers to Dr. Bleek's, Geiger's, Noiro's, and Prof. Miiller's theories of language. 
!Noir6 considers that "certain roots lie apparently at the basis of speech. Aryan ones are generally 
monosyllabic ; Semitic, disyllabic (or witli vowels sounded, trisyllabic). Old Egyptian roots may be 
citlier. Semitic roots show the principle of triconsonantism ; while Aryan roots do not." Mr. Brown 
very properly objects to any single language, e.g. Aryan, being of itself suflicicnt to build up any 
language theory. [I am myself inclined to believe the Turanian language may frequently contain 
single roots ; African, possibly disyllabic, or at least often reduplicated.] 

Mr. Brown, as well as Prof. Sayce, seem to doubt Noiro's explanation of hyjiothetical Aiyan 
roots, or of so-called Dictionary roots ; or that verb-forms may be older than noun-forras. Probably, 
however, most actions may have been verbal, and things nominal, as in Accadian; possibly a combination 
even. Prof. Sayce tliinks that Polynesian and Semitic roots refer mostly to nominal, and Aryan ones 
to verbal. I "The Semitic pre-supposes a noun, the Aryan a verb; the conception of the object rather 

* The root or souiul ku, Imii, kan, kok, seem to be amongst tlie earliest words used for dog in most families of languages, 
and best seen in our English word cur. fer=dog. See Vocabularies, pp. 9, 10. 

t In my own selection of American words for my Vocabularies, I have avoided, as far as possible, long or awkward 
compound words ; with African words also. 

X I am myself inclined to thiak nominal roots the older : probably say if te or Icha was an Archaic root or sound for 
stone, the use of a stone would be energized into action by addition of /•■, giving tck or kliak ; or kal or kut. »Ha=death ; 
mat or mak or ««i =to kill :■* 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxi 

than subjective action being left out of sight." Chavee phices i)ronouiis, acherbs, and verb-nouns at 
the base of Aryan .speech. 

Canon Farrar, an advocate of onomatopoeia, tliinks the naming of animals was the first effort of 
spe(!ch, and agrees witli Garnett that all language is reducible to roots. Noire must surely be wrong 
as to the priority of tlie verb. 

I'robably no tlu-ory precisely is all sufficient to account for primitive sp(;ech, and it may have been 
a coml)inatiou of the imitative, intcrjeetiuiud, and emotional ; many words, too, may not even have 
originally been monosyllabic (? often reduplicated), and liavc subsequently, by phonetic decay, become 
sliorteiu'd or altered;! '^>i'^ ^I''- I^rown concludes liis essay, "thus not at ranJbmi, but designedly, man 
first us(!d sound linguistically, and strengthened it by gesture; and as he had a reason (? instinctively) 
for his first step, so hv. had a stronger for his second ; and his first sound in any particular line of idea 
being thus determined, his second, in the same line, was naturally in the majority of instances merely 
a repetition of the former." 



■ M. Topinard, in his "Anthropology," p. 423, ei seq, alludes more specially to "Lingui.stic 
characteristics," as being important in the study of Comparative Philology, both as to vocabulaiy and 
grammar. Every language family has passed through three phases (as before referred to). The 
Indo-European differs essentially fi-om the Semitic ; they seem at first to have been quite separated, so 
that language would almost seem to have been independent of the Will of Man, and the product of 
special cerebral cognizance, though modified by circumstance. This, M. Topinard argues, is in favour 
of the polygenistic doctrine ; and that, when man arrived at the dignity of language, he was already 
dispersed in distinct races ; that may even long have remained about the same centre without material 
change. The Euskarian, in S. W. Europe, preceded the Celt ; and M. Brooa considered its area, at a 
remote period, extended all over Western Europe, till it met the Finn language (see p. lix.). The 
language now known in certain countries were not, of course, necessarily always spoken there. 
The Yakuts of the Lena resemble in feature the Mongols, but speak a Turkish language. 
Anthropology must step in where languages have got mixed or changed. 

Upon the question of Origin of Man, I do not pretend to enter ; though M. Topinard devotes a 
chapter to its consideration. Su])eric)r races have ever tended to supersede inferior ones. The scattered 
wandering tribes of aborigines of Western Australia are the remnants of a negrito race inferior to the 
present Eastern Australian natives. Even in Europe the races of I'erigord, which previously disappeared, 
or have been absorbed into the more bracliycephalio races from the East, and the hlondes of the 
North, have played the same part before the races anterior to the neanilertbal, as these again probably 
did to the later Miocene races of Thenay and Saint Prest. M. Quatrefages, however, defends the 
doctrine of Unity of the Human Species. The human family, M. Topinard considers, whether white or 
black, engenistic or paragenesic, Aryan or Negro, is composed but of Species of the Order of Primates. 
" Two, apparently, very tUstinct races may give rise in course of time to a fixed intermediate race." 
The general groups of genera may be (1) Brachycephalic, with low stature, yellowish skin; broad 
flattish face and oblique eyes with contracted eyelids ; hair, coarse, scanty, and round. (2) Dolicho- 
cephalic, with tall stature, fair complexion ; narrowish face, projecting on the median line ; hair 
abundant, light coloured, soft and somewhat elliptical in section under the microscope. (3) More 
dolichocephalic, with blacking complexion ; hair fiat, and rolled into spirals ; very prognathous ; 
buttocks prominent, and mamma? elongated. 

M. Haeckel considered that all dolichooephales are originally from Europe and Africa ; and the 
brachycephales from Eastern Asia, for the reason that the Chimpanzee and the CoriUa of the coasts of 
Guinea are dolichocephalic ; and the Orangs of Borneo and Sumatra are brachycephalic. But M. Yogt 
does not agree to this. 



Lastly. Canon F. C. Cook, in his " Origins of Eeligion and Language," a series of five essays 
(J. Murray & Co., 1884), has some valuable remarks on tlic question of Race and Language; more 
especially bearing on the Semitic, Egy]5tian, and Aryan Languages; and he gives a considerable 
selection of words, having evidently a common origin, in those families of language, as well as some 
Turanian ones, selected as bearing upon and in favour of, the Original Unity of Language. I venture 
to give a short abridgement of a portion of liis 4th and 5th Essays, and have borrowod some of his 
root-resemblances and verbal illustrations in my Vocabularies. 

Canon Cook considers the Egyjjtian must be regarded as an independent language. The Semitic 
and Hamitic groups point to a common origin ; most of the pronouns are almost identical, though 
the majority of the roots and elementary words, in both, point to an earlier community of origin 
(Pre-Scmitic). Triliteral roots are common in the Semitic languages. The Egyptian tradition was 

t Say not unfrequently also by the interchauge of letters, as t into s, k into h, t into r or I, etc.— E. P. G. 



Ixxii IXTRODUCTIOX. 

that tlio Cushitcs -went south aud became negroes, others went north. De Houge points out that tlie 
old Egj-jitian hmguage contains a hirge number of Nigritian words. [This may be noticed to some 
extent in my own Vocabularies, and by Gerald Masscy, in his "Book of Beginnings," and I believe 
also by Mr. Hyde Clarke.] Tlie Berber and Libyan languages retain marked Egyptian characteristics ; 
also the Gallas, Nubians, and Bishari. 

The jS'cgi'oid languages of Australia bear marks of a common origin with those of South Afiica, 
perhaps descended from very early Japhetic immigrants, Mr. Ellis thinks akin to Turanian or Aryan 
[probably the Caucasian of Mr. Stanley, and who came into East Central and South Eastern Africa 
vid Arabia and Ethiopia. (See elsewhere.) The more mountainous African negroes are physically 
different fi-om the more nomadic tribes of the alluvial plains (see Stanley's Darkest Africa)]. 

A Nigritian population are also largely found in the Eastern Archipelago and New Guineas 
(Papuans). Often in juxtaposition with Malayans, who may be of Sub-Aryan or Scythian origin. 
The negroes, apparently of AJiican origin, also occupy the Melanesian group, mingled with Malays 
and Polynesians. [Gerald Massey has given a list of many Maori words common to South-East Africa.] 

The An-Aryan or Turanian-Scythian descendants of the Biblical Magog are of immense antiquity, 
and extending from Japan to Lapland, and near the Baltic, probably mixed with the Aryan. This 
wide group of languages have not many roots in common, though Canon Cook considers most scholars 
have detected an imderstratifiod original unity of structure and origin. They are mostly monosyllabic, 
and not inflexional. Canon Cook prefers the tenn Scythian to Turanian, as better applying to Huns, 
Turks, and Finns. [The Mongols, Manchurians, and Calmucks, may be, perhaps, better designated as 
Eastern Tartars.] He also points out the resemblance between vernacular Japanese and Scythian, as 
noticed by Mr. Norris ; and holds that the Iberian Bastjue is the last remnant of the oldest form of 
Turanian before the Aryan Celt arrived. The Finns are closely allied to the Magyars, and the 
Caucasians mostly of Turanian or Scythic descent, with the exception of Ossetes and Armenians. The 
Thibetans probably represent a rather pure and primitive form of the Scythians. 

It is now generally held that the Tamil, Canarese, and Dravidian languages generally belong also 
to the Scythian. Bishop Caldwell, however, considered the so-called Dravidian distinct fi'om the 
Non-Aryan tribes of North-East India ; and the Tamil itself evidently much mixed with Sanskrit. 

The Polynesian dialeets are all closely connected, and more or less immediately Malayan ; and not 
improbably of Aryan or Scythian origin originally ; though more likely it is a debased later form of 
Aryan. It is also supposed by the best authorities that none of the Pacific Islands have been peopled 
more than 2000 years at most by the present race. Leaving Canon Cook's considerations on the Aryan 
branches of language, I may quote in extenso what he finally says concerning the Unity of Language, 
pp. 361, 481 : " If upon examination he finds that any number of words, which cautious philologers 
recognize as sufficient to prove a common origin, do exist in two linguistic branches, so far he is 
safe in accepting the conclusion as to their unity. If again such a number of words are fomid, either 
quite identical in form and meaning, or differing only to the extent to which modifications are common 
or universal in languages of the same family, in Egyptian, Aryan, Turanian, I do not see how he 
can resist the conclusions that those peoples had a common ancestiy." Of this unity Canon Cook is 
satisfied, making all allowances for chance ; and he has given a large number of useful and generally 
important words, giving evidence of identical roots as to form and meaning in Semitic, Aryan, and 
to some extent An-Aryan roots, embracing some 250 words or ideas ; divided into words expressive of 
existence and its primaiy conditions. The verbs include (1) verbs of motion; (2) common actions; 
(3) acts of violence. Of An-Ar3-an or Turanian words, however, not many ai'e given, and very few 
American, Polynesian, or African ones. 

Canon Cook concludes, and as the result of repeated experiment, that most Egyjitian words, if 
thoroughly examined, might be identified with Semitic, Aryan, or An-Aryan roots. " Such a process 
conducted by competent scholars, when the principles of phonetic decay, renovation, and transfcn-mation, 
as now generally recognized, are fairly and consistently applied, will, I have no doubt, ere long remove - 
any remaining doubts as to the original unity of all languages spoken by families of tlie luiman race." 



KND or INTltOnUCTION. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE 



ACCORDANCES. 

(PART I.) 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



AFEic.iir. 


SUNDET. 


English 


Egyptian. 


(Modern.) 




Principal and Cognate Tenns. 


"Pierret." 


kaki. ziwe. kringa. 


Assyrian. — abnu. katu = cut. 


Stoxe. 


anr. tu. aar, txtu. 


kamga. ker. 


,, ka'kku = iveajjon. 




boxen. 


taku. tlak. ki. kakom. 


Celtic. — carraig. 


Hew, saw, to cut, hack. 


teb= brick. kh.ab = sickle. 


oko. kittiti. tc. ka. data. 


Sanskrit. — gila. kuta = roclc. 


hard ? rock, taw ? 


tet= earth. bksu=rtxr. 


kon. sia. kala. 


„ sak = strong. 


tor ; earth, dig. 


ska =plo ugh . ter = strong 


huka = rock. i)eak. 


,, kor = to cut. 


brick, knock, land. 


hat = hard. 


daka = house, to. kak. 


Latin. — silex. seco. 


hill, house, arrow. 


sahu ; sek-sek ^ 


sen. okuta. eta. desi. 


Ugro-Altaic — kalla. tiu. 


pillar, axe. knife. 


bat. 


= to 


achu. ito. tari. libuku. 




dagger, boundary ? 


sekh;tekhes?ten 


- cut; 


[Arabic. — liadsar ?] 




strong ? 


sau ; bescq ; paht. 


hit ; 


,, — tzakra 






ati; zeqer. J prick. 


kaki ; takii ; daka = 


Assyrian. — bitu. alu = citg. 


House. 


ha. at'ra. at. aat. 


stone. ziv;fi = stone. 


, , ekallu = palace. 




bu. baat. ap. 


iilii. ilii. ura. ho ko. 


Dravidian. — patti. cberi. 


Dwelling, home. tent. 


tma ; katr n 


bit. daka. \lcc= village. 


Latin. — casa. vicus. cutis. 


enclosure ? nest. cot. 


kairt ? _ town, 


ger. da. oko. aar. ua. 


Ugro-Altaic. — hukut. kar. ola. 


hut. villa, inn. box. 


nu; run; nut '~ village. 


tan. bam. to. ta. bu. 


Caucasian. — teb = stone. 


tree ? stone, boat ? 


pa; per J 


bwala. deba. esi. 


C. Indian. — liatu. 


yard, hill ? tower. 


ni-t = hall, metmet = 


kela ; oko = stone. 


Greek. — oIko^. 


high ? shed. town. 


room. 


gao. uma. to = rilhge. 


Sanskrit. — kbad = to cover. 


brick, farm, village. 


am = tent. teb. = hox 


te. u ; ama = villa ye. 


„ dfiru = tree. oka. 


fortress ? field ? 


xi = roof. b\-t = tower. 


ndsu. ngim. nago. indu. 


„ vasa.^ 


wall, cover, skin. 


teb = hrick, branch. 


[Arabic. — belle = vil- 


Hebrew. — baith. gal = heap. 


tribe, ham. 


anb ; sbt = wall. 


lage. ] 


Arabic. — bait, kilab = castle. 




baka = boat, ban = box 


„ dar = house. 


Japanese. — oka = hill. 




a,xa. = high. knr = shrine. 




Scandinavian. — skali. 




as = room. 




Chinese. — uk = ot = /»(/? 








Malay. — ball. 








Polynesian. — hale. pah. uarc. 








Celtic. — bal = town. 








Hindi. — garb ^fortress, ghar. 








Persian , — khana. 






varo ; mooze = land. 


Ugro-Altaic. — ma = land. 


Enclosuee. 


aht. sxt. ah. set. 




kyra. moda =««/'</(. 




xent ; xinta=y«>-(?«j. 


baki = garden. 


„ mat = house. 


Field, earth, land. 


sxm = enclosure, ser. 




Slavonic. — gora = hill. 




bu = place, kai. 


ka ; sia ; to = stone. 


Dravidian. — kanda. 


kingdom ? country. 


an = stone, tu = rock. 




Sanskrit. — ku. go ? 




ta = plain, earth. 


ama = village, mund. 


,, cakra = circle. 


park, garden, yard. 


ab = wall, aft = square. 




Polynesian. — marae. 




tet = land, country. 


ranga =farm. 


Japanese. — maru = circle. 


wall, boundary, stone. 


qt ; tbn ; qer = circle. 




,, gunu = kingdom. 




tu ; tes ; men = moun- 


gare = countri/. 


Malay. — tana. 


house, inn. plain. 


tain. 




Hebnnv. — kor = circle. 




meni=hillg land. 


oko. kira ; kau =far»i. 


Assyrian. — ginu = garden. 


circle, a place, area. 


uu = territory. 




kiru. 




kar = garden, xem. 


[Arabic ; carria=/«/7«] 


,, kara— fortress, art. 


niarrli. town. farm. 


qr = circle, hole, han = 




„ matu. igaru = wall. 




ho.t. 


„ dbara = land. 


Greek. — cij/njTijfi = earth- 


brick V stone, hill. 


mat=/'o hind. 




goddess. Celtic. — machair. 




raa\\ = land. 




,, »y;y = earth. 


garth, garden, court. 


».M= earth. 




French. — jardin = garden. 








„ carro = square. 








Phrygian. — ganos. 


(Koots ? — kar. mah.) 






Latin. — agc^r. Coptic. — kar. 








Persian. — khana = Jwuse. 







A PIIILOLOaiCAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



ACCADIAN. 


CnHTESE. 


Amebican. 

NOUTII. CENTUAL.t SofTH.* 


(g=k) 

tag. taq. digh. si. za. na. an. 
ki ; gi ; mil ; ga = earth. ■ 
gai- ; shcb = hrick. liar, 
khar = roch, hill, klicr. 
za; wi\.i^= strong. shig=gtone. 
ga ; ma = hotue. 
tar, kud, sig = to cut. 
mar = bn'dc. gug = Jade. 
tim ; dim = pillar; cut. 


tub. ti. ebi. sba. sbib = sbik. 
kot ; p'ik = to cut^ da. 
tsu. tao = knife, ku = brick. 
du ; t'u ; ki ; ti = land, earth. 
yuk ; dok =jade. 
sab; tak ; tut = j'arel in. 
su = to split, kii = io saw. 
ku ; kut = dart ; .mw. 
c'buk, tuk (old) = to dig. 
zid = tit (old). 


tccpatlf = flint, tet. tec. cata.* 
kat.f tuque.* kuta* = to cut. 
tbulton ; kuk ; tarak = earth. 
silla.* kabt = arrow, tepe. anda. 
itaquc. tsai. bik. itak. sileh. 
tika*= brick, kak.* tse. sell, kub. 
caa.f oca* = house, earatu.* tot. 
tupau.f cbabk itsau. tak. kak.f 


ku. ea. du. klia, kur. 

ki = earth, box. gar = brick, 

town. 
unu. u. ki-ku. ga. ma. 
eri ; cr-ki ; gal = town. 
bar = village, trail. 
khar = rock, hill, mar = 

brick. 
kar = wall, fort, kana = gate. 
sila = .street, ku ; ti = fo 

uru = f/Vy, /(Oif.s^-. mal = hoase. 
su = s/i:m, cover. 'kan=gate. 
du ; dur = to dwell, gim. 
tu = clothing, dul = <o cover. 
ki ; kin = village ? 


bu (ku). Ilia. kii. ii. 

cbing = village. 

yii. zu. .sii. mab. kin. 

kap = to cover, head. 

ban = inn, shed. tse. (mak). 

pao = hamlet, wall. 

kii ; uk = house, ku = brick. 

kin. kia = to dwell, house. 

ta ; to = cover, yen = roof. 

kin = tiest. hut. kiu ; ka = 

nest. 
bi ; ki = bo.c. 
pok, pak (old) = hamlet. 
biaug (old), kiu. 
yung (Accad. unu) = village. 
pai = raft ; boat. 
kek = skin. 


tlallif = land, soil. Tvasi.* buasi.* 
ku.f* bob. ba. tab. zacaf = garden. 
baan.* tan.* hi.* bia. uta.* uma. y.* 
wesi.* era.* tee.* kukb. in.* kab. ko. 
silla ;* kak ;f* niaoksi ; pabla = stone. 
dum.* gue. ank. qui. vigu.f* 
he. pat. kai-jia* = tent. tapa* = Hfs<. 
kodja. ata.* uca. oca.* pa. 
mobl = village, cani. calli.f cal.f 
tot ; boezu = stone, ama. coca.* 
qata* = to cover, puku. u.f kei.* 
joca.* tupek = tent. (Esq.) 


ki ; gu ; da ; gi ; ga = earth, 

land. 
ma ; ma-da = land, country. 
gan ; gana = garden ; icall. 
kauanga. kudur. ki = place. 
ku; kur; kiku; kar; mal 

= house, idiu = field. 
shigga. agar, kin — ga. 
mu ; kudm- = boundary. 
kingi. nauga. tag = stone. 
kin . erki — town. 
kar ; ghar = waU, town. 
bar=/o/-i!. tv, = place. 
kur=/jj7?; banlc; country. 
ki, kin = village, gin = 

country. 
gisb-sbar = garden. 


t'uk'i = earth-goddess. 

ti; ki; t'u; du ; Aa.t= earth, 

land, t'ien = field. 
mu = boundary, jii^garden. 
kai. t'ien. yun = wall. 
yin = tomb, cbang = garden. 
sbin = a walled town, ye = 

enclosure. 
ben; ban = inn, field, tang, 
tin. pien. ken = boundary; 

bank. 
tub ; ti = stone, kien. kan. 
yiicn = circle, garden. 
kiu = wheel, circle. 
na. rcn. ten. tsi(zi) he. 
tai = region ; kut (ku) = 

garden. 
yii, ngo (old) = field. 


tlalli ; f hoy ; too ; gue = earth, land. 

cancha ;* zacaf = garden. 

cani ; pana ;* in ; kab = house. 

maca ; ta ; tet ; caratu* = stone. 

amet ; mab = land. 

panf = a place, muye. mille. milli.f 

marka* = frontier town. 

ti. ki. bu = land. 

mobl = village, pehre* = house. 

kai-pa = tent. 

muyuk* = circle, caaf = sto)ie. 

tan ; y ; hi ; bu ; era* = house. 

garf ; gare ;* tarab = land, earth. 

'k.a.\ak= mouth. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeican. 




ENGLISH 




(Modern.) 


SUXDRY. 


Princip.il and Cognate 
Terms. 


Egyptian. 


Vinyc. eke.wata.kokua. 


Hindi. — kandli. 


Boat. 


kebui. kaka. baka. 


sanduk. kayu. egba. 


Ugro-Altaic. — ok ; agbag = 




amu. = to naiigate. 


koye; kon; 'kana,= tree. 


tree. 


Ship, -water- 


bari. qaqa. iiai. = ivi)id. 


mata. ake = stick, log. 


,, kayik = Jort<. 


house. 


sekti=c«-^? ua. ukha. 


kanowa. eya. kuku. 


„ 'k\nA = holloiv tree. 


barque, canoe. 


kaa? 


achu. 


Scandinavian. — skied, skuta. 


raft. ark. 


atti. sket ; scket = ark ? 


wat. oko. 'k\\\\ = peal;, 


„ snekja. knorr. 


skiff, house ? 


ba = tree. kari. mak. 


rock. 


Latin. — navis. 


tree, fish ? 


baat = \otise. mensu. 


Arabic. 


Teutonic. — koula. 


water? log. 


maxen. mah = oars. 


[garib. da. markab. 


Celtic. — coracle ? curacban 


dug-out. 


tep = keel. 


sliaktoor. abcyr. 


Sanskiit. — nau. kcwa. 






dahabieh (= water- 








house ?)] 








kiti. uiti. mutti. kana. 


Sanskrit. — 


Teee. 


xet; ba; be^et ; xe = <'"c«. 


kon. 


,, gaccba. 




nht. ■xi = high. asr. 


ki. gi. oti. mi. koye. 


TJgTo-Altaic. — oc. pu. 


trunk ? wood. 


seri ; sennu = tree. 


ska. = stick, ti. Li. kia. 


,, acba. kba. 


hill? hou.se? life? 


taku ; xt = ivood. ti =plant. 


kade. 


Thibet.— sin. 


forest, cane. 


axem ; teb =branch. 


ton. mori karaga. goru. 


Assyrian. — isu. kanu. 


log. oak? son. 


kanen ; axuu = plant. 


karu. su. esan. haa. eku. 


„ .shauga= date ixdm. 


plant, branch. 


remenu= branch, shall. 


omuti. peicoa. aka. buo. 


„ daru. mu. gigu. 


man ? head ? 


pexa ; puku = wood. 


moti. tab. mods?kesgar. 


Greek. — ttiti's-. 17^1)11^= i)ine 


reed, gi-eat. 


ban=^;afoi tree. mcn=sgca- 


muri. zaf. mmii. koni. 


tree. Kavwv^log. 


high, canoe. 


more. 


igi. akari. 




shoot, grow. 


menu = forest, uat = reed. 


[ A rabic . — sedar.] 






mama = date tree, qa = tall: 


sbajah. sida. 






sa.=son. kaka; amu = boat. 
hua =<;«»«. 




Hindi — kan = hraiich. 


Came. 


'h!m=2>al)n tree. 


ki. kon = tree ; cane. 


Assyrian. — kanii. 


tree. reed. stem. 


ba ; x^ = ^''^^• 




Greek. — Karici'=a rod. 


canoe ? 


'ka.ne}i=p/ant. 


agbcr ; aur = head. 


Sanskrit. — oka = .^totie. 


MotJNTAIN. 


tu. set. x^^X^- tes. an. 


nikuna = high. gara. 


,, kakud. kata. giri. 




mer. men. tep = head. 


boro. 


„ ^ aga = great. 


peak, great. 


axa ; qa ; kai = high. 


era. aroa. ikunda. okc. 


Indo-Chinese. — nachiir. 


mound, higii. 


Xi; xe; '">/'; free. 


kuka =peak, rock. 


Afghan. — koh. 


back ? neck ? 


next = sti-ong. tp = top. 


debba. 


German. — hoch = high. 


top? hill. 


ma = shoulder. 


koppic ? kurmar. in- 


Hebrew. — har. gal=heaj). 


head, stone. 


ur; a.a = great. qp.\i=much. 


taba. 


Assyrian. — arku = hack. 


rock, house ? 




[Arabic. — gcbcL] 


Japanese. — oka. 
Slavonic. — gora. 
Ugro-Altaic. — kuruk. kar. 
Celtic. — cnoc. pen. 


tree, shoulder? 




baka. aka, = tree. kura. 


San.skrit. — iiccha. maha. 


G IlEAT. 


mnx; nefcr; x^=9'">^- 


iyk.o=hill. incnc. eku. 


„ iixk = strong ; cnpahk. 




aa. ur. buai. 


nyi = good, oco = lird. 


„ aga. fiu= good. 


tree? high. 


axa. ax = high. 


nikuna = high. 


TJgro-Altaic— aghag. paea. 


big. strong. 


ka; kai; xi 1 xc = %'»- 


[Arabic. — kabir. rab.] 


„ ak = tree. ki. 


glorious ? tall. 


asha; qna = much. 




,, tvn = high. 


huge. good. 


next = strong, hr = tipper. 




Assyrian. — paklu. niadu. 


heavy, much. 


mii = shonldcr. qii=high. 




Afgban. — koh = mountain. 


all. many. 


mcn = mountain. 




Greek. — /icya^. ev. 


god. chief. 






Indo-Chinese. — niakh. tau. 


large, long. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



ACCADIAN. 


Chinese. 


American. 
North. CENxuAL.t South.* 


ma. mak. dim ? 

kan= free. kiku= IiouKe. 

gha ; kn==fish. 

muk = tree, dag = to grow. 

bad = to split open. 


ch'uk (dug-out), tao. tu. 

bat (old) ; fa. mang. 

pu; pac; pai (fu). 

bat = r«/i!. shu. 

va.6k. = tree; ch'wen = «/;/);. 

kan = trunk of tree. 

yii =fish. 


cahak. kajak. kao.* chiinaum. 

yayak ; hue; kan; mitti'k;f mii\\\i = tree. 

kaona. canona.* huanipu.* 

caoua =fish ; boat, oomiak. sliukali. 

ko-heh. mcnanko. akwoden. mamac.*= 

cane. 
kagg;t haca; quenua*= </tc. 
acallif = water-home. ■waca= water. 
pah-a = river, boat. 


gisli-kin =pole. mu. 
gish = tree ; man. 
gi ; gin = a reed ; man. 
mu = man ; free, musli 
gish-tir =fore.'if. kan. 
shar = to shoot forth. 
kir = wood ? 
shar = to grow ; shoot. 
dagh = to grow. 


shu ; shot (old), kan. 
muk (old), ych. yit. 
chu ; tut (old) = trunk. 
cliuk = haiiihoo. 
kang = stick, kau = high. 
mit = s2)Ut hamhoo. 
mu ; mit. mik. ) 
different kinds of tree. ) 
cho = handle. 


mittek.f psenna. piku =fr tree. tza. 
hue.* kan. quenua.* oma=M»e. khoka.* 
cut = stick, mohu = corn. kah. quauh.* 
molU.* kagg. aa.* muira.* rukma.* sahie.* 
&kt\\ = reed, cane, measure, sooches. 
saoha.* shaak. ccaspi.* mis-tis. kahhue. 
Y\rvi=branch. pisku.* acotn =/;• free. 
hi.* haca.* gazo.* kaspi.* kor.f hui. 
kargarf = forest. haccha=(//rrtf ; high. 


kan. gish. gin. 


kan = f runic of tree ; tree. 
kau= liigh. 
kang = stick. 


can. hi. acatl.f om.f hi=f/-ee. 


gu = neck. khar. kara. 
agga ; kahx = great, tul. 
shag, gharsag. kal =//»>//». 
zag; dn = head. gm- = heaj). 
shang = head, kur = mound. 
ghar; kur. tul = mmmd. 
gal = great, g-ur = h igh . 


gok = nguk (old), 
shan. k'iu. 

t'au ; du (old) = head. 
ling = a grave mound. 
kau ; kok (old), 
k'u, tui, moimd. 


chahta. oca ; coca = hose, quaiihtla.f 
ku. xanth.f quauh;* haca *=<««. 
gu = head, ahli.* toak.f tepetl. orcu.* 
haccha = ,i7;rrtf. khollo.* kaak. too-wak. 
arcu. ukka* = yrcaf, high. kuan = Ae'^A. 
tepc;f tc = rofX'. qhaqa=j!;ea/i;, top. 
iiti.* hooak. hirka.* Ax!.\= great. 


lig. dug. magh. kala. 
ni. ne. aka. agga. 
mesh = nmeh. mar. 
enim ; Ui ; ilia = high. 
ghar. gur. gal. da. 
kal = high. un. an. 
mag. mug. kir = strong. 
mi = many. 
gid; gud = /o»^; heavy. 


pih. pi. kao. 

weT. ta ; da (old). 

ka. to = ta. kok. 

mu. mok (old) = chief. 

kau. kiai = all. 

mo ; mu = much. 

kin ; kui ; kim = many. 

poh=)««Ky; 100. men;mao. 

bak = pak. \iao = good. 

hu. ku (old) = good. 


nho ; f tahr ; kaiteh ; Imk ; .shcnik ]=good. 
prica*= «irt«y. da.f huey.* heuc. 
ogimau ; sakumoTV ; \mot = chief . 
kuan. choc, haccha.* ukku.* rakku.* ta'^Ti. 
mm.f nim.f no.f hatim.* arcu.* 
zacuali-t toak = high, aeuali. muck. 
makta^''^ young, strong, niochi; aach= much. 
khuta ; f mieek ; huco ; toh ; tewa = good. 
mach.* hu. kuh-tsch. da. pacha.* 
mannoho.f quallif = </oo(/, strong. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE Of ACCORDANCES. 



Aprican. 




English. 




(Modern. ) 


SUM)EY. 


rriucipal aud Cognate 
Terms. 


Egyptian. 


g ( keku. ndsa. sok, poko. 
« ( aka. asio. (.'kyma. kon. 


Etruscan. — securis^a.re. 


AxK (to cut). 


sk ; bksu=«.r«. 


Latin. — sagitta^«;v'Oi«.'. 




mushu ; hcti ; xenipt= 


:-^. thipa. Ilka, lab, siikari. 
^ auchaii. kii. jjoko. mbako. 


,, secare=:^ cut. 


Stone, to back. 


spear. 


,, acuii^iieedle. seco. sectum 


knife, sickle. 


p^ps ; bks=s«'o;Y? (^0 cut) 


■g ( tegeran. keel, kabsaga. 
1 ( takuwa. sio. 

so 


Sanskrit. — tiksbna=s/(«;jy. 


pike, spear. 


set=^arrow. ncki^ 


,, ak^^o (lit. asi. 


aiTow. bisect. 


dagger. 


,, kutt. cliimka=/7«//(). 


to saw. scar. 


shat. sau. ati. X'^l^. 


^ ( takobi. kama. kat-sura. 
S \ nekon. skoa. akon. zila. 


Greek. — To^ov^bow. -ivxoi. 
Ugro- Altaic. — beccbak=/.-« ife 


sword, to kill, 
point, shai-p ? 


benx- peht. feq. hat. 
sex'. tekes. tes. pexa. 


piilo ; puro =^ low. 


Japanese. — katara=s!t'Ofc?. 


dig. pierce. 


xetem=scwso;-s. 


takii ; acbu ; tavi ; ite^ 


Turkisb. — balta=f«-«. 


plough. 


sek ; mi^^death. 


stone. 


Arabic. — fasa. 




bex'en ; tektu ; aar 


Bada'ka=zsacrifce. 


Assyrian. — kakku:=fl.r«. 




=sfo««. 


[ Ai-abic. — sakin:=^-;i i/e, 


,, katu^ciit. 




ska=^2)lotigh. x^^iu. 


stcord.~\ 


French. — tuen^^o Mil. 








ndsa^ajT.] 


Ugro-Altaic. — suka. taka. 








"Libyan. — takuha^^stvord. 


Lap. — aksjo. 






zcgsem=to cut.^ 










koti. ota. baka. bata. 


Sanskrit. — XrAivAh^^how. 


Bow. Aerow. 


pet^SoM\ smer=:fl';T. 


o ' 


uta. tenk. kala. rio. 


,, gara; shatate ; vana 




hcn^circle, lend. 


--=> 


buta. oron. 


:=a)Tou'. 


Ai-c. hand ? 


set ; sshr^«;voi4'. 




^appi. nsok. babiira. 


,, kut=fo lend. 


bow-stone, spear. 


smi ; ban=rt^vo«', dart. 




mon. kebia. cket. csct. 


Greek. — la^arrow. oVo-to?. 


stone, to shoot. 


niaka^n;vo«', archer. 


Si 


pena. pcno. binye. pim. 


German. — bogcn^ioi» 


to kill, bird ? 


st=sIioot. su^iving. 


i; 


mbasa. sa. songa. 


Assyrian. — kanaslui=:/o bend. 


knife, bend ? 


s^t=^stone. sa=:so«. 


fe 


kaniru. mta. ako. 


,, mitpana ; kasbtui=Jo!(). 


feather? 


sau ; sex^<'i<#. 




, afa. sor. sara. se. 


Lythuamau. — penki=5. 




sesu=^bird. shua:=fo go. 


tamh-d^sjicfir. takii:=.$foHC. 


Thibet.— yzu. 




sati = goddess of the 


katsagar^««-o/Y/. susu= 


Ugro-Altaic. — zaa ; zyt ; 




arrow. 


hird. 


,, kyct^Jo«<;. 




mii— stone. 


banka ; kaka^/(rt;(f/. 


Tartar. — oX^^to slioot. 
Malay. — panah^Jo(6'. 
Arabic. — kaus=iow. 
Ugro-Altaic. — sahso:=«fo?i«. 
Lap. — saite=«rro2(;. 






beri. obu. du. bir. 


Assyiian. — samku. ichor. 


Blood. 


sft=.s7rt)/, kill. 


dsi. mas. edsi. esi. 


Sanskrit. — hridaya=/(('ar^. 




scni^iblood. teshcr 


axel (Berber). 


Japanese. — kushi. 


lied, heart, life ? 


z=red. 




Papuan — saquo. 




ab ; hixti-^hcart. 




Malay. — hati=/(rar^. 




&-nx=life. 




Indo-Chinese. — iu. hi=A/oo(f. 








Ugro-Altaic. — schim^/«YO'<. 








,, szv=-]ieart. 






punga. nefas ? koe. 


Polynesian. — 'kaka^spirit. 


Wl.ND. 


ka ; ha.z^ghost, .will. 


mi. nono. 


Dra vidian. — kattu. 




■nci=:wind, breath. 


fo; M-isi=hreatIie. 


Celtic. — chiva. 


Air. breath, life. 


fua ; anx=life. 




Greek. — o»//). 


blow. soul. Yoiee. 


ta. ba. sub. tua. 




Latin. — vo.x. aura. 


gliost. spirit, puff. 


mai=a/?'. mch. shcbu. 




Sanskrit. — vayu. va<;=ro?«. 


nostril. 


t'atu. hiH^tofg. 




Turki.sh. — rak^^npirit. 




XTi^=eril spirit. hka=: 




Assyrian. — sham. pu. 




magic. 




,, zikiku. 




ncshep. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 







AjrERiCAir 


ACCADIAN. 


Chinese. 


NOKTH. CENTUAL.t SoUTH.* 


kud=ax(' ? ^r^dfiffger. 


kin=:rt.r«. tao^^sivori. 


ayri ;* tuk ; mctcsuin ;f cac-sa-quc=«^e. 


sheg ; digh ; tag ; dag=«^o«e. 


tak ; tai^Javelin. 


bacebiira*=/«/(-/(«o^. cuta ; * niatif =;<o 


tar ; kud=^ cut. 


gib ; kwo ; ko=s^;Mr. 


cut. 


bal ; ax^ciii/e. 


ngu=cfoi. t'ik=<o CM^. 


akba ; kabt=«>-rtf;4'. kat ;f kakswa^«<ora«. 


ku; giah^weopoH. 


tik ; dig=«/To«', spear. 


chnki^spcar. kak^^ipoint. siAi^stone. 


glia=:fo seirr. tim=fo cut. 


p'ik; ko-nai=:<o (;«<. 


tua ; nakaui*=('o kill, kaka ;* iki*=<o 


tak ; dag=:«^o«e hatchet. 


kob ; kot^^o cut. 


cut. 


\iax-=.stone. 


cbiok (chob)=/o chip. 


sbokt ; basba ;f mutcka ; toko=X-»//«. 




su ; kii ; kut=;(fo;'/, saio. 


taquc*=*fo??e or celt, kak ;* \nk^stone. 




kat (old)=:fo «;;/<<, cut. 


tlacoobtli jz^weapon. to([uif ^fo cut, tear. 




sban-k^(7. scythe. 


quai ;f kiai ; tek\ie=knife. tsai—s totie. 


. 


sliik, sbib (old)=.s^o«e. 


itak ;* tec ; tctl— stone. 




sabrrjy^cnr. 






zid, ts'it (old)=.«fo«(^. 






(kbiak=/>«(/«. Abl. Cbin.) 'L.' 




sliu ; zag ; zida=:/ia«rf. 


kung ; pang ; peng^3oii'. 


g ( pancba. pcnta*. pekta.* sari.f za.f* 
►§ ( tzeika.* akba. panuka. 


bam ; hxazr^how. 


yik ; yi ; sliib ; cb'i=«/-rojt'. 


ru=fo shoot. sita=(r;T. 


tisicn ; poutiek:=«>Toz<;. 


• I panark. kana. samat.f suu.* 
g I siia. sape. mitl.| pia.* pilii. 
1 ( oclatl.f aka.* itz.f tzub.f 


du=»n-o!<.' ? gin^fo bend? 


sut^fo shoot. i\k=idart. 


gish:=fl!rrow, r^ff?. 


sbct {o\A)=.arroiv. 


sig^fo rf«;'^ gam=:#o i«i(?. 


sail ; sbik=:s^o»e (sbib). 


cmi:=hand. c]iiiki*^spcnr. 


gha ; muslien==i(>rf. 


katr=<o cut. 


sbakt ; kiai ;* basba ; pama ; sbatikb — 


gam^fo fe«(;?. 


(Abl. Cb. penkia^ioec). ' L.' 


knife. 


zin ; dm^arrow. 




■pana*=.riffhthand. -pan^^hand. 


shar^to shoot forth. 




tsai ; itsau ; sch^stone. su=///e. 


zn. — stone. 




tsit=:J(rrf. sbui=/efl!^/«fr. zaquif=fo_;fy. 
smwa—bird. sbon-sbey. \>amij=hand. 


lugud. mud. gild. 


mi't ; bit. kik. git. 


estab ; hihes^icart. anku. ki-no. 


us. gusla. shag. 


bsiieb. 


irusb. itsb. bu. iiab. tek. kukoz.f uir. 


shim^i cart. 


sin ; Slim ; er=zheart. 


gbi.f crat. zeb. sketa. kiket. kik.f 


zi := life. 


zig ; cbi'k ; ta'ak—red. 


twensb.* aztli.f isc* zibiz. nibuk. qui. 




si-su ^=. dead. 


sakb ; cuz ; sbab^rec?. 


ti. zu. tu. imi. ngbii. 


jin. fill (old), ung. 


ku ; ba ; qai ; c-a=i)/toHth. baca.* ike. 


ama^iitrricane. pa. 


bam. t'ieu. 


ebeca ; f wayi-a.* benka=«06i'/v7. takbu.f 


pesb=^ Ireathe. pi:=M«s«. 


p'ak:=.'iOi(/. 


baca;* su*^?(7«. veteca. no-din. 


utug^rf<■«^o^^. ku=wo((M. 


kwei (old) ; 'ki^spirit. 


buakia*"^/o call, pubu.* buayra.* 


ki=s/;(>/<. 


cb'ui; tiiiu^te»ipest. 


monif^.so«/, spirit, moimo-be-ka^ 


u^'a-^=.hrcath. 


cb'ui=ti ; tu (old). 


sjyirit. 


zi ^ ?//«. 


ki^ife. 


sbecatl.f ikbala. pab ; ti=«6«e. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE 01' ACCORDANCES. 



African. 




English. 




(Modern.) 


SUNDET. 


Principal and Cognate 
Terms. 


Egyptian. 


na-mutu ; m-gu=/ die. 


Latin. — mors, mortis. 


Death. 


sck ; tek ; smar=Z-//?. 


ta. kukwa. ku. na<;u. 


rinuish. — k^lot^ die. 




mt. mer. 


idu'. mutwupwa. muiifo. 


Etruscan. — lupuce-nat ? 


Murder, to die. 


Sep ; mates ; mut ; yth^i-ill. 


ic-mut. dako. matua. 


Araliic. — sadaka=4(«7-/AV«. 


dark ? dead. 


sabu ; x^^^orpse. 


moti. itkoa. miitu. 


Coptic. — niori. 


coi'pse. 


sat : ha : meru : ak 1 , , 
ap ; mai ; smcr. j 


mimet (Borber). mayi. 


Hebrew. — maretli. 


blood, sacrifice. 


maku=/ die. shule. 


Sanskrit. — mab, mri. nag. 


to kill, burial. 


sft ; mad^sacrifiee. 


[Ai-abic. — milt, niaut.] 


Lycian. — gnarz^fomh. 
Frencb. — tuer=^o kill. 

, , guerrier^!r«;v/o;\ 
XJgro-Altaic. — belak. mara ? 
Zend. — naqu^corpse. 
Assyrian. — mutu. daku. naku. 
Ugro-Altaic. — margb. 

, , mana:= God of death. 


tomb, war? 


amenti ; aha^Mades. 


kawe. ogii. bita. isa. 


Persian. — si\>ahz=.ioldier. 


War. 


marbu:=.y;c(?r. tekrrZv?/. 


koto, nekon^sjiear. 


San.skrit. — mri ; ma'h::=death. 




sha^war. ncqor^^ztojii/lit. 


iku. kure. kare. ko. 


Frencb. — guerre. 


Battle, soldier. 


xa=:eanwffe ; eorpse. 


[Arabic. — gazi.] 


Assyrian. — kavradn^^soldier. 


deatb. weapons. 


Xex^wcapon. sbu-ti=:e»e»(y. 




,, mata^^o die. 


maim, to kill. 


a;\;er ; xP- i xi"^=''"'''"y- 




,, daku=)'o ^-(7/. 


enemy, deatb. 


a^em. xnaAvd^soldier, mareh. 




TJgro-Altaic. — karn^llael-. 




ta; pebrer; tnhcr=goldier. 




„ kul. 




xeraxi^soldier ; fight. 




„ kurmo=i(Y«-. 




neki^daffffer. mcr^death. 
mamu ; xc<lui=''o u'ound. 
mt ; mrites=fo kill. 
sessa:=enemi/. 


tukii; suko=H;V7/(^.pina 


Sanskrit. — qyama. nakta. 


Black. 


benkmu. asti. senk. 


ukpou. liko ; 'kigi=::)iif/Jif. 


„ tutt^^ eoneeal. 




shuu ; xabt ; qht=shnde. 


kakn=z bitter. b6san = 


,, kixfilita^btid. 


Nigbt. bitter. 


uxa ; krh ; kek^ni(//it. 


deril. 


Assyrian. — aku^wieked. ) 
,, aamnz^dark. j 


dark, myrky. 


aha=«;'H ; bad. mn^^pain. 


dake = dead, kukwa = 


shadow, deatb. 


mak ; x'a ! aVa^eeil. 


death. 


Greek. — KriKO'.z^lad. 


bad. sin. evil. 


xn^deiiioH. x^i^ff>'i^.f- 


netl; biuic; timc=:hlnck. 


Celtic. — gai. 


not. sick, wicked- 


mat ; tu ; xPmi^^'"^- 


okem. 0!ioko=zMark. 


GeiTuan. — ^nacbt^« ii/Ii t . 


nasty, acbe. 


a;;^'U — ferer. mt ; sek — death. 


nga^«o! not. tuku^ 


„ nicbt:=»o< ; no. 


(negation.) 


nas=i'(fc. sessa^enem!/, dusk. 


bi. ti. du. esi. 


Mantsbu. — ekke. 






[Arabic. — azirak. zill.] 


E. Tartar. — kecbor^^«/;J ? 






Turkisli. — uirak=.s7;«rf('. 








Latin. — noct\ii=^night. 








Ugro-Altaic. — gi ; jc-:=mffM. 
„ kara. 
„ baika. bakkeka. 












kaka=irtr/. bogun. 


Assyrian. — daku=deafh. 


Demon. 


XXi=^demon, spirit. 


joka ; tu.kn=.devil. 


,, nkd^u-ie/ced. 




ux^'^night. 


'kuk^\■a:=death. 


Finnish. — baika=iffrf. 


Devil, goblin. 


hka^maijiic. 


U\ku^)/ack. 


Ugro-Altaic. — ubyok=:iffrf. 


bad. black, night. 


kvk=dark. 


[Arabic. — sbaitan.] 


,, kul=f/f»)o». 
,, paka^Artrf. 
Sanskrit. — kala — hlaclc. 


death? bogie. 





A rinL(JLO{!ICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



ACCADIAN. 


CuiNEiSE. 


Amkrioax. 
North. CE.NTUAL.t South.* 


slmb ; slnim=/o kill. 


mut. mi. mo. biit. slm^Z-///. 


mutu. nakcta.* mcoa.f 


\\-mAi^\^c<ilti)i . 1)!k1. 


sliali ; shat ; seli^/o kill. 


mou. muicliit. du. mu-dal. 


dib^r//t'. 7,\v^ ? mid. lie. 


mo=;/o di'xt roij . s'i=^ rf;V'. 


ong\i\^dc((d. mallii*=TO;ywe. 


slu;kum=4Y/(7'//«r. 


tsuli ; tsut. ku. kut (old):=<« 


marani ; f mara ; * moan=fo kill. 


til ; glia ; gul^/o dcKfroy. 


die. 


mucami=/ r//V.* temifliaf=<(/ Icill. 


gild ; sa ; miid=Woo(Z. 


hi ; pit ; pat:=/o kill. 


tona-moiili*^A«;'(prf. mciiie.f 


dug ? &\x-sh\^corpse. 
shii ; tnu:=<o kill. 


A\\-=i(:orpsc. piii=:/o bury, 
yi'n^tumb. kikz^bluod. 


mulu=r/frtr/. mi(jui.f 
huanuf^/o die. mikkaf=i'o«ii. 


ghlll:=Jff(^. 


kek=«/(///^ 


Tiakani ;* tua=:fo kill, ckotali. 


si-gisli-slii^r/('<m. 


gi't. init.=^bl,ood. 


neketali.* macliay.* mueun.J 


nakii=.vrtw//(Vt'. 


si-su^dead. 


te-ine. to-ca — to bury, mietlan. 


si't — dead. 


mik=?//(/ci. 


amaya. nkhn^arrou). 


slial)=;o ^77/. sliat=/ti7/. 


teii^btifllf ; du (old). 


aguwaiTC. aucha *^goldicr. 


'k\a=ienemy , 


wii=nm. tsuh^^soldier. 


magagiii ; gawi. kuri^;<-ffr, soldier. 


mil ; mv.=zl)(i/flc. 


elien ; chi'n (^din). 


nakbani ; f mara*=^j kill. 


mild ; g-iid=i/ow(/. 


sliat ; shii ; tou=:^ kill. 


yarlotl.f ka. chuki^spear. 


gaz ; Lad^^ kill. 


Yiing^soldier. 


maii=:fo cut. duj^deatli. 


ge ; du ; m{(ii)^l)aftle. 


s\niiig=^assciult. 


a.t\a.caf=:to ffffit. kloma==/o kill. 


gha^fo destroy/. ■pu-:=soldiers. 




meoa ; marani ; * naka^to kill. 


iihun=.fr/Jit. 




metesiiinj=rtj:« or killer. 


sliii ; tou^cill. 




ma,ra.mix*— club, h&ju*— enemy. 


ga. gig. kii'kki:=(/flrA-. 


'kc\i:=>iiylif. mik. hoh. 


vaow^dcath. loakal. kaak. 


mi(g). gi. si ; sig=sick. 


Lak (old)=W(f(7i,-. ak:^biid. 


kluui. za.* muik.* 


tag. dir. gar. gul=/o destroy. 


an. am. 3-in. gun (biicu). 


kakkab^(VO«'. kaka^Jrtf/. 


utug:=deiii(m ; g\m\=:had. 


yi ; yik=fforX-. c]i'ou=:bad. 


sui;f tuta;* sbket=«/y/(i. 


gigi ; ge^nii/Iif. gi^cloudi/. 
kan ; f^ix^dark ; black. 


siao ; sin (old)=s/c^. 
k'icn. yo. ye^ya (old). 


mata. coco.* akaka * 
ha-ka=Ja(/. becat=«/(«ffo. 


sis^biiter. 
gsin=cloud. 


hi (old) ; gi— cloudy, 
jun^cloud. 


yami.* jami.* na==HO^. 
yano.* tsimak. cbamaka.f 
\ikkvi\:^wicked. nak *=:«(», not. 


utug. grtlla. gidim. 


kwei. ch'ou^/jfff/. 


kik ; iQ\L^=.blood. kboiia.f 


gig=.s/r/.-, ///. kan, ^g=black. 


akki. kap. ku^^deafli. 


bikua ; Av.-\^:zdeatli. 


lag^sacrijice. 


kck; t'sek; hoh^black. 


akak\vA=^lilack. zithic. lax. 
ha-ka. pabts=»/'y/;^. 
kakix—bad. ik.f niduf — lull. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 
(Modern.) 



SlTODET. 



eya. niko. su. balii. 
khiit. edsa. nsa. eka. 
qiiienn. kia = ^?rc. 
kano wa ; kaku ^hoat. 
[Arabic. — samak. ] 



Assyrian. — nvmu. 
Hebrew. — nun. 
CJaucasian. — gar. 
TJgro-Altaic. — kale. ken. 
Slavonic. — ryba. 



English 

Principal and Cognate 

Terms. 



Fish. 
Snake ? canoe ? 



lidsoga. edso. nyu. 

ze. sa. zebe. kodi. 

kebi. no. nsa; .su ==/?«/*, 

nyoka. noa. kali. 

nya. 

[Arabic. — baiyat.] 



gbe. ewa. m'bua. afii. 
kai. kale. noha. kuba. 
ulu. kura. m'bwa. 
kere. kukira. karre. 
(ka = life ; animal.) 
[Arabic. — kalb.] 



Assyi-ian. — sir'u. 
Persian. — serp. asder. 
Indian. — sapa. (jesha. 
Sanskrit. — kapu ^gate. 

,, sira. 

Greek. — e'x'?. "0^?. 
Mongol. — lo. Malay. — nago. 
Japanese. — siga. 
TJgro-Altaic. — nanza. 



kono. eye. elu. wof. 

oko. 
pig. SLQ. he. benam. 
pese ; perat ; okoko = 

fowl. 
noni. pakue (kuakat?) 

yaro. levi. susu. pids. 
holla, esu. papa^fo fli/ 
nu. kako ; kuko = 

chicken. 
kondo ; kokko ^^fowl. 



(English. — ewe, sheep.) 
Latiu. — canis. lupus ^jpoZ/. 
Assyrian. — kalbu. 
Maori. — wri^doffs. Greek. — kviv^/ 
E. Tatar. — uhcr. Caucasian. — khar 
Sanskrit. — 9van. kukura. 
Coptic. — ouhor. 
Ugro-Altaic. — koy. kaik. 



Snake. 

Serpent, dragon. 

fish ? navel ? 
god '? asp. 
tongue ? 



Doc;. 

Cur. vroli. colly, 
hound, whelp. 



EoTPTI.tN. 

"Pienct." 



gheghe. wian. akere. 

koroz::^ lizard, koko. 
kiu = crocodile. 



igmo ; ezo=ie«. 



Assyrian. — issiini. 

, , parashu ^ to fiij. 

, , pirchu = offspring. 

Polynesian. ) moa. yu. 
and Papuan. ) hou. hulu. 
Latiu.— jienna ^feather. 

,, plunia. 
Sanskrit — patat. pat = ^ ////. 

„ pakshin. yaka^crfwe. 

,, pica, kukkuta^cot'^'. 

Hebrew. — uph. 
Mongol. — garssu =^fcather. 



Caucasian. — bacjaq^i. 
Persian. — puk. 
Greek. — /idTfiaxo^. 
Malay. — kataq. 
Dravidian. — koppe ; kapu. 
Berber. — tamercourt. 
Celtic. — machach {toad). 
Turkish . — ^bag'al. 



BlKD. 

Wiag. chicken ? 
fowl, feather, 
arrow, wind, 
to fly. go. 
shoot ? pufE ? 
parrot ? pigeon ? 



Froo. toad. 

to croak, to hop. 



Assp'iaii — kharabu. Arabic- 
German. — kiifer. 
Greek. — kdi'Oapo^. 
Latin. — searaba>us. 
Hebrew. — dcboi'ah = lee. 

,, zebub=/y'(' 

Celtic. — cwybr^/o quiver. 
Armenian.— l^Ml1l. 



-fjvrr 



Bkhtle. 

cockchafer, ant. 
insect, bee ? 



1- 



hb. aba. maau. 

:in. sameu. 

hauana. nar. baka. \-^ 

utu. at. auau. x'^-' 

ban. ukha. rem? 



hf. IT. hefn. sep. seta, 
sti. t'elf. ro::= reptile. 
shna ; ara ; nait= 

sacred serpoit. 
mehi. xe^l't'tu. af. 
msh ; scbi'k ; mak ; 

3.tn^=crocodile. 
X&Y>ii^>iatel. 
hcntaim^izard. 



au. fu. shat. 
uher. ahai =:Jackal. 
hahiu^hi/cna. 
Tniii^lion. kii^bull. 
lahii^ioH. 



ta. tutu. us. ab. sesa. 
aa. t'mes. 

pai; ap; potex = /o/y 
hefi ; hr ; pi := fo fig. 
shu ; maa^feafher. 
meh; sha: t'ma; tnh = 
wing, -x^^u^gnose. 
Varieties of birds. 
bahu. kcnu. ban. hip. 
bak = /«/«7L. apt^ 

water-foicl. 
mnut. sr. st. ment. 
sakhemu=Sa<. 
sanehem=/t)i'««i. 



heqt. qrr. 



khfb = ////? khepcr. 

\ix\fA^naccl. 

bat^iw. 



A nilLOLOGICAL TARLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



10 



ACCABIAN. 


Chutese. 


AMKUrCAN. 

North. Cu.NTKAL.t Sol'tii.* 


glia. kha. a. ku. mm ? 
kab =; hand, tug = seize. 


yii. gii. ngu. kap = ^/X-(^ 


hua.* huab. rana. pa-guc. 
nnnn. kay-* ma. bcran.* 
kaiyunk. kanu.* cballwa.* 
cimouii-:^ canoe, caoua.* 
miehin. kallua.* kikari. 


sir? zir. musli. 
ru-sli. 


pa. she. sia. 
lung=(//w/oH. Jan. 
I'ln. ze. min. 


iii\m\ ^ffod. scb. kclie.f 

see-see-ab. tebek;f airaf-^^ scorpion. 

koo-sobb. samoior. kob. 

micjuiztli.f cbancs.f 

cobuatl.f cowa. so-bib. 

quetzali f = ser2)cnt-temple. 

nangar. nobccr. a-to-sis. 

miebin=:^47(. o-sa-is-ta. 

osbeista. katari.* kibiwi ^^;/'«//h.s. 


lig. ku. liki. 

lig-mai;li=//o«, or (jrcat least. 
dar=fZffer. 


hiin^k'iicn. kiuen. 
liug. liu-li^/o.r. 
hi := mastiff. 
luk; \o\\^deer. 
ku (Ab. Cliiu.) 


kallatu. acbu. bnohcte.* 
jagouara.* itzcuintli.f kakka. 
pijku. cbiki. kcikuc* liki. 
pek.f ocbu.f yo.f anokara.* 
cbiobi.f okeri.* bucbete.* alco.* 
tayo.f eeaura*:=s7(pc/j. cber. 
akivAva*^ tapir, cannu. 
yawnre.* hibu. 


mu ? gliii. ghi ti. tu. 
mu-tin. mu-shfn. 
nim ; har^to Jii/. 
pak^^o catch birds. 
pa?; a; tir; 7A\=:winff. 
sig=:^o dart along. uam=; 

swallow. 
tin. id-gh.u^My/i'. 


niao(^dien). ni'o. pi=:bik. 
tsiao. ki^gi(old). \im.^^tofly 
pi; pit; fei; yik; chui; vu = 

tofl;/- 

tsui ; tsi) ; tui (old) = «7rfy.s. 
tu ; ti (old) ^ «vW/.v. 
tsui:=;6'»((/. kiao = fof /i.-. 
yen =: swallow, ngo ^ ^(/oose. 
mao ; ya^hird. 
tat. ka. bu. (Ab. CliLu.) 


poena :=^;'ff/r('« hen. sinwa.f 
buc.'''' qnaub.f bu.* piclni. 
anka.*=»«(/^e. pikri. kukin.f 
tsit. zaqui;f pa-bue* = to/y. 
kuku;* sbui. pabura*=:/w</(f;'. 
buira."' paf = /(«;/(/. 
bunsu ; moo; slie-ab = /««)'/(«•. 
su = ///«. pat-pa""' = «■/«//. 
tonoulon.* kukaia. 
uaku ^ heron, tobano =^ hawk. 
quacbaro ; "'•" pillu ■•' ^ to fly. 
huku^^e//c««. 


ughii. {vermin ?) 
turn, nim, flies, etc. 


ma. min. 

chung, tiong, insects. 


okkoko.* koka.* koruf bccos.* 
bukwi.f wem.f temat.f orang.f 
cucytl.f [ku ; ha.::^ allir/ator.] 
hxiak'^^roice. acacuequetl.f 
yacari* = caijman. 


n^n^ insect, liarab. 
kisim = locust, 
wvoxxn^^ insects. 
(ugM^uglum.) 


sben; ]i''i:^ insect. 

min. 

khun, insects. 


tlalacotl.f scborf = /!'y. 
zicotlif =; Jcf. sisi*=:OT«<. 



11 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 




English. 




(Modern.) 


Stjndrt. 


Principal and Cognate 
Terms. 


Egittiax. 


as ; asi ; ege ; edfA^eflff. 


Celtic. — ai^^milk. 


Food. 


sekt^meal; grind. 


'posjo=^meat. Tivita.z=food, milk. 


Hebrew. — mannali ? 




sau; sha; Vnia^food. 


ku. si. sa. so. nono ; mx=imilk. 


Basque. — esne=w(///;. 


Maize, wbeat. 


sab; ai:=Jtesh. 


malo ; molikon^r/tY. 


Assyrian. — sheni=^f.s7( . 


fat. tlesb. com. 


su. asher. x^r. 


ese. saiiyo. giissa. sikawa. 


„ zir ; z'iru=.vcffZ. 


seed, grain. 


at; prt ; uahit^forw. 


zaloza. lissa. kawa^w«/3«. 


,, amarn=«'/(("rti. 


millet bread. 


shcmn^ harrest. 


kuskus ; isi ; vao^i^oats. 


,, shizbu^w/tt. 


rice, seseme. 


prt; rtu^ seed. 


maza-ziiai. moz-zara. 


„ keiim=i;;(f'rt/. 


to cat. mouth. 


shames^ car of corn. 


tnasarmi. miiliku. 


Sanskrit. — inadbii^/(o«ry. 


sorgbum. 


t'a ; aq=z bread. 


tamasin=iff;7c//. simha=;7o(f;-. 


,, anna. yava. 




tasheser^fruit. 


mo ; loso ; si ; ku ; cdsu^?-«Vtf. 


,, sasya. 




shcns; sha^cff^-^. 


muma; nyama; m'bezi) ^_ , 

somba ; osese ; taasu ' ""■' 


Ugro-Altaic. — sar-zud. 




sune.sh = to nourish. 


,, mudda. muno. 


[Roots Ma and 


at =_/«<. aart^zmilk. 


suazum=i^ eat. 


,, manu=('r/(/. zic 


Se.] 


maspu. fu. spa. 


sau ; sar=:off^.s, sorglmm ? 


= f!exh. 




hosmen=: .«(??<. maku. 


ris ; sinka^rw. ■mazi^wney. 


„ seru.ia:=iuilk. 




sera:=butter. 


kawa; \k.vio=^maize. 








[Arabic. — sara; maka=Hm(3(;] 








,, dburrah. 








daka ; doko^fo drinlc ; ciij). 


Polynesian. — karaca. 
,, asega. tava. 


Beer. 


heqt^^heer. 


kaka ^ calahash ; cuj). 


Indian. — araki. 
Japanese. — sake. 


WLnc. spirits. 


arp; f-a^icine. 


zogga.=:jmlm-u-iiie ('?^socca.) 


Slavonic. — vodka . 
Dra%-idian. — churukku. 


arrack, drink. 


hek = drink. 


oko ; kika ^pof ; f//.s7(. 


Mongol. — schara. 
Hebrew. — methek:=-'i«rf)'. 


fire-water, life? 


tex = drunk. 


daka = mouth. 


,, maslikcli, mezeg=; 
drink. 


sack, cup ? 


■xyi^soul. 


mal-wa^Jff/- (=corn-watcr ?) 


Latin. — nectar. 
Assyrian. — sikni. 
Greek. — 'X''"P- 




aqt^ drink. 


doko ; ako = }mt ; calahash. 


Turkisb. — ai-]3o. 






Hebrew. — mezeg. 


To Drixk. 


sura, sklicbu. 




Caucasian. — sua. 






sliu ; daka=w(0(///i. 


Latin. — ner-tar. 


Shower ? quaff. 


siim^ sioalloio. 




Libyan, sou. 


suck, pot ? sup. 




da ; ka ; kiiii-d^pot. 


Ugro-Altaic. — asokb. 


mouth. 


s^cb. hek. aqt. sau. 




Celtic— su'gli. 


swallow, soak. 




na ; mo ; nu'a ; Ro^dnn/c. 


Assyrian. — sbatu. 


souse? swig. sip. 


hnu, akn, ts, sta:=^vase. 




Sanskrit.- — pa. cbad. 


water. 




suta^fo eat. nasa. 


„ chuj. pi. sura. 
Mongol. — ocbu. onai. 




mn-:=water. 


suta. dza. 


Sanskrit. — pa. ak. 


To Eat. 


am. amam. usha. 




,, kam^to ea(? 




xapa. qq = <o eat. 


kaka:=7;o<. so=^ drink. 


Hindi. — kba. 


Mouth, chew. 


taz^hread. ro^moulh. 




Indo-Cbinese. — Vhaz^moutJi. 


cud? pot? 


ak^bread. 


daka=;»!02<^A. 


Mongol. — idiiku. 
Ugro-.\Jtaic. — ko=w(Oi(//(. 
Gei-man. — ossen. 







A rillLOLUUlCAL TAiiLK OF ACCOIiDANCKS. 



12 







AjiiriiiCAN 




ACCADIAN. 


Cm.N'Usn. 


NOKTII. CENTKAL.t SoUTII.* 




sliuku ; slicg = !f /(««<. 


mi; ma=:;7Vv'. 


ahuati ; * mays ; f ikwo j = maize. 






shui; nai = w(/tt-. 


mahiz.* maah. maidca.* 




she ; shug^t/rciiii. 


mek ; mo = wheat 


maza-morru =: maize-porridge. 






. mih ; mit = /«o«cy. 


maaskapa^»ic«<. zona, siji.* 




kul = s(!C(?. gin. 


tsi ; sa ; sat ^ seed. 


saxi.f huis-cum. .sara*=:/««(Z(?. 






hwo:=(frtiiii (k-az^old). 


supir;f guano* ^ci///. suiuit. 




ka=/)v«7. iia, y«orf. 


jau = /feA. shili. tzii. ku. 


tsoali f ^ bread, nioliu =^ seed-corn. 






suk ; suh = maize, rice. 


ma-mak* =; sHt/ar-rane. 




mu-mu ; ku = ^o eat. 


shu=:^o //>■/;. shih=i to eat. 


sauk\i''''^l/rcad-paste. sauan = maize. 






kok (old ) ^ cakes. 


stsi ; f raaueana ; * miccuni = to eat. 




UZU = //('«// ; /«<. 




saba; magnc:= flesh, kamu^ mouth. 
tzoma j = to bake. 




kusli = iv'^cfeite. 








zi ; zid ; wifff/. 








sham; s\g^= (/reens. 








shara^ffrass. 








nag = <o drink. 


nung. Tun. tsiu. 


acoa * ^ maize-leer. 






' " 


octli.f puhjue.* 




ka; zi^Iife. 


li; j\\=:mmt. 


tlaoloctli.f nk^ water. 
huavapu.* .sora. 




goiitm=:r i>ie^iqiior-\-sj)irifs. 


ku^spiriis. 


makosLa^^o drink, 
kako-^pot. 




aga=/oorf. karan = wwe. 




ku \ = mouth. 




tin; giim:=spirifs. 








gash-gcsh = sfro)!r; drinlc. 








ga^to sip. gM^ mouth. 








sur ; shig^raw. 


hiah ; hap ; kap^^o swallow. 


kaka; koku=;^;6<. 

sie ; dzu ; uni; ak; pa =:!*•« to". 




nag; aga.= flood. 


yiu. hoh^^ sip. 


chai. too-a. chumani.* moh. 
makosha. onithiic.f paa. 




pu ; a = water, ka = life. 


ch'ih==/o cat or drink. 


himli. bannah. upiani.* 
acca*=:wfl(s«-J('(T. kuf; m^z mouth. 




dug; kam=^;o<. gu. 


pu. yan. sok. 






imma^/A//'*^. 


shu = cooki!i(/-put. 






'ka,=imonth. gam. 


tsiM^=liqtior. ^.'0X1 = mouth. 






ka. ku. gar. kur. 


kiao. kao (okl). chiak. 


akkakuni.* ishan. pah. koh. 






tsih. ni. khai;. 


qua. mancana.* kaka=j»o^. 




ka = mouth. 


ja.o=zto chew. ir. pu. 


qqamu.* tzi.f mikcuni. eken. 






shik ; cli'ih^fo su-allow. 


chi;f ca; kanik ; so; k\\]^ mouth. 






shu=j)o^. k'au = /HOi(//t. 


wipisha. haual.* kaxa'^ = to feed, kama 


t 



13 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Ajfeican. 
(Modem.) 


SrXDET. 


English. 

Principal and Cognate 

Terms. 


Egyptian. 


kako ; nakoa=^Ji(nid. 


Dravidian. — cakaka. cliirai. 


Slave. 


bn ; mrt ; hak=iservant. 




Sanskrit. — kak^/o sJuikc. 




tt ; t'a ; sbet=.sf(2e. 


(.■ata^sen-niit. 


,, Tiik=;/o seize, nac. 


Servant, steal. 


ker ; baq ; teh^take. 




Latin. — capcre^/o take. 


nab. 


am=.sc/ze. 


ekkaki^/(««f?. 


Mantsliu. — akka. 


catcb. prisoner. 


tot-=Jiand. 




Libyan. — akli. Hindi. — noukur. 


lug. seize, take. 


sbep:=r«'(;(?(V«. 




Assyrian. — ckemu ; liku=fo seize. 


.snatcb. grab. 


iihc-p^pfilm of hand. 




,, abdu. nakmu? zikaru. 


band? keep. 


kbep^fo keep. 




Greek. — !Ke-T)i<:^supj}!iant. vlkuu). 


conquer. 


-aaxt-^force. 




Lap. — kap=fo talce. 






miitu ; mat\ia=d cafJi. 


Sanskrit. — maka ; nac-=dea/Ji. 




akb ; x^u^aZ^^r. 




,, rakta^iAjof/. 


Sackifice. 


maa. x^rt- 


nckon^sperir. ku=f7/e. 


UgTo-Altaic. — ki=Woof7. 




sek ; sh^iill. rekbs. 




Assyrian.. — daku. nakii ? 


kill, blood. 


■neki=:d(i//'/er. 


fjadakM^sacrifice. 


,, va.utn=zdie. 


deatb? 


bka — magic, mt — death. 




Japanese. — cip'ru. 




sakti^camage. 


dake^deatJi. 


Arabic. — sadaka. 
Zend. — ^naqu. 


offering. 




kiikwa. m'mut. dake. 


Assp-ian. — mutu^death. 


Death. 


neki^dagger. 




,, nakuz^saerijice. 




mut. sek. kck^night. 


mutu. nekon^sj}ear. 


„ daku=^:(7/. 


Die. corpse, kill. 


■matcs=:kill. x^^^eorj)se. 




UgTO-Altaic. — beta. mara. 


murder. 




moti. 


(See ante.) 
Latin. — mors ; mortis. 






soko. kaka^i;V^f;-. 


Sanskrit. — nacti. 


Bad. 


xa^evil. aok^deatJi. 




Greek. — KaKoi^had. uxo^-=grief. 




kck=zniglit. 


sccko^iiiffJit. 


TJgro-Altaic. — bakk. ka. 


Black, dark. 


rcki. 




Assyrian. — aku=r«f/VX-('fL 


nigbt. mui-ky. 




kukvra^dcafJi. 


Papuan. — badok. 






hou. zoo. kaou:=f?(^y. 


Aryan. — dens. tio. Persian — kbuda. 


GoD. 


ntr — god. nfr — good. 




Sanskrit. — si\=(jiood. 




abu. ur. bua. 


kiin=('7//V/'. 


Greek. — ev^f/ood. 


Good. 


akba ; ka^qood, great. 




Egyptian. — abn. 




skbem. uar^prince. 


(liikC'=z(leafh. 


Aryan. — bikb. 


Poison. 


hka^magic. xa=«8''7. 


tukux=i/at7>;. 


Ugro-Altaic. — myrbky. 




sbmmt^/)i5/so«. 




AssjTian. — daku=:/-(7?. 




]iek:=driiik. 


okua. 


Caucasian. — kani. kerk[=hark. 


Skin. 


kal. ubc^. 




Indian. — pc. cboga=i!z<« ic. 




ap. x'L-n. 


marrock. 


Latin. — tectum=roq/'. cortex^Zim'Z:. 


tunic, cover. 


peqit ; \yak=linen. 




„ tog;!\— tunic, cutis— sZ-m. 


roof, tent ? 


t'txi^clothing. 


ngooa. 


Hebrew. — gag=roo/. 


clotbing. coat. 


incseq. 




German. — tuch^^cloth. baut:=«Z:m. 


bark. rind. 


xenru. 


koat. 


Ugro-Altaic. — kuricb. jaylech. 
„ bukut ; hn^iouse. kar. 


bouse ? sbelter. 


sbar (Coptic). 


pata. 


,, nakka. tiku=zf/ a r me nt. 
,, cbusieli. turnk=:/(M<. 






togo^zuJiirt. 


Greek. — /mKov^^r/nf/iinff. 
Sbivonic. — kora. Skr. pac=:<o bind. 






hu, claka=/(0««<;. 


Annenian. — koja. 







A rniLOLOGIGAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



14 



AcCABIAtf. 


CillN'KSE. 


Amekicax. 

NOUTH. CENTHAL.t SoUTH.* 


lagiii- ; slnik-kiil ; eri ; lugli. 

zag ; gad ^ hand. 

te ; tuk ; (lib ; tug ; gid=/rtZ-c. 


na^/« /((/t. im. yao. 
cboli ; tidv =^ lu take ; neizc. 
kaj) (old)= to take by force. 
■ kliii. kicli. kiap. 

[na=to have. — Malay.] 


akana-sanu.* ak ; iiiaki*=/(«MrZ. 
kajKina.* chab. {ah^tand). 
kachik-'=:to take, catch, xolo. 
tlacotli.f huicaf^to seize. 
paco*=::to take ; hand, ma.f 
pa; ka; chue=to to/.-*, 
pinas.* nea(pien=:/ command. 


nnid ; ^ml^llood. 

sigisse. 

zugl^ death, sliukum. 

shag^/ic(?r/ ; shah, shim. 


h'iieh. kut (old), biit. 

kik ^ blood ; Imd. 

yang-ku^rffw. 

si ; mut := to die. el i' ik ^ red. 

hit^blood. sia, sam^/(fffr^. 


kik ; f 'kiket=blood. maka. 
akna.* mara;! mkani*=fe7/. 
hikua— death, c^hi. ahta. 


gig. sig=rfffr/.;. ak = i(/(f. 
mid. dilj. mar. 
sigisse = «r?fr;'^fc. 


mut. ]w]i.^h(id. 

kii (old) ^ to die. kik=;J/oof7. 


nakani;* mara=to kit/, mntu. 
kik j^ilood. tik.ooz=ideath. 
hikiia^shadoiv. 


ak. kukki. 

gig = «/(•/:; W«fZ:. 


hek. kik. 


hikua^shade. kaka. haka.* kaak. 
heeat.* oca.f kache. 


iitu=:sM?z. "kaz^hriglit. 
'ksH^great. 


hii. jin. khi. 
kii^ffreat. hao-:=ffood. 


hu. tec. eha. 


ukliu. ug'u. kushu ? 


dok? kn (old) = f/('rt//(. 
ch'uu^irtrf. 


achura. taVke^oiife. kaak:=J/ac^-. 
lacmc^death. nakani*^to kill. 


su^s/;/«, cover. g'ab=fo «/:/». 

ki-kii^/«OMs«. 

dul=fo cover ; diir. du=(?«'(>//. 

tiig ; tii^clothiiiff. 

mal. mar=/;o««(!. 

(Thibetan.) 

siika. koba. 
pags'pa. 


kek=.s^-m. mxik chouse. 
ta ; kap=: to cover (? ^ «;«/>). 
mak ; iao\i=^ bouse, 
kii^ home. tak=zfo weave. 

(Indo-Chinese.) 
kokwa. bigiir. 
sara. acha. 


xeuel.f kodja; kah=/iM!;. 
ccai-a.* kai-pa=to«^. 
kwo.f xiqqiiiay. kwota.f 
ikno.* kukh ; oca^'-=zhouse. 
qata^^to cover. kiki=:/;o«s«. 
togai : pacha;*' pa=honse. 
imku*^clothiiiff. igloo^(«< (Esq.). 
amcg^cloth ing (Esq. ) . 



15 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCOEDAXCES. 



ArnrcAN. 




English 




(Modern.) 


SrSDRY. 


Principal and Cognate 
Terms. 


Egyptian. 


kcro. ba. la. 




U.-Altaic. — grira. kaiuis {^\n.)goat. 
Georgian. — tcha^^o«^. 


Goat. Pig. 


naa^goat. 


aku. bagai. 


■ ^goaf. 


Polpiesian. — paiica ; wacka^^Jiy. 
Sanskrit. — sukara^/;*;?. 


Boar. hog. 


uat ; kaari=:yort<. 


oruko. biiia. 




,, })n(:tix goat. ])a<^n^caftle. 
Ostiac. — bica:=o.;-. 


sow. jiork. 


rr; shaau=/)/y. 


pori. sircme. I 




Greek. — Ka7rpo^^=-loar. at^.^goat. 


deer, cattle. 


ar^^deei; luclc. 




Hebrew. — ^ez=^goat. 






bi ; ogoro=ipif/. 


Latin. — Tacca=cow. pecus=s/(«e^. 




xa-i^animal. 


ngiia^iort/-. oko=J«//. 


„ bircus ; caper^^ort^. 






nakai^o.c. 


,, siis ; porcus=^;/^. 




fu=f7oy. 


kadara:=/;orsc. 


Celtic. — kar\x=stag. 






ouko ; teke=i«('Z-. 


,, i^ocan^/oat. hochz=h:ig. 




th=ij)ig. hippopotamus. 


laha^deer. 


Dravielian. — pacu^co/r. 






la; ka=///(!; aninwl. 


,, pari=^«y. kaurip=90rt/. 




[Coptic. — kie^^ofl^.] 


kai ; afu ; nclia=«'oy. 


Mongol. — tclic^goat. gaca=/.'/y. 
Basque. — ja.ca=ii/ioi!keg. 

,, aquerra ; akor^i/oat. 
Thibet. — pag=:/i/y. yak^o.c. 
Italian. — peeora=fOM' ; sJieep. 
Malay. — kawan=:7(«-(^. hwi^jng. 
Ugro-Altaic. — siga ; pori=^(^. 

SeamlinaTiau. — \am=iJaiiih. faar. 






gona. koro. ona. 


Sheep. 


sera. ser. 


bagainre^.s'7«rj!). 


Tasmauian. — \enimiM]i.^ka)igaroo. 






iiig'oiubir=fo«'. 


riirygian. — /unz^.^Jiecji. 


Lamb. ram. 


(kamaar:=ort»(f /. ) 


lenicne; bo. agho^ram. 


Thibet. — lug^-iJiefji. 






memo. baia=yofl<. 


,, rama ; \am=goat. 


cwc. 


{ranmnt^caith.) 


\a\om.^camel. 


Turkish.— dana^ffl//'. 








Armenian. — aru. Georgian. — ari. 




Xid:=anmal. 




Latin. — aries^r^w . 








Basque. — ahari^/-«//). 




"ka^mah. 




Celtic. — kaora^.s7(p<>/>. 








Dravidian. — dana^cofi'. 






m'gombi. lo. ikuma. 


Indo-Chinese. — mea ; mv=//oat. 


Cow. 


mt. mer. aht. aat. aua. 


ngiia=:Jo«/-. iiieme= 


,, \TMX'n^buff(ilo. 




ah. ah^calf. 


goat. 


Malay. — lemon:=o.r. 


Kine. ox. 


bhes^ffl//! 


koo-doo:=«re<e/ojB(! ? 


Celtic. — 'bn^cow. taTTi=J»//. 




ka ; iiiikx-^hdl. 


tura ; ako=S;<W. 


Latin. — taurus:=Si///. 


bull, buffalo. 


(kamaar ; kaari ? ^ 


la ; bagar:=fo(<.'. 


Mautshu. — Vom^goat ; sJieej), onka. 




camel.) 


kom()=crt/^/c. 


Burmese. — khami^co/r. 


cattle. 


kaui=('Oir«. 


nakai=:ai'-. m'kali. 


Kurile. — gama=Jwr.if. 




kahs=(/fl;('?fc. 


[Arabic. — tur. tm^huU. 


Sanskrit. — kuro=m//'. go. 




khu. shcsa=«?e^r. 


,, didnl^droMedari/.^ 


Malay. — karbu=J»//rt/o. 

,, \nm])u:=ratf/c. hdw.m^ierd. 

,, kaml)ing=.v/'f/y;. 
Dravidian. — koti=/.'/.so«. 
Ugi-o-Altaic. — kor — iikor. 






la-:=coiv. 


Hebrew. — parash. sus. 


Horse. 


ses ? heter. 


tiira=^biill. so. esi. 


Finnish. — hcwoiset. tanima. 




sms. 


kadara — horse, samar. 


Caucasian. — tzi. guri=:«4S. 


Marc, ass ? 


aa:=«.w. 


so-.sa=;?»ff;-<;. 


Yencsseian. — guss. lo. 




as^swift '? 


[Arabic. — khoiisan.] 


(ihond. — kara. Sclave=loshad. 
Assyriiui. — sisu. Sanskrit.— aqva. 
Tui'kish. — at. (F,. Tartar. — kir>u\ 







A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



16 



ACCADIAN. 


CmtresE. 


AjiKitrcAx. 

NOUTH. C'ENTRAL.t SoUTH.* 


snkka; nk\i;i=:ffoat. 
sliiio;. sig. pish. 

gU'^—li/lCCJ). 

(liki^doff.) 
har^:.dcer. 


yang; yung; smg=(/oat. 

yak^=o.v. 

flii ; sliili=:y^/(/. 

shall =: animal. liiig=:rfoy. 

Ink; kia ; pao ; lo-^ deer. 

chu = /(«//. kii = r«M. 

tdie^bark. \ 

p;aca=:pi(/. > Mongol. 

daka:=(/</«^. ) 


addik; huanaku*=:rfcer. 

.sire; yuk ;f 1)m::i*=: (/oat (alpaca). 

kakka ; cliuki ; ])uku ; jx/kz^rfwy. 

cuchi*=y;/y. hov.to'-^^ boar. 

guuca;* kut = deer. 

jtnchi* ^zvild boar, or savac/e beast. 

auch'd^'^ tapir, coohena^/ioy. 

taruca*=2<!('W sheep; deer. 

pecchari* =ipeccari/. 

chiki; liki ; ochuf=(7oy. 


gup;, lulu. itlib. 
lii-lim =;*•«/«. 
giik-kal. 
da.rii=ia»tclope. 


ku; kao, t'u :=?«»}. 
yang. mien, 
ku = ram ; male. 
chaj = feh')ie animal. 
(ma — horse.) 


ku*=«M?'wrt/. 

(yo ; yaware* = doff.) 

coaura.* llama. 

katu.* ichame.f = s//fr'/). 

taruca = wild sheep. 

cuitlamztU f = leopard. 


lu. lid. 
gii(l = ^»//. 
ama = »'/W hull, 
dura^ caff. 


mu-nin. niu. 

li. ku. yak^o.r. 

si = buffalo. 

ku ; ngau^i«/^. 

lo'^domestic animal. 

loh-to'= camel. 

cVan^elk. 

tuk, duk — calf. 


ma; \n\>f=zcow. koo-kee = Jj«o«. 

kha^= buffalo, llama.* 

puma*^^ sviall lion. 

euitlamztlif =; leopard. 

liki^dot/. 

juk=^c/oat. k\\t=:deer. 


kas-kas=«ss. mur ; kur=z 

Jiorse. 
ansu-kiirra = horse. 
kur. 'kiii=zhorse. 
gus^hair; cover. 
ui=^ horse. 


ma; cr =zhorse, 
lu = ass. 

k'i^iorse ; 'kn^colt. 
(Japanese. — uma.) 
(Mongol. — tzciiik. ) 


kuss-nan. phane.f 

sus ; zags^bear. 

tara.* kuraf^^/o«; puma. 

mahto^bear. 

(See elsewhere.) 



17 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



AFEICAIf. 


SlTNDET. 


English 


EorPTLi^if. 


(Modern.) 


Principal and Cognate 
Tei-ms. 


"Pierret." 


esa. munya. maka. 


Sanskrit. — (^veta^wJi ife. 
,, qarkara^fniffdr. 


Salt. 


maaa. 


etsa. mkureh. iyo. 


„ madliii=/(o«cy. 


Snow, white. 


shii^iffJit ; Iriffhf. 




Japanese. — za-to. 


cold, shining. 




nsalo. munu. 


Turkish. — sbeker. 


bright, glass ? 






Persian. — khosh. shirin. 


sugar ■? ice ? 




[Arabic. — mclli.] 


Hintli. — sbukkar. misri. 
Hebrew. — metliek. 






Berber. — tesint. 


TJgro-Altaio. — ser. soq. sohu. soak. 
E. Tartar. — soo = zvkite. sbasu = 
„ izat. \_suoiv. 
Sanskrit — skan:=snow. 






inazi^7(o»f//. 


Assp-ian. — sabu=:icine. 


Sweet. 






Ugro-Altaic. — sukker. 


Sugar, salt? 




etse^saU. 


,, sumi^honet/. 


shine? 




sava. — cotton. 


Polynesian. — tu. tappu. 


Clothes. 


seti. artu. hbs. 




,, kapa. paks. 




ta. t'ai. t'etna. sti. 


cvra ; duma ; \ 


Celtic. — hTveas^lrcccJies. 


Girdle, garment. 


sent. mar. sa. 


togo 1 =-sJii)i. 


Greek. — paKo^. 


to weave ? 


^e(pt=lmen. ubex- 


tsaka; zla. ) 


Latin. — texere = /o u-eatr. toga. 


life ? covering. 


menx. 




tunica. 


cliith. skin. 






TJgi'o-Altaic. — tiku=^ffarme>it. 


shii't. tunic. 






„ kurich. cbusicli. nakka. 


(see skin.) 




tutu. efo. 


Caucasian. — shard. aik^;V«. 
Sanskrit. — 9i(jira. 


Cold. 


hs. 


[Arabic. — fia\]=snow. 


Turkish. — soghuk. 
Mongol. — kuitan. 


Ice. snow. 




jalTd 1 ^.^^ 
jamad ) 


Japanese. — samin. kan. 






Celtic. — kuisne:=('f«. 








TJgro-Altaic. — jeg^/ce. ja; si= 






kurr— foW.] 


E. Tartar. — shasu^swoif?. 






koko^crooked. 


TJgro-Altaic. — agg. 


Old. 


ks. 




German — alt. 




kb, akb. 


kaka=? bad. 


Dravidian. — maduka. 


Aged. bent. 


xob. 




Greek. — Kamdi^ind. 


crooked, bad ? 


uxa; kek=z{darhiess.) 


dake^^deaih. 


Latin. — senectus. vetus. 


white. 






Italian. — yecehio. 


(see crooked; 






Arabic. — shaikh=oW nifin. 


bend.) 






Polynesian. — koeke. hakiu. 








Mongol. — sakda. 








Ainos. — heka. 








Caucasian. — aik=:ice. 








Etruscan. — cku=??«oo«. 


"White. 


akhu. 




Greek. — Xcvko^. 




ubex. 




TJgro-Altaic. — nogi. kagi. 


Silvery. 






„ tiku; joy;— ICC. agg— old. 


shining ? 






Poljmesian. — uko. rcku. 








Mongol. — onko. 







A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



18 



ACCAMAN. 


Ceinese. 


American. 

NOKTH. CENTUAL.t SoUTII.* 


shcg^snow. 
lagh ; Ymr^n-Jiife. 
]La,=^hrif/Jit. kuu. gan. 

ZO.lz:^,s/iulinff. 
sxii^v/iite. 
shen = fo Mne. 
aza,gz=briffht. 


mih = //o«ry. In. lo. 

hicn ; k:m^lifi(/ht. 

siieh ; 8ut:=snow. 

ko ; kao^ivhite. 

shen — to shine. sha'tang=: 

suffar. 
%00-^.white. 


mamak = sugar-cane. 
shmaa; kok ; kon ; jali ; yah = «iOtt'. 
yaruk ; * tlazi ; * nhoiin-^ivhite. 
saclii.* iztatLf on.f sheh-eh. 
kliarsa=4V«. zixk]^white. hayu.* 
kais == ice. 


laL kii? 

kan. kakkul^wMW^. 


mih = /(o»ry. 

kan ; i^awg^siveet. 

sha'tang. sken-=.to shine. 


siidiik ; mizqui* = Siwe<. 
skuhosh ; saclii* ^ s«W. 
sak=^white. 
mamac := sugar -cane. 


te. ma. sig. mu. 
'kikn^house. (zi ; tin = ///«). 
tiig. tu. du. su^skin. 


lik^^o lire. t'a. tan. 
s6 = fO(?;. piao. ku. AvL=Ldwell. 
Uih^^to spin, zik^ cloth. 
tak^to weave. 


qua-sho. he.* ti; sn'^=^Iife. 
manaka.* sayfe^cotton. 
tilmatli.f pacha.* pahni = .«//;>^. 
iinku* = 57«><; tunic. tiki = «-os«, tie. 
togai. 


sheg^snow. 

sin^'white. 
hal-ha—ice, hail. 


ban. pa. lang. 

aiit = s}i.oii'. hu-fuh. 

poli = /(«(7. gam. 


chiri.* hc.f itztic.f cah-wce. 
put. tzaa.f tse.f tomc^ winter. 
kisma. kasa*^/c<;. kais = i>e. 
poh; rassu;* toosha ; zahs = s«cie<'. 
jah^^snow. shimas. sikkoo — ice. 


kakka. ghul— had. 

sig. 

bad. 

kiikki^ (lorhtess. 


ki\k=^ crooked, 
kck — bad; dark. 


rukku.*" kaak^bad. 

yechia.f 

mahu. 

huac. 

dotzi. 


ukmu. 

lag. 

ka^hn'ffhf ; shining. 

sagli; slieg^swow. 


pak. sit. 
kao. k'o. 
siit^snow. 


zak.f iztak * sasac. 
socco = tchitc-hair. 
kholki ; * hasij = sili-er. 
kaklia = moon. 



19 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 
(Modern.) 


English. 

Principal and Cognate 

Terms. 


Su^-DRT (k=g=g=l-? r=n). (t=d=k). ?Eoot=kar; 
kak ; kal, etc. 


gire =fann. 


CrRCUE. 


Thibetan.— kor=cwTZ«; tooth. gnr=}wuse. 


gaio =cowntri/. 


Enclosui-e. 


Chinese. — 'km=tvJiecL kal^tvall. 'hv;m= eticlosure. 
,, kau. ]s.'u = mouth; hole. 


yaro = land. 


■wheel, roimd. roll. 


Japanese. — maru = circle. 


ta,ri= stone. 


curveil. cave, revolve. 


Etruscan. — csere ; Yo\?=toivn. 
Phoenician. — cartha= ct'ti/. 


kira =/«;•;». 


hole, mouth. 


Amharic. — avav= round. 


gar = man. 


court, square. 


Hebrew. — 'kor= a round vessel. gan=ffarden. gal^heap. 
Assyrian. — karu=/or<. kar=WT/<?. agaru=!6'fl//. 


kau. 'ka=sfone. 


kingdom, town. 


Arabic. — dM-= house. carna= farm. 


ta,Ti= stotie. 


field, land. 


,, kam^Iwrn. ghAT=cave. 
Dravidian. — churr^ circle, cheri. 'ksl=stone. 


'km=crooJced. 


garden, yard. 


Sanski-it. — cliakra = u'heel. 


kamga=s/o«c 


houndary. wall. 


Hindi. — ghar=house; court, cakra^circle. kan = ear. 
Thibetan.- — gorri= Aom.sc. 


kau=/rtr;H. 


house, village. 


Persian. — 'k.\iieh.= circle. khan= inn. 


ura =7iOi«e? 


people ? 


Indo-Chinese. — 'karau=tooth. gar=house. goTTi=sfone. 
Armenian. — kawar= cwx'?c. 'kor =bent. 


heli.e=vilh(/e. 


home ? ian. 
family ? 


Slavonic. — gora=loundary ; limit. 

Greek. — ^/i'i>d'. = curved. Kvi)-6<i=crooled; lent. 

German. — kehr=fo turn round. (i\icv=croolced. 




nation ? 


Latin. — agcr= feld. curvare=^o curve. 




tribe ? 


,, cornu=Aor», terra = 7rt«rf. 
„ cortex=r/«rf. circulus. 




stone. 


French. — carie=squarc. jaixUn =ffarden. 

Phrygian. — gauos = f/arden. 

Celtic. — caar=«!'owf>. cuiart=f(VcZ«. kil=enclosure. 

„ car=to twist; turn. gai\ii=garden. 

,, kar=c/;Y^». \ia].=village. 
Serbian ? — kortura = round. 
Lithuanian. — karta = zig-zag. 
Basque. — gan= field. 
Libyan. — arri = stone. 
Caucasian. — kher; ']i.Qra= stone. 'kai\\\=niouth. 

,, k.arviaa=: circle. 'kana= field. 
Indo-Chinese. — kcelu = stone. karau= roo</«. 
Ugro-Altaic. — kyra=/(('W. kar=/(OM«e. khor= ;ho!«//(. 

,, karo ; 'k\ia\=stone. 'k&x = statc; skin. 

,, khcr=fo«rf. kao = stonc. 
Mongol. — W\a=mouih. kaYa=black. 
Polynesian. — uare = hotiso. hale = village. 
Greek. — TLeimcs—god of boundaries. 
Assyrian. — ekallu =j)alace. 



A nilLOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



20 



Egyptian. 



qcr=zcircle. 

ko'i^Jidd (Coptic). 

ieT=.houndarij. 

k.a.it=.town. 

iiiir=zsfone. 

kiiniat=;/<or«. 

'han:=hox. 

kolg (Coptic)=J(;?w7. 

kenai^cmbrace. 

? alok=ff/Y. 

khtmt^g (I nien. 

kol::=.town (Semitic). 

makata:=c«ve ? 

khab^end. 



ACCADIAN. 



North. 



AirBRICAN. 

Central, t 



South.* 



gar^circlc ; wall. 

kav=^wall ; Jield ; town. 

ga.=:laiid. gan V 

klm=Jield. 

kwc=^hou8e. 

gnvh^to return. 

khar=zstoHe. 

ku=zi/ioii!h. 

kana=r7oor. 

ka^=(/ate. 

gal=/o(f». 

gar^hric/c. 

kala. ma^coimtri/. 

kiku^wme. 

2ur=^ return. 



gar; garc^and. 
kah=zhotise. 
qa,ta.*=.coverini/ ; /i/cin. 
canclia;* zaka.]:=ffarden. 
karpa.*=ient. 
caiTatu*=sfo?}«. 
kut ; caa^stone. 
gaxra^horn. 

ka::=MOuth. 

eia^'^/ouse. 

qai ; koh ; kn=:mout/i. 

kauik^nwuth. 

calj^touse. 

ololtCC f =/'0M»t7. 

coloaf^fo lend. 



21 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Akeican. 
(Modem.) 



kerigarda. 

ogoa. aka. 

ekim=to bend. 

koko. 

kakaka. 

kaka =/;««(/. 

OToko= hiee. 

ekoTO= elbow. 

'keko= foot. 

pak ; aku= fooih. 

tuku=bh(c/c. 

dake=deatli. 

haka=bow. 

ii'ko=nii/Iif. 

j6ka.=(7enl. 

tlikanin ., 

uclii |=""'«'^'- 

]ift6k=)iiout//. 

koka; aglja = oW. 

dcka= axe. 



English. 

Principal and Cognate 

Terms. 



Ceooeeb. 
Bent, hooked, 
arc. stepped, 
foot, ankle, 
elbow, neck, 
knee. hock. leg. 
tusk. horn, 
neck, tooth, 
dark. ugly. old. 
bad. night, 
ache, wicked, 
to twist ; tiu'U. 
crossed ; tied, 
zig-zag. 
anchor? axe. 



Su>T)ET (k=g=g=l? r=n). (t=d=k). ?Eoot=kar; 
kak : kal, etc. 



Thibetan. — dkarba. kug. khika=5(?fZ. kyog-po. 
llongol. — kucksin. tobigia= htee. 
Chinese. — kuc. ku. 'kek=had ; horn. 

,, tak=to tie {iceave?). kuc= da rJc. 
„ tuk; kok ; kak =/oo<; JiooJc. iiok — bac/c. 
Hebrew. — berek=fe<;«. galga.l= icJieel. rag =bad. 

„ ikkes]i=^^(;?'fc/-se. ekea=anHe-rinff. 
Arabic. — ghar = care. 
Sanskrit. — rakra. nakta = n ight. 

,, kuc = ^ bend. 
"Wend. — talokati=!'o ticisf. 
Slavonic. — kootar. okrcten = Jointed. 
Serrian. — karika = ;•/«(/. 
Greek. — ayKvXof. Kaicd^=bad. 7rd-)(i^=baek. 

,, KVK\o% = circle. KV7nu' = to bend. ■7rc\eh-v'5=axe. 

,, 7o^ov=a bow. Tp6xo'i=whcel. e'liKoi^enclosure. 
Latin. — calx (calcis)=/(«e^. flectare = i'o bend. 

,, curvare=<o curve, eu-culus. 

,, torquere=fo twid. noetis=w?y7/<. 
German. — ecke = angle, schlecht = bad. 
Celtic. — epuka = hoolc. crioc = boundary. 
Libyan. — eknu = bent, arri = stone. 
Assyrian. — raggu. aku = wicked. 

„ shuku = ^^^. etiku ?=rro«.?; tie. 
TJgro-Altaic. — !\gg= circle. ok = bow. hn'k.a = bad. 

„ kucha ; kok=/of//; Jtoolc. tubuk = /i'Me«. suka= 
Indo-Chinese. — khika = i«rf. 'kavau = tooth. [axe. 

Dravidian. — donku. edukki=w(V//ii. 

,, ]i.ctta.=bad. cakra=circle. tirrikka = ^ef«. 
Malay. — bing-tok. badik=<o ttirn. 
Papuan. — kottik=??/^7(<. ckab.=bad. 
Polynesian. — kakaka =Joit'. ]iakQ= crooked. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



22 



EaYniAN. 



rak= curved. 

]i!j]'^= circle. 
X'db = crool:ed. 
hmi= fake; htutd. 
aT\k\=had. 
kek =Hii/}it. 
ux!>.=dark. 
xct= foot. 
a.XO-=ltead. 



ACCADIAN. 



kukki = i!«/. 
kak = /(o;'«. 
(Iugu = Z.7(«. 
Hh.Vi-si.g= finger. 



gu ; hd = muHfk. 



i\\Lk\i = dci)to}i. 
lit; go,]la=de)non. 
taq= stone. 



North. 



Ameeican. 
Central. t 



= foot. 



chicoj = tortuous. 

okku=elbow. 

kuki 

taku , 

kalcura=^"»ea. 

]iirau = toofh. 

8iC\i=finffer. 

ig\u. = /lilt. 

lloke=/w«(?. 

kaka=('/(/«. 

liuaclii*' = « hotv. 

nake 

liuaku ■ = tooth. 

noque*'_ 

ecliote*=« boiv. 

haeclrara ••' =fisli -hooJc. 

■m\\Yak=circle. 

iak.\ = cross; tie. 

kaka=i(/f/; axe; cut. 

kaak=J«(^; dark. 

daka=7iOM««. 

o\o\icc\ = round. 

kak=6i'o»e. 

ifiiiiti*" = fo iceave. 



South.* 



23 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 
(Modern.) 


Sundry. 


English. 

Principal and Cognate 

Terms. 


Egyptian. 


ai. oni. ku. sui. 




Polynesian. — bari=(?rty. 


Sky. Day. 


bertipt; \ 


sema. kanii. taib. 




,, bani^.sXy. 




kal ; bab ; men. > sky. 


yanyiua. toiiie. 
havii. lana. izula. 


■ ^zdtiij. 


UgTO - A It aic . — hurura =^ff// . 
,, na. tan. sc'ilu=«ye. 


Heavens, wbite. 


uta ; pe. ) 
bam ; ra ; bar ; nepb 


huor. Sana, sikii. 


Sanskrit. — dyu. dina. 


ligbt. sun ? see ? 


=day. 


aro. hana. otana. 




,, svar. sku? 




ses=^day ; time. 


akon. dian. keso. 




,, nayana^c(/e. 


eye. bigb. god. 


tna=^morni7iff. 


boi. sale. dian. J 




„ kii^lnff/it. aban = 




bt ; ubex=(r/«y<'. 


nun ; ne ; nya, — eye. 


day. kaq=^shine. 


dawn ? sbino. 


xa ; ubex ; teka ; sbet. 


aineba ; kanu ; senime==*%. 


,, nabbas^<?/oM(^. 




bt'= *'"'/'''' ' 
shining. 


ona=:/ci see. uru=«MW. 


„ surya=SM». 


■wbite. brigbt. 


iru ; oru ^ heavens. 


Latin. — bora^/(o?<r. 




sh\\=ilight ; day. 


tsanna ; nii^o^ieavens. 


,, dies^rfay. 




sbep=/(o;»- ; light. 


tigot^s^-y. 


,, a\iTora=dmcn. 




nenu.ii=ihour ; time. 


[Ai-abie. — sama.^=i>io>-)ii)if/. 


Hcbre-R-. — a.\\\^eye. eeoum. 
Zend. — circ=ida>/. 




qai; xL=high. 


,, noor ; nahar=//y/(^, 


Assyrian. — sbamu. umu. 






rfo//.] 
,, soohh^ieavens. 


,, namrn^lrir/Jit. 
,, enn^ei/e. 

, , UlTU=f/rt//. 

,, -piau^ivJiite. 
A ccadian . — ann^s/n/-god. 
Ugro-Altaic. — tu. ncuc. 

,, nai^.sM». nam. kiun. 

,, sbkai. kuk. dini. 

„ ud^s«H. asal. 
E. Tartar.— nan. 
Greek. — ovptivo^. c'los, ijw?. 
Basque. — eguna=rfff(/. 






bou. hala. soko. 


Hittito. — sutbi. 


God. 


mxicY^the strong one. 


haon^dai/. kun^ehief. 
kanu. kui-u. esbo. 


Celtic. — kun ; bu=f /(;>/, lord. 
Greek. — ev=(/ood. Oedf. 


{Ideas indieative of 


nefer ; x" ; mnx^good. 
aa; ur; axa ; ka^iigh. 


zoo. cbos. sibu. 
bemm ; 'kion=:s mi. 


German. — berr^sjr. 
Latin. — dcus. 


supremacy.) 


nh^jjossessor. 

baq ; ati ; s\itn=king. 


ano. -nebo=:/ie(ivens. 


Assyrian. — iY\=:f;od. 


Lord. king. 


qn^strong. 


menya. njami. 


,, ilu. (i\i\=(/reat. 




la^sun. 


nom, niemci. mab-u. 


,, sliaku^/^/V/A. 


czar, ruler. 


Osii-is ? 


eyo ; rxyi=igood. 
kaka. oro. 


Accadian. — aun^xly-f/od. 
Persian. — sbfib^/./^//. 


cbief. strong. 




acorau^yo(/. 


Ugro-Altaic. — tari. fda. 






[Arabic. — iVixh^god. 
„ sbeikb=f/»V/. 
,, rab=/o;Y/.] 


,, biiwa (Ein.) :=ffood. 

aghag. 
,, Tpa.ca=ff reat. agba= 
lord. 


great, good, 
spirit, bigb '? 




,, tayib^yoof/. 


,, kbun=.s««. UY^iiffh. 
E. Tartar. — cbcw=//re(r<. 

,, kban=;Z'/«(jr. 
Slavonic. — tsar. 
Persian. — knfdj=//o«r?. 
Sanskrit. — su ; sat=yoor/. 
Basque. — !m=fire. 
Hindi. — sahih^masicr. 


sun? fire? 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



24 







American. 


ACCADIAN. 


ClIINRSE. 


North. CENTiiAL.t Soitii.* 


an ; nim ; zikarn^ski/. 


t'ioTi=zsJn/, high. 


axio* =^god\ day. nah=«Zy. nun.* 


iid-}!al=f/ff«7/. 


clicu=tc)k (old). 


sella; sua; skec=*'%. suna. 


utu; tam=:flai/. 


t'in ; jih=(/ffy=.s'!<«. 


kanyina.f daboi.f sak = «■/«'&. 


zikum^ii'fircn. 


su. zu. fa. 


sun. sazni. yii. kanani"''=<o hum. 


nun ; enii=*^7/. si=.to see. 


kiiig=//'//'/. 'kv.-a^iigh. 


tab; ishe ; zun ; suus=x?m. 


11 ; buzur; nxi^sim. 


'knn^hrighf. ycii=^ye. 


tu. ki. teotes. tani. ken. tagg. 


kun; ai^ag; '^Wfih—briff/if. 


k'an ; t'ien^sff, look at. 


tu = .v/-y ; day. nagc. canon, undi. 


gun ; ^n^fi/iiiie 


sing, sli('n:=^6i shine. 


tse.f i-am = .v/7/. taliu = rfrty. 


aTiu^nh/-i/od. 


pai ; poll; kao=«7//7e. 


uru.*pa; quib ;f zm\=day. 


hi'r^iriff/it ; shine. 


!iii=fire. 


ara.* buarassi.f cem. ra.'''-=heat. 


ili ; en ; ana^iii/h. 


Tin ; uao^4'«». 


nuno = moon. anuma. cliillay*= J;7V/7(<. 


gish ; mu ; mc^iearens. 




aino ; muta ; nam ; nain=ci/«. 


niib-:=liffM. igi=f«/«. 




caan.f tana, tassa. jaa. 


■n.ii=:heaven. 




tenit. tarn, hunab. sin^^ ,iee. 
rci ; hu ; kon ; zu ; nie:=SM».. 
illii*^bright, luminous, tma^ighl. 
sutci ; zura=2f/«Ye. sberek^^yc. 






hia ; bianz=fo see. 


utu; u=SM«. 


t'icn. ti. chie. hu. jin. 


eha. tattsa.* anc* bun. buot. 


utuku:=«!<«-^o(?. 


ti ; kung ; kiin^7i/;(y. 


ati.* tonatiuab ; f mti*=sim-god. 


enna ; mul ; ugimii^/orf?. 


ki (old), kwa^hiffh. 


tona ; f tsa ; kon ; za ; hi ; beue^-s«<». 


mu ; im-gal; lu-gal=A'(»(7. 


shan(^sliun). 


sibo.f bee. u. tassa. teo f ogha. 


nun ; dan ; gal ; 'kalii:=ffreat. 


klii. kwei. Vicn^J/iffh ; sky. 


atauki.* yib. biinab-ku. teotl.f 


an^sl-j/. anii^.d->/-f/od. 


chi-liu; pu-pci=(7/?V/'. 


kai-o-Tvisb ; sakumow^f /;«>/. 


dingir ; man ; mu ; ma = 


shen ; hao^ffood. 


tu.f du. baylli. tupani. 


kitui. 


tsai^^ rule. 


buey ;*• baccba ; da ; m\ick=greaf. 


ku ; kim=:i/-/^/;!'. 


ta ; da ; "ka^^great. 


tewa=zgood. ki:=>!oW« ; rich. 


\\i^iigli. zi ; »h\^s2)ir)t. 


chn^ord. te=/JOMvr. 


capac ;* tizoef=:X7'»(7. 


'kM=:ki)if/. dug ; zih^ffood. 


tm-ki=(&'o«!(old). 


yu=«^-y. saca*=:</-ee. 


su ; ku^.'SffM. 


ku (oldj^Z-m/. 


11 ; kun ; buain ; tata=;fr«. 


(lmgh'=:ffod. 


kin, kingz^irighf. 


\u\an=i/reaf. eoze. 




kun {o\A)=^lrigM. 


pacba-kamak^'rri.siywrHifl god. 
pirbua*=lsl' great Pcrurian god; f re-god. 




[tik. Buk tribes.] 


niou. islii=c7»>/'. 

bab-o-kab ; mAniia^ireat spirit. 

tccubtli ;:]: tou-yab=r(7«V/. 

tsa f=ipoarr. bana ^^divine. 

cboki=r//(7'«/> ; .solar. 

a'tn^god; sun. 

la ; ixi::=good. 



25 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



ApEICiN-. 




English 




(Modern.) 


SiDfDET. 


Principal and Cognate 
Terms. 


Egyptian. 


iruvra= r(V«r. kam. aglio. 


Assyrian. — mu. me. 


Watee. 


ma. mu. nti. 


uibu. pupii^fo flow. 


,, tsutsu^;ooZ. 




ima^sfff. at=(?CM?. 


mai. di. ana. omi. sua. 


Hebrew. — mo. mi. im. 


Sea. canal. 


atur; alu=:/-u-fr. 


ame. libo. nye. memo. 


Greek. — t'cwp. French. — eau. 


river, flood. 


mer ; mas : she. 


via. nini. bar. fi. hi. lo. 


Cehic — ar. aber. 


pool. lake. 


ssh ; peb ? ; mesket^ 


anki. aelio. meya. ibo. 


Berber. — aman. 


wave, shower. 


marsh. 


maka. ma. nu. zi. inn. 


Latin. — aqua. 


rain. soak. 


■aat-xa-^ great green sea. 


luki. dsi. hatsa. afi. 


Sanskrit. — \ii'\^(lrinlc. 


wet. marsh. 


aa=fo toash. ba^ex ? 


uke. ni. mo. min. man. 


„ iidaka. jala. 


swish ? wash. 


seth ; bar ; shakana — 


men. mare. imme. menya. 


„ ap. nira. vari. 


humid, mere. 


ivell. 


aya. moni. wa. nyo. na. 


,, udan. ambu. 


splash, fiord. 


xenna — lalce. 


waha. menzi. masi. madsi. 


IJgro-Altaic. — nare. bi. 


weir. dew. 


akana^vase ; lasin. 


ru-wa — lake, idu — sea. 


,, ki. tu. ur. mu. wat. 


dam. foss. beck. 


uri. ustenu. suten. 


bua; amu^mw. kura. 


„ arke. su. as. ai. 




akeb. uka. unnu. j ^ 
mati. mer. heh. > § 


[Arabic. — ma. miyab. 


,, gar^r/rc;-. mari. 


[for Celtic water- 


,, babr^s«fl!. 


,, jog=/fe. zoo. 


words see else- 


sext. kep. pex- nit. ) '^ 


,, ^ix.da^^river.'] 




where.] 




doko. da. ita. 


Ugro- Altaic. — kannu. 


Pot. 


ke\\\\=2njt; kettle. 


maka ; Tike^icater. 


Hindu. — batlor. k>tri. kara. 




pig. Imu. ts. 


hongwc. fa. ka. ako. 


Mahiy. — mankoo. piryak. 


Calabash, vase. 


bes-tfu. .shaau^rfl««. 


kimgo. tat. pat. 


Dravidian. — pattiran. kudam. 


dish, earthen- 


akn ; kebb=:('?(/?. 


kemo. Aaka^^moidh. 


Assyrian. — kaqnitu. 


ware. 


akana=cfl:s«. marex- 


kika. koko. b5ra. 


„ marmaku. kaduttu. 


bake ? beaker. 


heten. stet. kai. tebu. 


(Berber. — aoukal.) 


„ ^]iAiu=.drinh. 


pan. can. jug. 


xcb. tet. utu. kahon. 




Sanskrit. — pri=rf/7'«/:. 


crock, anker. 


seti. xiit=^o lake. 


[Arabic. — kas.] 


„ udaka. 


to cook. bake. 


sura ; tex=<o Arink. 




,, kalasa. patra. 


barrel, cup. 


teka ; xet^/r«. 




Turkish. — kab. bardak. 


water ? to diink ? 


hqt=Jeer. pfs ; psf= 




Mongol. — ajaka. 


kettle. sheU. 


to cook. 




Greek. — Xi^kvOos:. Troji^piov. 


ewer. jar. 


tektu ; bexen=«rtr^/! ; 




Latin. — tassa. pocxdum. 




stone. 




„ calix. 




tar=«(/'//t. ma^icater. 




Celtic. — pota. cuacb. 








Mantshu. — dabfika. 






kase ; tscen=.s«<w. 


Persian. — atcsh. Grcck.-ir?/). 


FrKE. 


X'ct. shot. teka. 


heium==^;-e. sie. oka. mo. 


Sanskrit. — indh^fo shine. 




abu. afi. agb. bexex- 


aka. na. inti. tona. su. ta. 


„ _ agni. 


Star. sun. 


nut. t'afi. shubu. 


kasii. tab. tia. zo. mu. 


Indo-Chinese. — no ; na.=s>m. 


hot. heat. 


haut. neser. hashar. 


keze=rffly. muotto. oko. 


Caucasian. — za. djeb. 


light, flame. 


suax- nesba. ami. 


tsou=/(oif. toburka. asat. 


Quiebua. — koahi^smoke. 


shine, bright. 


matati. utet^fo hum. 


dsou. lia. kaka. itso. 


Maori. — kapura. 


scorch, burn. 


&\i\i=li(lht. set=:<o 


siri ; azo ; diso^swioZ;e. 


Dravidian. — te. 


altar? bake. 


liyhtcn. 


gira. hauy. tata. ag. musa. 


Assyrian. — ishatu. skaruru. 


smoke ? 


hriru=c?ffy. rek. 


met. massu. moto. tetees. 


Ugro-AJtaic. — tuck. su. rakk. 
,, mato. bat. 






[Aral)ic. — bbarr. .sookben. 


„ ot-gimesch. 






„ nur. labub.] 


„ kcito. liiin^smi. 
Latin. — urere^fo burn, ignis. 
Etruscan. — set ? 






oka-^hot. kaka=^/-«. 


Latin. — cocjuerc. 


To Bake. 


t't ; pcspsf:=^ cook. 




Assyrian. — kakkalm^s<«r. 




ick=.fire. 


[Arabic. — sookhcn=/((/i!.] 


Sanskrit. — pac=('o cook. 


Fire, roast, hot. 






,, "kiw^to shine. 


cook, cooking- 






Mongol. — kaear. 


pot? 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



26 







Ameeicax. 




ACCADIAN. 


CniNDSE. 


North. CENXHAL.t South 


« 


a. all. mi. slin. ba. u. 


niiin. mo. mci. mao. 


fuf atl.|- lic't dii. aba. ak. 




sheg ; imi ; siiu=rr»'». 


bill. bo. bcui!. yiu (old). 


ku. hu. abmali. aba. lua. ima.* 




aga; iga= flood. 


Yv=-wet. mi=:«e«. 


aca. bo. be. bi. ba. ta. dzu.* 




ab-zu ; a-abba^r:*^^. 


shui. tzvL=Lto stick. 


puyu;* para;* garua;* thi=rain. 




me. sbug=:»irtr«A. 


hai. kiang. kii. 


muck, meaanee. tu. oni. 




g,uv=^toJfow. kur-o=(!«Hfl/^. 


yu=/-«m ; dak ; hu^/a^-«. 


men. niomi. pecz.* una."* 




id ; i ; gicfc/vVc/-. 


\o\iz=(lew. bai:=«e«; river. 


kbo. pa. po. pao. waai. iniki.--" 




lagh=)!o trnsh. no-g— drink. 


ka; bo {oV\)=iriver. 


cwak. sic. tzu. nasb. nip. nia. 




a-sliurra:=/'flm. 


chhit'ii^ntream. 


sa-ec ; hanab ; cocbo^sctf.. li.* 






zo. ibe. nam. ni. 


yaku. uru.* use. ui. yaba. 
mem.f ma. neali. naaiiaa.* 




. 


[Tvang= Ga)if/cfi:=rirer ? 


mayu;* bau-uira;* tona=:r?W. 






ub'. Chinesu.] " L." 


uilku*=«Y(;;rt^. liuma.* tsasb. 
na. nua. ccia. ia. iini. oco. 
uru* kccbe.* tza. 




aga=_^oof/. 


bak:=p'ao (old)^fo hake. 


ak'kik=:keffh>. koku.f kyong.f 




\.a=mouth ; fire. 


p'ao. pob. ping. pi. pel. 


bannab ; paa^fo drink. 




gii. dug. 


p'an. pu. ting. 


tecomatl.f haca^fire. 




bar. ban. nag=<o (frMiZ:. 


hiii^w ine-j'ar. 


kaka.* kwate.f koto.* 




pi-san ; agubba^c/sCw-w. 


tsu. te. ti. k'i. yu. 


pfi ; po ; bu ; ak ; ta ; e'Wixk=:zwatcr. 






shui ; tz\\=:water. 


kuyka.* manka.* tzsy. 






kan^^>;)w. sbn. tbao. 


a(;-ka-bue.* baukkara*:=e»^;. 






eb'ih ; sok=/o drink. 


puti. llakbuay. potum ? 






bap ; kap=/o furallow. 








kao (kak. obi Ch..)^to hake. 








pet (Edkins). 






(f^^'^-) 


pel", pu. fo. bak. pao. 


ururi.* umik. kob. su. 




gir. de. gi. di. sir. bil. 


ka (old), bak (old sound pob). 


ju^skining . bo. bot ? tata.* 




gar. gissLr=fo shine. 


kbon. liwo. bi. sa. 


boasi. sbokoda. pira.* tikai. 




kibir. ne. ku ; paiTa=*i(». 


jib ; nih=s?m. tsao. 


iseri. ua. inti.* int.* kisu. 




izi. gwsb^i)-/r//;<. zagb. 


nian '?=)'o hum (old). 


tze ; sirif=:«to'. saku.* 




mu ; su^fo i«/7i. 


shii=.>.7(/;*p. sbang^//^/*/. 


■use=7(oi'. oua. kcsis. tettal. 




ku; kun; zabar ; s:,n=hright. 


mu ; muk=:c//(! (old). 


isbo ; sali^s«<». aliu. te. 




gis-bar. sig=S/vV/7i<. 


k'au^^o scorch ; bo. 


nina.* naika.f :natto. kosu. 




'k&^riyltt. 


cbou ; sho=//o('; io\^candh\ 


kosni.* cleck. illu.* cun. mna. 






lak ; ming ; tsmg=hrii/hf. 


talii. tee. kon.* kira. ma. 
uni*=,'i/,-y; day. teok--wo. uie.* 
urku.*^f/cncratire fire. su. baika.f 
tzoma=;fo hake. nee. topa. 
kak *=^or«i. tupac* imi*=hrii/hf. 
bi ; sua=S!<M. 




kibir^y?;^. dug=:^Jo^ 


bak. pib. cbib=to roast. 


tikai ; satu ; takbu ; baca=/r«. 






Y>i\h^pot. 


(pak? root in Quicbua). cun. cuxiti 


•t 




tau; du—j)ot. 


tzoma=fo hake. kaka=:/o<. 








];)dkta*— cooked corn. 





27 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCOEDANCES. 



Afeican. 




English 




(Modern.) 


Sttnuki'. 


?rincii)al and Cognate 
Terms. 


Egtttian. 


sure, tari {s\u=dai/). 


Asspian. — sliaruru=:5/vy//(/. ) 
,, ishatii=fi-e. \ 


Srx. 


ra. aten. tmu ? 


giro. kar. kase. oru. 




shn^ iff /it. 


kuara. tslien. siii. 


„ clln—hriffht. nanna= 


Eii-e. shine. 


sui ; sha^star. 


tango, zui. iiru. yeno. 


»ioon. 


star. moon. 


ma^tosee. merz=eije. 


kioii. tctc. clzua. 


,, kaspu=-s77(vv. 


day. god. ray. 


xa.. to shine. 


saiioo=9oW. na=zfire. 


,, sbamshu. shamab. 


bright, eve. 


teka ; suax ; set=: 


Toxe; ixti=/«. kau. 


Sanskrit. — suiya. 'kaqz^shine. 


gold? yellow? 


fire. 


zoo=r/od. ze=ze!/e. usana. 


„ mdh^to hum ; consume. 




sa.ni:=ffoId. 


kaka ; sochus ; sibu=(/orf. 


Malay. — msis^ffold. 




Osir[is]:=,SM»-yo(^ ? 


TSTYA ; nun ; ne ; }ija:=c>/e. 


Estruscan. — usil. 




rck=fire. 


kasu ; tebe ; ta ; tia=^Jire. 


Indo-Chinese. — sugu. sul. 




nennu:=!'o see. 


shvmda^stnr ; sun. 


,, ri. gissir. 






kaka=/?/r. 


TJgro-Altaic. — kun. shun. kar. 






[Arabic. — shems.] 


,, susi. ud. tsbi. Lara; 
sm^moon. 
Tartar. — sbun. 
Accadian. — kun ; s\m=t/Jo)i'ous. 

„ Sm^i/won-floddess. 
Polynesian. — rabi=/''/r. ra. 
[k^s=:t] roa==^r«. 






t'jo. aou-eb. -aa^sim. 


Polynesian. — abo. roa. 


Moon. 


aixh^moon. 


gueli. karo. wa-a. 


Malay. — ai ; hai=fire. 




nennu=^o see. 


haon—dai/. tia; tetec=/Vf. 


Basque. — zilla=.s(7i-w. 


Sun. star. 


merti ; uta ; mer^ 


keana. moeri. habo. 


TJgro-Altaic. — bit. tui. \ 


fire, white. 


ei/e. 


kiana. like, sungi. 


,, ai. bara. ) 


silver. 


ahet^montk. 


'kc\e:=ivJiitc. 


,, ilio. ui. sui. abi. ; 


eye ? month. 


shxi^iffJit. 


nun=fyc. huana. arba. 


Assyrian. — sin. nanna. 






[Arabic. — kamar. 


Libyan. — ayor. Basque. — illagi. 






„ shahT^month.l 


Greek. — lo^^moon-goddess. 
Sanskrit. — ki]=?r///fc. 
Australian. — kilai. 






tsegaloa. kose. kasu. 


Polynesian. — ^fetu. 


Star. 


sba. sui. 


bibi. shimda. kion. 


Caucasian. — sing. 




ahn^ir/Iit. 


siri=^r«. kelc=«7(!7c. 


Sanskrit. — tara. 


Shining, fire. 


shet^/ire. 


kiclc=.s(o* ; nwo?i ; xtar. 


Zend. — ^tara. tis-trya. 


bright, sun. 


teka^i'u sJiine ; fire. 


[Arabic . — kaukab . ] 


Assyrian. — i.sbatu=/;'/-e. 
Australian. — ka=;?/'e. 

,, kilai^w(ooM. kalga. 
E. Tartar. — ziwa—star. singsu. 
TJgro-Altaic. — eye. si. 

,, koz. tzittag. sal=/'o 
s/iinr. 


eye? 






,, kisili. tzi. kis=/;V(?. 






sika. dinar. ) 


Assyrian. — kburasu^i/oW. 


Metals. 


Ram=ffold. 


sanoo=//«/rf. j 


„ kas])u ; sarpa— .«//*'<•?'. 




uasem (or semu?)^ 


zoo ; kase=«!M. 


Berber. — ouzal=//-o». 


Gold, silver. 


brass. 


oro^f/old. 


Mongol. — aisin=(/oW. 


copper, brass. 




su. eke. eusc. ire=(Vo;(. 


Tuilgus. — sale=//wW. 


tin. iron, red? 






Bas(|ue. — zillar=(/«A/. 


sun ; shining. 






Thibet. — yser=i'/o/rf. zakar:=^('H. 


(See elsewhere 






TJgro-Altaic. — osys=;<m. 


for Aryan words.) 






,, sija ; cisyp=«(7i!«r. 








sirna^yoW. 








,, jese; kuos; kose^^VoM. 







A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



28 







Amekican. 


AcCABIAJf. 


Chinese. 


North. C'ENTisAL.t South.* 


su-rnsi=:zfoJ/iij)U'. zal. 


jih. yiit^yut. nili. jcii. 


za. znn. sah. tali. tsa. kakkagu. 


izi ; gar=zjire. 


sliu ; slio ; slicii=i/7///(/. 


shcnck ; su^ege. ozah^gellvw. 


zin ; azag ; xabar^jn'(/Iil. 


yciv^cije. Viva^tosec; hright. 


xon^dag. tam ; sua=-v/.:y. kon. 


udu. iitii. u. tam. kii. su. 


kho ; liua ; tsao ; iia=/ire. 


she. suus. kose. sillo*=«<«r. hi. 


ri ; di ; gun ; kun=('o sJwie. 


kin—yr/W ; shang^//^/<<. 


souh. zii. sas. sakh. ncia. naai. 


sh:=^!ii/hf. ga. gi^to shine ; 


k'au ; jiili ; nili=/;o<. 


cha ; f khum ; tali ; tikiai ; tuii= fire. 


Jire. 


bak=/iVe; nit=/(6i< (old). 


ishc. ts\\l=:sun or moon. intuni*=fo i«r». 


&v=.the eye ; see. 


sin'^^brii/hf ; star. 


ra.* ona. xoxA.f taika.f ini. nic. hi. 


kxi; za; sliig; ella; kus= 


slnn=:^o shine. 


kakka. tamoi.* chaki-rakka.* zu-ei. 


hright. 


nao; na (AV. Cliinese) " L." 


yo-\:=shining. tatan ; tasi ; kasis=yw'«. 


gissir^sMw. sak '? 




tuni. rane *=;/((■«<. noc=Lmoon. 


pfir; za-harz=ii/iiniiif/. 




iNTi.*' hindi.f ara *:=(/(?*/. 


ni, ne=/(V(!, bright. 






ai. itu. lid? 


juch=)iwo>i ; month. 


iiani ; il^ryt;. masaf ailliai. 


sun ; sin=«7"Vc. 


nih. jih. jnen^circle. 


uh.f aulie. kaj-. paan.* nuno. 


iti\.^mo7ith. kili=*^/;-. 


gwct (old), jixt^sim. 


mannaak. hi^=sim or moon. sah. 


man. iti. u. 


liwo ; hiii\= fire. 


[sou ; suus^si««.] yehiha. 


i[iz=kiffh. ella=i/7y/(^ 


ka, ba {o\d)=:Jire. 


ari.* bari.f yasi.'f- taosc. nee. 


sin ; skvL—moon-ffod. 


'^ixb^ivhite. 


zan=;si<w. jahi.* chief kairra.* 


ha.r— silver. 




zana. quilla — moon ; month. 
illa*^s<«r. qucla.* 


sig. sin. si^^o see ; ei/e. 


sing^star. sting. 


za ; ifihe^sim. shi=zto see. 


ul ? muL kill. 


tsing; sbu ; i&ao^bright. 


siriko. sibora. casi. ilia.* 


gish.z=heaven. 


sa.=fire. 


kosu ; kcsis ; illu ; * ma= A')r. 


si=:ei/e. • 


shin— bright. 


tze. illa*=S;vy//(i(. siri.f stan. 


(Islitar^7^«;ms). 




koylliir.* sillo.* zow^day. 


sin^moon-r/od. 






guskin=(7oW. 


'khi^gold. jcn^silver 


curasi*=si?;(. haxif^svYce;-. 


zabai'=.s7( /» /«_i7. 


tsn=^silncr. 


ceaxi ; kori*"=c/o/f/. zakf^«7»Vc. 


zu=yoW, silver. 


[slich:=(/«/f? or silrer 


suna; huarsi;* kesis ; za; sas=s««. 


har^siher. 


AW. Chinese] "L." 


yasi *^moon. sxiyei=^gellow. 
kholki*=477iw. siri;f sillo*=«^ffr. 
shoonoT^«'/rc;'. sati^mefal. 
zeli=/W. ozah ; cuzteof=y(7/oit'. 
ozah^gellow. hari^^moon. 



29 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCOEDANCES. 



Ateican. 




English 




(Modem.) 


SUNDET. 


Principal and Cognate 
Terms. 


Egyptian. 


okere ; gana ; osie kittle. 


Polynesian. — na. seari. 


Son. 


shera.\i=child. 


nam. uma. dzanna. 


Sanskrit. — sunu. 




sa=«o?« ; {inan.) 


k^kc=Iiftle. dem. 


,, an\ikii=little. 


Man. boy. child. 


net'i ; sherau ; net'cs= 


rvLme^man. naha. 


Greek. — vio^. 


branch, tree ? 


young. 


sana^cIiiJd. yin. 


Assyrian. — pita ; 'ku^child. 


wee. small. 


nem; sher; ■!it's.=lMIe. 


kuko^f/;/fZr«. dson^itile. 


,, sakhra^MIe. 


young ? new ? 


atet ; a.i\\=^youth ; loy. 




,, isu=^tree. 


shoot ? 


shen=<re«. t'am=Jo»/. 


[Arabic. — ibn.] 


Mongol. — baga=sw(ff^^. 




ha=m«« ; fsa.=^hrothcr. 




Hehi'ew. — tsair^itflo. 




nax^child. 




Ugro-Altaic. — sak. ar. sen. 








,, nx\oT^)/om!(/. kisi. natui. 








Latin. — uatus. 






mano. ema. amah. 


Thibetan. — mi. 


Maw. 


t'a. sa. 


riimo. thomi. oruni. 


Indo-Chinese. — mi. 




hammu. unti. 


muntu. mar. gar. 


Sanskrit. — manusha. 


Male, people. 


se. ret. romt. 


kame. koa. ke. ha. 


,, jana. nara. manu. 


kin. husband. 


thmi^^youth. t'a; ha = 


nungha. nas. bantu. 


Dravidian. — monga = monket/. 


boy ? j!v^o. 1. 


male, ka^bull. 


gir. ira. har. ku. 


Assyrian. — cha'iru. ardu. 


hand ? 


Tm^th. rexi. 


meame. moh. amme. 


,, zik-lm^iiHiIr. 


woman, they ? 


at ; rt=^;co|;/e. 


okure. amelu. bara. 


„ m?hn=:peopIe. 


I. thou ? tree ? 


h.a.u^peoj]le ? 


muna ; yin ; ama=«OM. 


,, muhi^nisband. 




ese ; sa^^they. 


mo. ma. nu. moku. 


Latin. — ^•ir. homo. 






adma (Eth.) yehena. 


Greek. — ai/ij/). 
Ai'menian. — air. 






[Arabic. — dakar.] 


UgTO-Altaic. — er. ar. mara. 






ins. 


kena. mies. ena. enete. 

manne=;;7)rt/te. 
Hebrew. — adam. ish. 
Coptic. — rome. 
Malay. — orang. 
Hindi. — jawrin=yo»i'/(. 
(r = l?j 






fafa. ha hi (Bantu). 


Assyrian. — abu. 


Fathee." 


atef. 


babe. apa. 


Hindi. — baba. hap. 




Vvi^man. tepa=««««- 


(See also elsewhere.) 


Latin. — pater. homo=WOT«. 


Man. papa. 


tor. 




Ugro- Altaic. — ^baba. 


dad. 


mahx^parent. hi =; 


[Arabic. — ab.] 


„ atya. tato. 
Gothic. — atta. 




husband. 


mayu. manik. muka. 


Assp-ian. — ^nmmn. 


MoTnEK. 


mt. ma-t. 


ni'nv=f(it/ier. ma. naa. 


Sanskrit. — matri. janT. 




st ; \umi-=.woman. 


ya. auna. mu. ankona. 


Celtic. — naing. ne=(//r/. 


Lady, woman. 


sa-t. 


kam. nana. neto. ni. 


Greek — /'''''). fti)~'ip- 


breast ? female. 




aye. onya. orani. junoo. 


Italian. — dania. donna. 


wife. mama. 




koam. muso. nikc. 


Ugro-Altaic. — ana. ame. 


moon ? life ? 




nyiro. niotu. 


Slavonic. — mat. 






ame. hclte. ano. ) , , 
niple. manna. [ =*''^«*''- 


Coptic. — s-himi. 






[Arabic. — nmrn^mot/icr.^ 









A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



30 



ACCADIAN. 


Chinese. 


A5IEniC.\N. 
NOKTH. C'ENTUAL.t SoVTH.* 


tud; tii^^o hring forth a child. 
il)ili. a ; zi = son. 
dn=zcJiild; son. 
tnr; p; gina—Iittle. 
sin ; sis ; \i\\r=:bro//ier. 
shir=::lif/!e. nita ; gin=w(«?«. 
du-niu ; ii^child. 


ts'i. tsu. tu, eliild. 

yao ; fAiao^i/oimi/. 

sia.oz=little ; young. 

tik (old), wei ; mi=W<?«. 

tsao=</vr. nan^waw. 

ii- ; ji ; ni=%. 

turn {o\'X)-^ehihl^^Jwpanese. 

domo. 


taka. nom. sija. aze. tsi.f ti. 
enika ; nana ; ninn^«(ff«. 
aha.* tse.f cana.* hahan. nah. 
silla ; pisi ;* taksa ;* sicj^Mle. 
mink ; \t\v'-=young. ni=:I. (ego.) 
ciu ;* saik^ioy. saka. 
hua*f=:Jwy. peeski. cliiclii.f sin.* 
numan. 


ni. nin. nam. nitaghu. nu. 
gish ; gi=male ; tree. 
in. gal. na. lu. 
mughu. en ; cnna^ord. 
gill-, gun. me. mu. 
gin=;«ff/('. (\m=zrace. 
nitaghu. imu. 
uku ; mi=people. 
aga.=./(itlier. ma ; meu^/. 
urn ; eri=^M<ile. 


jin. nin (old), nan. yin. 

\Y^=.l)oy. 

h'iung ; mau=W(?A". 

poh (old) ; bak=ff/'i? ; many. 

pak ; pi'k=c///; Nu. 100. 

poll ; p'ak^60i</. 

er:=io(/. 

[lu. ton. Abl. Chinese] 'L.' 


muuo. umc* runa.* dini. 
cunc. uniu. cari.* sae. neka. 
nana. nom. nuna.* aha. tama. 
mena. uvkn^male. kliari.* 
hahri.f uare.* teuai. j-e.f dinno. 
lukku. loai. ta.f mue. huna.* 
dor.f mactcc. ma. uni. maueo.* 
min^sister. neuco. aba.* 
auimi. cin ; hua*=3oy. huanni.* 
saka, — son. noo. na. taho.f 
hake ; ^■^•^^people. miha. amo.* 
mo. encne. 


ada. aga. a. ai. aba. 
mta-dam^insbaHd. 
kxa-racs^ff rand/ather. 


tie^da (old), he. fu. 
ba (old). ye=ya (old). 


appa. babi.* pai.* baa. aize.f 
api. aya.* ah. aha.* aba.f 
pumme.* henui.* hama. tata. 
pah. baba. ama. ta=wa«. 


nia^wi/e ; lady. 
ama. cmc. umu. 
sal ; gvA^ivoman. 
ama ; im\=zmother. 
geme ; gm^iiiaid. 
dam ; va.g:^/e male. 


nu. na ? tsi. che, 
niu=:(/ir?. nan::=/«««. 
sao^woman. 
jrin, jmi=:female. 


mukuki.f cimha.* nnin — woman. 
anu.* dome.f nana.* ninge. 
marmi.* mammu.* mama.* 
nika^yirl. ratc'ka^woml). 
naa.f me. maou. quie. shema.* 
dansie.f cimia. cihua.f 
hahri.f nelme.* huarmi.* 



31 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 




English. 




(Modern.) 


SranjET. 


(Principal & Cognate 
Terms.) 


Egvttian. 


neke. kodo. nitta. 


AssTrian. — ahii. 


Bhothee. 


sen. brother. 


ndugc. doro. yaka. 


Japanese. — fic = elder brother. 




nxo.=child. 


egbo. baruka. 


Greek. — veo^=yoimg. 


(younger ; older). 


neti= young. 


saTin^child. 


Ambaric. — akku. 
Scandinavian. — ■a.ti&=nephew. 
Australian. — neg. 






?.ana = c/u7d. 


Assyrian. — asbattu. 


SiSTEE. 


Bhrt=younif. 


Tiiona — elder sister. 


Latin. — soror. Ugro-AJtaic. — susa. 




sent-sen=2 sisters. 


ans'd=brot/ier. 


Dravidiau. — anna. 
Sanskrit. — svasri. 






moan. 


Accadian. — ty tto = daughter. 


GmL. 


hezm=youth. ati. 


in=ivo)nan. 


Finnisb. — nuor= young. 




nts = liitte. 


ame. 


Lap . — neita = daughter. 


Daugbter. 


nxn= young child. 




Basque. — ncska. 


maid, infant. 


nefer= infant. 




Latin. — novus=w<!ii?. 


young, new ? 


neti=yot(nf/. 




Etmscan. — tuser = daughter. 




sat=dattghter. 




Celtic. — ni. nic. 






naa. niko. musu. 


Greek. — ^ivin). ^jC)'vau.< = to jiroduce. 


Woii.uf. 


ma-t — mother. 




Celtic. — mam. nainc;'. geni = /o pro- 




hemt= wife; woman. 


nye. imo. bona. ni. 


Mongol. — akin. \_duce. 


Wife. lady. 


hcnnii= girl. 




Dra-^-idian. — ma. 


motber. 


s-bimi = woman (Cop- 


onya. muntu. muttu. 


Sanskrit. — matri = mother, jam. 




tic.) 


ame. 


Australian. — noa= wife. 
Ugro-Altaic. — naiua. ema. 
Assyi'ian — gi-in ? ummu. 








Japanese. — onna. 






namo. nama. ma. 


Etruscan. — puni ? 


Boy. 


Vam=youth. 




TJgTo-Altaic. — fui. poia. nua. 




sberau; x — ^^'i^'^- 




Latin. — puer. Greek. — tye'o?. 


Cbild. 


nts; 'k.et=little. 




German. — neso =young. 


young, new. 


bnu? 




Freucb. — neuf = new. 


youtb. 


nefru = f7«7f7re». 




Sansk — •yvi\&n=youth. 




xnu. 


nam. os\(i = littlc. 


Sanskrit. — sunu. naptri = grandson. 


Son. 


sa. nex = child. 




Greek. — vdoi = young. 




xix'o. = small. bn. 


Sana, dzauna. 


Latin. — novus=Hcw. 


Little, cbild. 


■ncti=)/oun(/. 




Assyrian. — sacbru=«H(«/^. 


young. 


at' 11 = hoy. 




„ \s.v. = young. 




scm!iii^ = eldest son? 




Scandinavian.^ — i\v\>\a.= nephew. 




nem; nts; sh.ci= little. 




Australian. — ngata. 






lii ; nano; cmo = man. 


Australian. — noa=Kpou8e. 


Man. 


ret {Temt)= mankind. 


ni ; ncn =father. 


Sanskrit. — nar. jana. raanusha. 


Fatber. 


ha=husband. 


a.yo= father. 


Ugro-Altaic. — igan. atya. monnees. 


male. 


hcn=boi/. bn. 




„ niawna=ioy. 


busband. 


mcnb = boy. 




IIcbre^v. — naar. 


(Sec elsewhere.) 


nerau. 








id,i=father. t'a=male. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCOEDANCES. 



32 



ACCADIAN. 


CmNESE. 


Amehican. 
North. CENTKAL.t South. » 


?.mki= elder hrother. 
tab. kus. sissi. sis. 
sin. bai'. kur. 
kin. f;in. urin. 


hiiing=fW(T hrother. 
shuh= yoiMf/cr brother. 
kii. h'siung. ko. ti. 
kun. ka (old). 
sio=little. 


huauki.* nn^-=boy. nckah. nicta. 
tzo ; saka; aze ; saija=«o». 
teicaugh. f,ur\=Uttle. no'ka,=man, 
n\iA'.an=yoiinger hrother. 
msis=clder brother. 
huano*=»»«w. 


sissi =iro<A(;r. 
tab. sis. uru. 


tsic. tsi. 
tap = other. 


nitu. nis-sis-a. scnora.* 
naau.* tama.* nisis. 


(h\.v!ivi=dauf/hter. nin. gime. 
gin; gal=?»a!rf. dam. 
gin=i/0H»ff. tamu. 
gma=little. gal=female. 


niu. niang. nii-iT. tsi. tsu. 
yin. yim. t'ung (old=dum). 
Jap. domo, chiJd. 
yao, m= young. 


tzmzu. taski.* nsu.f nika. 
n'toos= daughter, teooncub.f 
ta.ta=brother. nena.f nitemi.* 
naa f ; dome*= tvoman. 


nin. rag. gal. ninni. 
ama ; umn = mot //er. 
dumii=ffirl. dcim=spouse. 
gime. eme. 


niang. noi-tseu ? ni. nii. lang. 

cli'u = fo bring forth. 

mu. na 'i=mother. 

da (old)=nu. 

jin; nin=waw. 

u\\ = iooman. 


klenc* nana f umia. naa.f anu.* 
cuulia.* nika ; nsuf =girl. 
VUG = mother, nnin ; ninac = ;««». 
noo-guine = grandmother, dome* 


du. gina=yo!««y; srnnH. 
nin = ««?.». 


ni; yao = Joy; little. 
\x=boy. sian.= little. 


liua-liua*=%/; son. 
giia.f (M\p\=little. 
huano* = //(«». 


us. du. a. 
g;hi.a.= little. 
(d=ts, ch.) 


mi=little. tu. 
tsu. tzi. Tian=m(tn. 
siao = little; young. 
8h.u = tree; shoot. 


noquat. natsi. tzi.f 
ecnek. nah. huan-liua.* 
siii\=little. cana.* cin.* aha. 


nita-ghu? Tnii.=parent. 
aga; ai ; a.-a=father. 
ni. na. nu. 
nita-dam= spouse. 


pu. nan (old), na. yuug. 
jin, yin. fu. ba. ya. 
iain= people. je=/ather. 
nu.=ma)i, servant. 


nnin. nana. neka. 
nima.* nom. ncka. 
nitu= s/s^cr. mana. 
ninac. (Lua*=sw».) 



33 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 




English. 


EoYi'riAN. 


(Modern.) 


SUNDET. 


Principal and Cognate 
Terms. 


"Pierret." 


irku. 'ka.-=hard ; litter, ngas. 


Sanskrit. — danta. ak=fo cut. 


Tooth. 


abb. tes. holk=»fl«7. 


zuio. time. nye. qkau^^o cut. 


,, astbi:=Jo««. nakha^M«j7«. 




ab ; henti^7(or«. 


erruk. sila. kau. kiini. kasi. 


„ xakra^crooked ; kut. 


Bone. fang. beak. 


sekb;=fo cut ; tear. 


eyo. ino. dishoa. soku. ekab 


Ugi-o- Altaic. — hi ; takte—bo7ie. 


to che-w". to cut. 


xab^zcrooked. 


oko. diso. ngacli. tupa. ekki. 


,, sanir; suro^/ior«. 


bite. tusk. horn. 


qs-:=hone. 


klip ; 'knhx-=^lone. 


Assp'ian. — karnu. 


to gnaw, curved ? 


shta^iard. tester 


akem ; tudeke ; sosoen ; ako^ 


Polynesian.- — nikau. 


hard ? 


beak. 


ivory. 


Japanese. — kba. 






[Arabic. — siini. qarnjreak — 


Celtic. — adhare. Coptic. — nit'h. 






horn.'] 


Latin. — os:=So«e. 






hangi. kenza. meng. ten. 


Finnic. — niena. 


Nose. 


fent. short. 


changa. haiia:=('(r/\ sico. 


Greek. — pU. 


Ear? breathe. 


XM^^spirit. an^^ 




Armenian. — antsb. 


nostrd. 


life. 


[Arabic. — adan. anf ?] 


Sansk. — ghransx^^smcll. nasika. 


smell, stink. 


ka ; nei=:breath. 


dsi. niia. disk. cusko=«rtr<'/. 


Caucasian. — ^ping. fiinz. 




nesi^tongue. 


Polynesian. — pei=s/i(?//. 


Eae. 


an^. anx-w^^ears. 


hena. Utu. kitu. ociia. adzm. 


Greek. — pi<i-=nose. 


SheU. navel? 


mstr. stm=fo hear. 


[Arabic. — ras^head. adzin.] 


Chinese. — pi^?jo««. 


lug. to hear. 


aten? 


emi=z»wuth. lime, halla. 


Latin — ^ala^tJiroat. 




nes. nesi. nem. ateb. 


eleb. lulimi. ulime. 


„ iolinm^cfif. 


Tongue. 


tesbu; isir— leaf. 


pako ; kalu=/<Y(/'. milalo. 


,, lingua. (Hngam ?) 


Lip. leaf, ear? 


Vt^speak. set —tail. 


lakh. lim. enim. ikolo — nose. 


Greek. — "/XivTTa. KciKew^to call. 


mouth, tail? 


sa ; mata ; tet=: 


narka. tctan. tetam. tete. 


,, ipvWov; wtTaKov^leaf. 


to speak. 


phaUus. 


1cm. oidcmc. 


Caueasiiui. — ena. 
Dacian. — dalla. 


phaUus ? 




[Arabic. — lisan.] 


Assyrian. — k;'ilu=i'o speak. 

„ -pu^i/iouth. Usaru. 
Ugro-Altaic. — keli. kel. nalem. 
Sanskrit. — lib^^o Jic/c. 






rise. liso. nuku. aiso. soya. 


Sanski-it. — nayana. netra. 


Eye. 


merti. mer. sba=:s<ar, 


zauko. zu=«!<». 


,, iksh=fo see. 




shuu=si<». 


ona ; na ; ga ; ri ; sna^fo see. 


Assyrian. — iuu. pisu — wJiite. 


Sun. moon. 


nennu. aba. 




yi. ili. cl. anku. noukon. 


,, naplusu^^o see. 


day. sky. 


ma. nu. tka 


"as 


neay. ali. diz. yel. basbi. 


Malay. — niata. 


white, light. 


sebeq. ptra. an 


« 
^ 


masa. ze. intya. isu. li. 


Thibet. — takba=^o see. mik. 


bright, coloiu'. 


far. t'kek. ka 


H 


dim. nito. nc. gicbo. liho. 


Polynesian. — mata. 


to see. to ken. 


hem. teka. J 


sale=f/(r!/. nya. nisb. sun. 


Indo-Chinese. — shau. 




■aVa^si/zi/bolic eye. 


odzu. tse. kannu. nun. 


Amharic. — ain. 




shvi^ Iff /it. 


yisso. le. nimo ; meaa=:.Isee. 


Abyssinian. — nume. 




ma=to look, x^^ 




U. -Altaic. — say. sUu. nendie. na. 




shine. aah=;«oo». 


[Arabic. — aj'n. sLfta=:to see.] 






ia=^sun ; day. 
sau^^o observe. 


esi ; cdse=J/oo(?. 


Lithuanian. — szirdis (sz^h) 
Russian. — serdtzay 


He.uit. 


scTii=iblood. hati. 
tv»hcr:=red. 




Latin. — sangniis:=W6iof/. 






Malay. — hati. Armenian. — zii-d. 


(See) Blood. 


[Coptic. — bet. 
suaf:=Woof/.] 




Celtic. — sniiadh^lood. 






Assyrian. — sai-ku. 








Tliibet. — snyen. seme. 








TJgro-Altaic. — scm. szi. 








E. Tartar. — scngi=Woo(f. 








Sanskrit. — rudliira:=r«rf. 








,, asan=:blood. snu^^o drip. 








,, hridaya. hrid '? 







A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



34 







AjIKIirCAN. 


ACCADIAN. 


CnufESE. 


NoHTIt. C'LNTUAL.t SurTH.* 


si. RH. 


kuh. ya. ngat (old) nga. 


sa* gua. tsi.j dza.* 




wak. si. ch'i. 


nakha*=««?7«. gurra;* Yah=:bone. 


sik ; kak=//r(»-H. 


'ki6h:^lone. Vaxx^moiiih. 


huakra*":=/;or». qiiiru.* kirau.* 




leak (old)^/(orw ; hoiie. 


icari. tanus. gui. sec. oo.f zah.* 


gar:=fo eat. 


kat ; hxi^o cut, tear. 


lotlau.f sauna.* nai.* yooh. yen. 
akakallii=i/V(7'.s beak. tong. 
paki*"=A;Y'rt/(,-. huaku.* 


ni. .pi. tn=icind. imi. zu. 


pei. tze. tu. itm=iear. 


scnka.* pah gona.* son. ti.* 


ir-sim^fo smell. 


mcn^smell. \i'i^»-eath. 


pasu.* henka. caua.* hen. hu. 


ug\m-:=breath ; tcind. sig. pa. 


■pc\^=shell. !iing=^sti?i/cinff. 


haca.-\=life. 


pesli=fo breathe. 


ch'au — to stink, p'i — navel. 




ge. pi. tan. miistiig. gi. 


ngi. er. ni. tan. pei=«^eZ/. 


inaka.* ciccre.* nacat. detasu^««i-«Z. 


mush. dan. gin. 


din. t'ing_<o hear. 


sho-ma. vlne:=tonffue. si-peh. kis. 


gish-tug. 




cenka*:=«o««. inhiii.* cenn. nan. 


eme. shib. I'shib. 


sheh. zeh. t'ien. t'im. 


hem. del. zoola. dcla.* nenat. gu.f 


gu; ku=woK//i. sxi^ip. 


ip ; jQ\i=lenf. ziiug. 


sagua. karku.f pu;* knf— leaf. 


imma-:=f hirst. 


im^^drink. 


tenilla.* aku.f iiluc. atlapullif=/c(?/. 
kallu.* hem. kuehuch*=^«7. 


mw^ieaims. shi. ide. 


mo'k. muk. nye ? mu. 


nik.f naa. nayc. loliip. ilah f 


kin=('o look for; see. di. 


kion ; ti ; slii ; ssi ; ssu=^o sec. 


iiiti;* sah^.s«?^. sillo*^.s^rtr. 


za ; zm:=zhrif/lit. lim. 


t'.se. zi (old). ch'u=di. 


setu.f il. tzie. hen. kane. kannah. 


sih. hi=fo see ; ei/e. 


shon^fo (/lance at. 


sassa.* gassa.* skolo.* khalom. 


mar ; mad ; tin^^; see. 
ana^slci/ ; aTi\\=:ski/-ffo(L 


siau=fo look at. nan. 
in=?o watch, kit (old). 


asma.* skedap. hia.f pac* , 

1 • 1 • -11 J =ro sec. 

kian.f sm. siu. hesh. ( 


ne. cnum. mul=:/o shine. 


hih. Vie-n— sky. gan (old). 


na.* nakou.* marei.* yenei.* nani.* 


mu-rum. sig.-:=star. idi. 


t'ien=^/y7i ; to consider. 


nee ; hi=i)iioon. zu.* sese.* 


gissir^=stm. Bin^nwoH. 


yen ; ngau=fycs ; nao^sMW. 


sua; scila^ski/. si=zcolour. 


sir^=liffht ; see. 


se^colour. shii=^hriffht. 


zak=:white. siki.f shillu. 


mm^s/ci/. si=::liffht. 


tsia.'k=white. 




gan ; gin=:fo see. 






shag. shim. z\.—life. 


sin. sam. shingz^life. 


soncco.* chuimo. sek. iso. 


Ax\g-=^red. 


niit ; kit ; yimg=Woof?. e. 


kik ; f misqui ; cch^ilooiJ. 


gild ; miid^i^oo(^. gu-run. 


niud=A'fl//«. ch'ik. tik^red. 


es-tah. sekroon=;rf/. 


us ? ; sa^Woor?. 


sit=^ilood. hsieh^blood. 


cuztec ; f ozah ; s\ivn=i/ellow. 

shah ; zeh ; sakh ; sutsa=rsf/. seh=i^oof/. 

tek ; mekum^blood. 



35 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Ateicajj-. 




English. 




(Modem.) 


SUNDEY. 


Principal and Cognate 
Terms. 


Egtptiajs. 


banka. keba. kako. 


Sanskrit. — di9=^o jMint. 


H.iNr. 


haq ; ker ; idh^take. 


sa=^ give, ckkaki. kibogo. 


,, kara. xrik^^to seize. 


No. 1. to catch. 


a. ft. tot. kat^^jaM). 


bo ; hen^eg. nakoa. 


Cbinese. — (\ik=zjinger ; to 


nab. paw. pad. 


tep-t=j?«to. ma ; tu=: 


ebo. ika=/?Hyc/\ kogo. 


2)oint. Latin. — mauus. 


finger, five ? 


give. 


koi. koa. peka. eke. 


Greek. — cdKTv\o9. x^'P- 


to take. grab. 


sxtk-^take. x^V^'^^P- 


ako^trooked ; hiee. 


Assyrian. — idu. laktu. qatu. 


give. claw. 


tt^JVo. 5. ua; a^^Vo. 1. 




Hebrew. — yad (y=;k ?) 


palm. 


tba ; matba=^«^e/-. 


[Arabic — caa? yad.] 


Ugro-Altaic. — kad. kar. ket.l 
ki. koL kcsi.J 


No. 5. fist. 


sah^^o hold. 




tug. keep. get. 






, , min ; nmn=:fi»ger. 








'koclin^clbou!. 








E. Tartar. — gar. gal. km'o:= 








finger. 






yu. yiru. isi. kala mo. 


Sanskrit. — kakud=j'j?(?/:. 


Head. 


tn—face. tep. tata. tctu. 


minung. li. ta. 


, , siras. kuta^/-or^- ; peak. 


Skull, neck? 


tp; teben=fo^. ap. 


matta. iniji. ko. ku. bop. dasa. 


Latin. — caput. collis^/«7^. 


poll. face, cap ? 


a^a; kai^/(/^/(. 


tabu. tu. itbtuk. yika. kai. 


Persian. — tab. Freucb. — tete. 


forehead, hair. 


her — face, next — drong. 


kammu. nto. eso. mutui. 


Assyrian. — kakkadu. reshu. 


top. mountain. 


XX ; xet; maxaq=»ec^. 


kiboko. ikaTaru=/(«(>. 


U.-Altaic. — tau. oiko. su. giir. 


high? summit. 


sa — hack, klift — fore- 


[Arabic — ras.] 


,, kolka. tagai. zaz. ko 
=^Mgh. 




head. 


ama; isa; kai ; yika=:/(««r/. 


Assyi-ian. — sbartu. 


H.UE. 


ha-t. xa^/'oo/. 


sere, abcsi. asi. zau. 


Turkish. — tzaz. saz. 


Head, roof? 


liinsti. s'nu. t'aau. 


zim. zuru. suk. \\\u. 


Sanskrit. — keqa. 


fur. beard. 


su^zhead-dress. 


kimsi. 


Libyan. — shar. 


feathers, thatch? 


Isbaau^iead. ta. seh. 




Ugro-Altaic. — toscb. sas. 


wool. 


sti ; nah^/cad-gear. 


[Ai-abic — suf. sba'r.] 


,, zac. stag. ata. 




X^h— heard, amsx-^wool. 




E.Tartar. — usu. Lat. — crinis. 




shen. 

anx=^«7«. sha=/oo(Z. 


iioko. daka. ketok. uchi. 


Mongol. — kha. lapibi^/crr/. 


MOTJTH. 


shu. da. iiu. ku. ko. aur. 


Indo-Chinese. — kha. kami. 


To chew, to eat. 


ro=^mouth ; door. 


eku. ko^c/oo;- ; gate. kun. 


Sanskrit. — 


lip. 


XU'=s2}irit. 'ka^call. 


gam=?('rt/. kana. ama. 


,, mukha. kOpa^/io??. 


funnel, hole. 


hat ; sha=idoor. 


kakrt=^;o^ ; cup. kamba^ 


Dravidian. — V'd\\\>\\=navd. 


breath, face. 


qrr ; beb ; serk=/(o/e. 


sjjeak. 


Hebrew. — chek. 


speech, cheek ? 


xet:=helh/ ; inside. 


agber. kanua. aru. 


Celtic — liab^/6i«//«<e. 


life. No. 1 ? 


kar=i>is/de ; shrine. 


msko ; kapu ; saba ; daba= 


English. — cheek, cud. cave. 


tongue. 


qQi=icircle; hole. ken. 


narcl. 


U.-Altaic. — ko. kan. chor. ku. 


Avomb. eunnus. 


qq ; amam=/o swallow. 




,, kapoo=//i'^^'. 


gate, circle, door. 


him-t^iiomb. 'ha.n=box. 


[Arabic — fam.] 


Assyrian. — pu. kliurru^/(o^('. 


I. me. navel? 


chapa=««cc/. 




Latin. — r^wla^nfhrodt. 


cave, valley. 


makarta;=:ft/C(;. 




E. Tartar. — kha. ama. 


door. gate. 


baka ; kant=zcalleg 






circle? round? 


kenau=«>omJ. 


peta. pase. sibi. laku. 


Assyrian. — shuku=A'y. 


Foot. 


pet. ret. tebt. 


duo — to dance, pula — to run. 


,, shcpu==/oo/. 


Hock. shoe. 


sati ; uar — leg. 


pala. esa. tsab. keka. 


,, q:ltu^(rt?(r/. alaku=r/o. 


shank, leg. pat. 


xas; sxs^run. 


sko-:=crool{cd. bata. cko. 


, , padanu=/o(«'»r(/. 


to go kick. 


xct. iiha:^dance. 


bo ; oko ; ben ; kulu=/cy. 


Basque. — ekou. Coptic- — rat. 


hand ? paw. 


kcnkcn ; sxsx=^dance. 


oku. gan=/w<. 


Latin. — pes ; pedis. 


pad, toes. 


ahri=^o stand. 




Greek. — ttov^. i^fov. 


crooked, step. 


swa^to walk. 


[Arabic. — rijL] 


East Tartar. — kid. guala. 


to stand, tread. 


svhcq^pafh. 




Sanskrit. — pada. 


patter, run. 


kep=4'<<;^. 




,, ■[)i\i=to fall; Jig. 


])ath. shin. 






Ugi'o-Altaic. — kok. lat. pud. 


dance — path. 






,, but. ikuk. kai. kucha. 


ankle. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



36 



ACCADIAN. 


Chinese. 


Amebican. 
North. CE.NXiiAL.t South.* 


g;ar=.to ffire. da. shu. 
gad. gild. gub. ek. id. 
zag; ■/AA^fiijhf haitiJ. 
shi=_y?«(/(T. 'ktxh^ej't hand. 
dib ; tug ; tu=<«A«. 


shou. yiu. right hand. 
chao ; tso-=claws, fingers. 
kich ; kap (old)=^ take. 
jau-:=paw. da (old). 
dza. zad=:^(;/i! hand. 
kou — to pull. 


shou-shey. kcninf=ffn«. ka. 
cab.f eubac.f ye.f gepo. ])a(;o.* 
taehlli.* omo.* maco.f Hoke, 
cuu.* iku. pu.* cii\=fnger. 
katchikon. ka;* pa; ha^to seize. 
ak. ye.f ma. maki.* nap. acu. 
kalikh.* toto=foo(. 


sag. gud. du. gu. mu. 

sang ; tik:^ forehead. 

!iii=zbcard. 

tig ; ka ; emi ; igc^face. 

nim ; top ; hiffh. 

sag-du^/fsarf. 


saTig=/orehead. 
hieb. ye. t'au. du. 
shau. t'io. su. ge. 
hsin^.sZ-«/^. yih. 
mien ; min=y«c;«. 
dud (old). 


tuts, gu.f guc.* kam. suuka*:=eheek8. 
peghe. tepe^;-ocX-. sah. nap. pto. 
sugu. ta. mu.f pok. ika. kakka. 
tepetlf^w^ot^w/rt/w ; rock. tzae. si. 
mata f forehead, iitu .*" 
pacu.-j- coba.f llapa. 


ba. shub. mun-sliub. 
sig. kishi. gush, 
sag-du ; sanga=:7(tfrt^. 
sii^zbeard ; tig^^head. 
gish^tree. sag^tead ; top. 


san. sba. sa. piu. 

mao. mu. 

er ; sii^heard. Viim=zwool. 

sang^ forehead, sn^iead. 

sac (Ak. Chinese) " L." 


si ; ta ; ak ; mu ; mi\ta=head. 
shuka. chucca.* tzetz.f zye.* 
koshahoo. szcga. nacu. gue. 
socco.* cuca.* taesh. xta.f si.f 
suga. sta.f 


kirrud^//o/('. ku. kam^ffafe. 

gub=/orrf. gar=fw-c/f. 

ka ; gal ; mal ; kana^door. 

u ; ku ; gu ; dim^fo eat. 

dug ; gug=fo cry out. su=%. 

gu ; dug:^speech. gar=fo eat. 

eme^tov(/ue. 

gng—cri/. 

mu ; ma ; mi^fo speak. 

nam-^speech. gab:=fo gape. 


k'au. ku. 

yuen=("/rf/«. k'iu=/(o/». 

'ku^rallei/. hu ; go^door. 

ki ; jan=ithroat. 

ho ; yok (old)^<o erg out. 

hiueh^racc. 

jik^throat. 

shnn— lip. 


ochku;f hoh^door. yii. ku. qui. 
ku.f ea f ta. maku. chi.f ba. 
lakka.* kanik. ukapi=:t'«i'e ; hollow. 
koh ; qua:=to eat. suni. ka. 
kama.f so. simi.* qui. 
pukru t=crtiWM ; hole, hunta.* 
okkoti*=ff«MS. yeou ; koptra^carc. 
huaira ^■'^Ireath. hukku *^iole. 
rakka *=(■?<«»!«.?. kaka*=c/(/«. 
kara — to feed. 


ur^ef/.i. dug=7(Y/ ; hiee. 

di ; glib ; du ; i'a=:to go. 

ghal ; bur=^ run. 

gir. mer. dugu; zag^ctiee. 

du ; gub^rcs^ ; stand. 

zih^hiee. 


kok. kak. to (old), kioh. 

pa'e; bo; ii'aii^to go. 

dak=ifo tread. vhi:=.Jinger. 

kieh-jcn^ankh's. 

dik ; ch'ih=rt step. 

chey (Abl. Chinese) "L." 


tshe.* pu.* po.* cub. pa ; n*^to go. 
qhioa. toto. gooa;* chanka*=% ; shanlc. 
canka*=% (=J^'b. 10). kayu.* caki.* 
chaqui.* pui.* mku'sun^.s7/f>c. 
pat * paco.* sit. keh. ix'itl.t tacu.* 
uoc.f ashoo. see. titac::=i!o stand. 



37 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE 0/ ACCORDANCES. 



ApRTCAjr. 




English 




(Modern.) 


SrsDEr. 


Principal and Cognate 
Terms. 


Egyptian. 


ko ; kii ; da= 


Polynesian. — ki=^ call. 


Speech. 


xcn. t'et. ken. ku. 


mouth. 


Sanskrit. — gana. kath. 




ka = ^ call. 


SOTO = to speak. 


,, gar. gad. khya = fo say. 


"Word ; voice. 


i\i=cry. 


ho; fa; io = to 


,, Tac•h = ^ speak; voice. 


gaiTulous. 


t'et=word. vo = mouth. 


spcah. 


,, 'kwan^sound. 


to call ; speak. 


mn ; ran; nas = »«/««. 


naso ; kun ; enii 


„ khakkh = ^ laugh. 


ciy ; talk ; sing. 


ns = tongue. a.ii = write. 


= inouth. 


Greek. — taxui = fo shout. Ka\sic = call. 


name ; tongue '? 


siiaa; s^a ; nii= write. 


nene = tongue. 


,, voeiv = to think. 


quack ; shriek. 


shixt = hook. 


lila=fo cry. 


Latin. — scire=^o know. vox=t'oece. 


breath ; mouth ? 


ta=book. 


(\.sika. = inouth. 


,, nomen=««;Me. ^ula^throat. 


■svrite? book? 


Xer. xei'U. 




Anglo-Saxon. — secgan=fo say. 


cackle ; shout. 




[Arabic . — j arj a- 


Celtic. — gair. ga.Sh. = twice. 






ra = cnj. kala.] 


Assyrian. — shasu. zakaru=^ shriek. 

,, nabu ; qCi[n = to cry. 
Japanese. — mi,=name. 
Chinese. — chin. kao. -(vo-da. 
Mongol. — kaltena=/ speak. 
TJgro-Altaic. — \eva.zi^n=I icrite. fa. 

,, sanon. san. Wia^mouth. 

,, kis; koich = ^ s/«^. nem=Mfl?««. 

,, sar = fo scratch; write. 
Etruscan. — (pv=word. 
Nepaul. — neua. Fin. — sanon. 






qkau ; konga= 


Sanskrit. — kiitt. chhid. kara. 


To Cut. 


sekh. hat. sau. shat. 


to cut. 


krit.^ 




sesen. sen. sher. x^t. 


uka ; bago ; su- 


,, cluirika = /■«(/'('. ak. 


Divide, bisect; 


beseq. sahu. aku. 


kari = /i-»{/<;. 


Greek. — ji^iinc. kott/'j =knife. 


dig. tear. saw. 


tekhes (rkhs?) hesq. 


eket = arrotv. 


,, /^tdKe\\a = spade. 


plough. . split. 


paht. sksk. fut. 


koti=«/?effr. 


Latin. — secare. Berber. — zigzen. 


sUt. 


bexen. ne]n= dagger. 


ked ; torquha= 


Assyrian. — batiiku. nakasu. 


scar, knife. 


bksu=fl'.r«. iik.a=plough. 


sword. 


,, katu. kakku. 


sickle, axe. 


a'kes=arc. xist=to sate. 


batura; tenda= 


Polynesian. — koti. 


arrow, scratch. 


khah=sickle. taxs. 


to cut. 


TJgro-Altaic. — socha. eke. 


stone, break. 


tektu ; tu ; a.ax=stone. 


'kats\aa=sword. 


- ,, kopt=fo 2)!ough. sav= scratch. 






tari ; kak ; dak 






(f=k?). 


=stone. 


Arabic. — qat'. 






acoha=sfo»«. 










TJgro-Altaic. — charmikh. 


To Weave. 


scxt. 




A ssyrian. — risk u = cord. 




nett. 




Kussian. — tckat. Tliibctan. — btag. 


Tie. cross, sew. 


tek. peqit =/«««». 




East Tartar. — tik-mak = ^ sew. 


yoke, stitch, join. 


uhex=clothes. 




Latin. — tcxcrc. j\ig:nm = yoke. 








Sanskrit. — yuga=(7 yoke. 


[See elsewhere.] 






Greek. — mavpo<i = cr0S8. Ka.Oa/.i.fia = knot. 








„ ^ev^i6v=yoke; joining. 






fin; susu=J)V(^. 


Assyrian. — shalu. 


To SuooT. 


set. sun = (?/TO(r. 


^\i = trcc ; shoot. 


Sanskrit. — ii[vM-\\ = arrow, astra. 




8u = wing. 




Tartar root. — iii=to shoot. 


Wing? bird. fly. 


sha ; iivsa.=l)ird. 




TJgro-Altaic. — oksa = tree, siun =.sow. 


feather, tree. 


sa=«o». &sr=tree. 




, , sak ; sen = son. 


arrow, son. 




mo. imo. 


Hindi. — sikhana=/o teach, sujna. 


To Know. 


rex. 




Latin. — scio. 


Teach ? ken. 


sa. 




Greek. — vo<iiit=to think. 


learn. 


pa? 




Russian. — sntit. 


sec ? reckon. 


!iha= to teach. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



38 



ACCADIAN. 


Chinese. 


A irERiCAjf . 
North. CENTBAL.t South.* 


kir. mc. niim. knga. 

mu ; mi = to upcak. ka. 

du-du. p;u = fo upeah. 

pa; dug; ka ; ^\i>^u= to speak. 

gii ; duttu. ci\=praycr. 

me ; mu ; ma = fo call. 

sa ; snr=to call. ^u.= month. 

men; dim; sar; ^Q = icrite. 

kin = ioo^-. 

em.c = tonffi(e. gug=cry. 

pa; pat. gu-gu=to«-y. 


nan. hwa=ka (old), 
hia. kao=kok (old), tze. 
su=sak (old), ^\•^.l. wei. 
wo-da. wei. pa. pao. 
yen. yu. pad=pat (old). 
yun = ngen (old), ko. 
kok. pak (old). chm = to talk. 
cbui. dut. i-\n=paper. 
k'!m=moHth. shch = toHffue. 
cliuen = letters, kien = hook. 
sliu. 'kmg=hook. isz = writing. 
sie ; m.i=to write. 


so. qui. tscksa. nu. na. ni. 
hu. nerit. nini.* rima.* kun.* 
amsi. inqui. grusi.* so=7iame. 
kich\ia.*=lanffuaffe. tlatoat=fo talk. 
Sana; s\iti=tia»io. teen = to say. 
buakia;*" acli=/o call. tenilla= 

tongue. 
kak=to cough, wall = fo cry; wail. 
cbi ; f lakka ; kob ; \\a = tongue. 
ca ; f yn = mo'uth. (;h.C(:atlf = wind. 
naat=to know. gara*=<o feed. 


tar. tim. de. sheg. 

digh. ir. bar. ban. 

bal ; 'kiid = axe. 

kha; khas; gh.a = to divide. 

]Lid = to split. kud=cM<. 

gir = d (Iff r/er. 

gisli ; iii = u'enpo7i. 

taq ; tag; khar=«^M«. 


kot=kat (old). 

tok. sok. k'iak (old). 

pien; pin (old). pik=fo tear. 

kwo ; 'kv. = spear. 

tao ; tf,\\= sword. 

sbik ; sah=sfowe. 

yuk =jade. 


tequi.f cuta.* kaka."" iki. 
sab. seb. kak = to ruh. 
kboro.* kana.* kub. kut.* 
sbokt; 'k'\.i=kntfe. aka — arrow. 
]s.aht=arrow. chekta= half. 
cbuki = spear, tuk = axe. 
kak;* taquo;* kiit = stone. 
'kak*=point. ik=to break. 


kesda=f/-o.s.s ; weave; tie? 
ushbar. txxk =eloih. 
tiik= cloth. 

diig=fo measure, aka. 
km'=fo cross, hind. 


tak (=cM). kau= cross, 
du. duk. yok. dat ? 
liaika=<o tic. kwan = !'o weave. 
kiu = ('o hind. Ymi=cloth. 
cb'au=^ cross. tsih = to sjnn. 


iquiu.f taki=«-oss. j6ki=thread. 
thuti. cbakani*=to cross. 
togai=clothes. 


ru. du. 

mushen = i»-rf. 
gish= arrow ; reed, 
sig^dart. s]va = tree. 
us = sow. sissi=S;-ott.«r. 


sut. ski. she. sliat=^ kill. 
cb'ui; sbet=rtr/-OM'. 
c\i!m=wings. tsxih.= soldier ; archer 
^VL=tree. tsi=so?j. 
sap ; shah.= feathers. 


s\ia,=arrow. za=how. 
cimki^spear. sbuwi; sacha,*=tree. 
shm^-=feafker. bi)-d=tsit. 
su;f tsif =so». huo *-=hird; son; 
tree. 


di. zi=to see. kin. gan. 
sbi. zu. 


sbi. cbi. seun=fo see. 
kui ; 'k\cn=perceive. 
sbu ; ii6h = to reckon. 


zu. mne^^to see; eyes. 
tacbani.* padi.f yacbani.* 
naat. sana = ««;««. pbo.f 



17'2842 



39 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUKDET. 



English. 

Principal and Cognate 
Terms. 



Egyptian. 



Afbican 
mano = «M« 
majohe =m(in 



Sanskrit. — nianuslia=»i(?». man = 
to think. manas = WMW. 

,, mah = to measure. 

Greek. — ^Levoi = m ind. /nei/eui = to 
remain ; dwell. 

Polynesiau. — manao =/ tliinh. 
Latin. — mens = m ind. 
Ugro- Altaic. — ma = sow,. mara ; 
,, nianna=w(fl«. marmc =2}JiaUus. 
,, mcncei =»(<;». 
Kurd. — manno = ware. 
E. Tartar. — man=kinff. 
Pegu. — munus =»((?». 
Hindi. — mrimis=wia». map. 

,, man = mind. 
German.- — maas=measure. 
Celtic. — tomar. 
Mongol. — mialin = to measure, humum = man. 

man=h'nff. 
Chinese. — nin=M«w. min=men. 
Lap. — mana=w?«w. 

Tliibetan. — psamliio = fo tliinJc. !icmfi=mind. 
Malay. — mingere=fo iliink. 
Dra^•idian. — menasli = ^ tliinlc. mana.vi=mind. 

„ manushan=w((TW. 
Manf =rt ffreat Indian laivgiver. 
M.ivmjs=founder of (lie ancient Teutons. 
Manes. Minos. Muna, etc., etc. 



To Measube. 
Think, mind, 
man ? make ? 
(dwell ; remain ?) 
me ? mine ? 
(see Man). 



men-t. mac;)j;a. 

temmu = ;««». 

saem.— soldier. 

Menes= first king of Egypt. 

rQscD.=oleUslc ? 

menh=yoM«^ man. 

men=ffl certain one. 

mena=MMr««. 

mah =?(/»(?. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



40 



ACCADIAN. 



mo. mcn = fo be. 
mo ; mi = fo tldnh. 
mis = « great man. 
ma=w«/i. num. lam. 
iiin. nun. 



Chijtese. 



wok; (•li'ui = to measure. 
ma,n=male. \vc = fo be. 
mei = )'o think. 
miVL=mcn. mc = ma)i. 
nan = www (old). 
mm = to t/iin/c. 
liwas:= to measure. 



North. 



Ameuican. 

C'ENTKAL.t 



South.* 



manco* =Jir8t Peruvian man. 

mena,* = man. m ata =fo-rehea(l. 

mani ; niannolio=wwre. 

manito ; monido ^^ffreaf sj'irU. 

ma? 

Quichua root = <o thinh ; "Lopez.' 

tamma; liama ; matui =/«««. 

niali:=Z«w<?. 



41 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 
(Modern.) 


SUSDET. 


English. 

Principal and Cognate 

Terms. 


Egtttian. 


samba. 

t\ict=-Jire. 
mil ; ma=fire. 


Latin — amure. Armenian. — kam. 
Sanskrit. — smar. mrid. kama. 
Dravidian. — nioko; muttam, nesam. 
Litliuanian. — myliu. Hindi.-mas-ti. 
Greek. — tfie/piv. fie\t=^Jw)H'i/. 
Thibetan. — eags-pa. me^Jire. 
Ugro-Altaio. — rakk. saan. ser-mek. 


To Love. 
fire, etc. 
nit. mad ? beat, 
(mild, amiable) ? 


mer. 

abu ; ami=.fire. 

Tek=fire. 

bcx=^o ffire birth. 


bata = 
tiira= 
aka ::= stick 
gii-d^break. 

tiira 
gii-a 


Assyrian. — macliasu. parasu. 
Dravidian. — haku. giiddu. kuttii. 
Sanskrit. — cbnkk. ban ? kesbaii. 
„ tudc^I strike, sagb. 
Latin. — nccare. batuo. tundere. 

Greek. — -rvinw. Tri-Trai Ka:^struclc. 
Hindi. — pitna. 
Celtic. — tiiagb=<o cut. 


To Beat. 
batter, tap. bang, 
knock, break? poke? 
bit. whip. flog. cuff, 
strike, pat. tat. 
thud '? to cane ? 
conquer ? hurt ? 
lick, kick? 


sex- kata. tata. 
nak. sesh. peg. 
tektu ; tu=.sfoHe. 
naxt— /wT«. 
kan. xcx- 


Malay. — picbab. 

Greek. — -rvinivz^to strike. 

Sanskrit. — tude. cbukk. kakrnto 

Tbibetan. — 7cog-pa. '\_shake. 

Latin. — fractus. ruptus. 

Ugro-A Itaic. — bit. 

Dravidian — kiirakku. 


To Break. 
fracture, crush, 
shatter, tear, crack, 
split, cut. rub ? 
bite ? divide, beat, 
peck ? knock ? 


sex- lies. nek. 
beta. kata. 
sbat^^o cut. pex- 
tektu=sfo«(?. 
taxs=to wotmd ; cut. 




Malay. — biika. 

Tbibetan.— ka. 

Latin. — aperire. Greek. — avol-jw. 

Ugro-Altaic. — ak. Japanese. — ake. 


To Open. 
gape, door ? 


ap. sqer. xcb. 
keba. nek. sma ? 




Malay. — sriit. 
Sanskrit. — pat. 

,, star (root)=fo lay down. 


To Fall. 

descend. 


xer. 

hail. X'^ni- I'ku ? 

ster. 


dsako 

sie. stsa. 


Malay. — duek. 

Sanskrit. — as ; ql^^o sleep, sad. 

Eussian. — sidyet. 

Dra\'idian. — utkaru. 


To Sit. 
stay ? rest ? 


ts. beti. serf, chet^to 
stay ; sit ? hem. [as ? 
uthes — seat, nnu? stesi. 


si. de. 


Latin. — erigere. 

Thibetan. — kur'bnr=^ carry. 

Sanskrit. — bliar^/o carry. 

,, tul^^o raise. 

,, ar ; n^to go. 
Greek. — alpeev. ti-x^elv=ito carry. 


To Eaise. 
carry, rise wp. 
mount, lift, 
ascend, go ? 


aT=:fo go up. tekas. 
tua. axa. tes. 
ses. stes=fo rise. 
tennii. fa^^ carry. 


zu. 
basbino. 


Malay. — kagiih. 

Sanskrit. — 9I. star^/o lay down. 
Dravidian. — ninngu. n'l'drc. 
Russian. — spat. Arabic. — nenum. 


To Sleep. 
lie do^n. 
nap. rest. 


xnemena=<o rest. 
nam. ii^rest. 
xer. iiv\\:=re2)ose . 
asz:zrest ? ster^^ lie 
down. 


duro=:/o stop. 
j)oti\— foot. 
epa=/bi/<. 


Hindi. — nlnd. Dravidian.— tade. 
Sanskiit. — stlia ; ])ad. ivf,—to lift. 
UgT'o-Altaio. — tur. tul . 
Thibetan. — gag-pa=4'('o7;. '/nyid. 


To Stand. 
stay., stop. rest, 
tread ? pad=/oo<. 


aha. ha. chet=#o stay. 
nrt ; liari=/o stop, 
stk^iread. -pet— foot. 
tes. tas. kcr=zto rest 




Dravidian. — po'du. idii. 

San.'ikrit. — dlia. Hindi. — rakh'na. 

Thibetan. — kag. sa. 

Greek. — e'xu>=.to have. Ti'Ofjfti. 


To Place. 
Put. fix. set. 


tu. xaa- 
uah. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



42 




43 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 




English 




(Moderu.) 


SUNDET. 


Principal and Cognate 
Terms. 


Egyptian. 


ni. 


Greek. — e'xw. 


To H.^vE. 


ker. ■xoi>^to keep. 




(See, to take.) 


possess, take? get. 
keep. hold. 


teh=^6i take ; carry. 


ngi; m=/. 


Mongol. — baiiia ; bului ; bu. 


To Be. 


un. an. ti. 




Sanskrit. — bhu. aii^/o Ireatlie. 




pa-t. pu. 




Ugro-Altaic. — ou ; uau^iY is. 


I am ? life ? it is. 


rmx=/(/('. 




„ ngem=/. 


I ? to exist. 


Xeper^fo exist. 




,, an=w;rt«. anka=mother. 


make ? 


anuk^/. 




Thibetan. ^yin-pa. Magyar. — van. 


(See elsewhere, 






Greek. — (pvtv. Ang.-Sax. — beon. 


Life, I, etc.) 






Celtic. — bin. bi. ghab. 








Hebrew. — ceshe. Latin. — esse. 








Dravid'n. — mache. Mong.. — hiz^do. 


To Make. 


a. ari. ra. 




Sanskrit. — kag. kri. kar. 




rtu. sket. ar=fo do. 




,, bliar=('rtZ-«, hear away. 


do. produce. 


tet=fo create. teru=; 




,, arya=:^ act strongly. 


create. 


to do. 




Latin. — ars, artis. arare^/o -jilotiyh. 


act. cause, bear. 


bex=!'o give hirth. 




Turkish. — it. Finnish. — kar=/o do. 


carry ? beget. 


aT=creative 2>ower. 




Etruscan. — ccr'ke^rnade. 




ker=^o carry. 




Tartar (root). — bar=fo live. 






Vfa. ha. 


Greek. — c/j'y^o^iai. elf-u. 


To CoiiE. 


i. na. ui ? 


uta. koa. 


,, iKto. KiC. a^ic iKai'iv. 




naau. ai. 


teme. 


Sanskrit. — nas agam. i. 


arrive, go ? 


hunhun=/o return. 




„ emi. ya? 


retiu-n. 






Celtic. — it. i. Ang.-Sax. — code. 








Assyrian. — asli. alaku. ba'u. 








Dra^-iiUan. — va. cher. Latin. — eo. 








Mongol. — ka=^ dance. 








Malay. — tekha. Hindi. — ana. 






ki. i. ka. le. 


Thibetan. — rkan-pa 'i=fuot. 


To Go. 


u. ua. hu. 


lo. kata. kanda. 


Zond. — gam. 




xeb. sham. sua. 


kuke. yami. puta. 


Ugro-Altaic. — kar. kat. tiik. 


dance, run. walk. 


na. xent. i. 


zi ; 'kcka=:foot. 


Mongol. — ka^^o dance. 


foot. move, come? 


abu. 


bui=<o dance. 


Greek. — 'iKu}i=.to enter, jtiio. 


gang, fly? 


xebt=(/««co. 


■pa])i:=to fiy. yenda. 


Sanskrit. — char. ga. pad. ya. 


march, hasten ? 


ska ; masha=:«-att. 


duo ; que ; kwa^ifffwc^. 


,, mask. ml. aj. gam. 


path. (road). 


sxs ; shcreh ; hap=:r!<». 


gan^ot/^. 


„ v\^to yo. f-wwz^to flow. 


to enter (go in). 


pt ; rt=/oot. hn-=iroad. 




Arabic. — yatl^i'o come. 




ixk^to enter in. 




Assyrian. — asli. alaku. ba'u. 




pall ; pad=:fo pursue. 


ta. mu. 


Teutonic. — zug. toga. nim. nchmen. 


To Take. 


heb. t'a. teh. kar. 


la. sa. 


Ugro-Altaic. — katcm. 




am. shap. ha(j. sam. 


kako=;/(«wf?. 


Zend. — ta.yn-=.iteal=i/o carry. 


Seize, capture. 


uta ; fa ; kcv=:to carry. 


nakao=/(«?J(?. 


Sanskrit. — yah ; bhar. 


steal, hand. 


stet ; tet=fo take away. 




,, karkaka^f/Y/i. utm^-steal. 


lug? get. catch. 


sta=:fo steal. 




Latin. — tSnerc. capere. duco. 


lead away. 


xep^fo keep. t't=A««<^. 




Greek. — Kvw^to hold, th/pa. 


hold, have ? 


nchemu. 




,, (i/)7r('i. ufij. (^cptv^to hear. 


carry ? keep ? 






„ ^< i'/i:=}iand. Ktc7nj=ztake. 


grab. get. 






,, l'^(o=zlo /told. cc'^ofiai. 








Celtic. — diuc. cairt. Hebr. — lakah. 








Assyrian. — liku. ckemu. 








Tliibetan. — kur-ba=:<o carry. 







A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



44 




46 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Aybicah. 




ExGLisn 




(Modem.) 


SUNDET. 


Princijial aud Cognate 
Terms. 


Egyptian. 


duro. kema. 


tTgi'o - Alt ai c . — txvc. 


To Stop. 


ch'et. mn. 


kanka. 


Celtic. — stad=ste«(?. 


Stay, stand. 


t'et. stk=^ircad. 




Thibetan. — gag-pa. 
Sanskrit. — stha ; pad=steH(?. 


rest.? gag. 


kex—rest. 


sooa.:=see. 


Ugro-Altaic. — ^e\d^eye. 


To Seek. 


uxa. hh. 


ze~.eye. 


Burmese. — shah-thc. 


Search, look. 


mu. pcsh=;?«/?. 




Sanskrit. — aksh.i=;cy«. 

Latin. — »])CQtai\'^to see; hole. 


see. eye. 


seboq=:see. shu-^zlighf. 


soro:=to speak. 


Pin. — %anoi\^spcak ; say. 
Anglo-Sason. — seegan. 


To Weite. 
Book, say? words 


snaa. an. s^-a. na. 

shat. shftu=Joo/;. 




Latin. — scribere. 


scrawl, name ? 


xm^speecJi . ka^call. 




TJgTO-Altaic. — sar=fo scratch ; satv. 


(see speech). 


ta.^=book. suen^book ? 




,, kemzen. 






pa. (p=cl). 


E. Tartar. — gene. 


To Give. 




iiakoa^/(ff«c?. 


Indo Chinese. — ka; da; maen. 




du. tu. ma. 


sa — liani. 


Ugi-o-Altaic. — gar. zend-da. 


Donate. 


tutu. bi. j^et. 




Sanskrit. — dadami; da. 


hand, jiaw? 


fba^ fi>ii/er. 




Latin. — dare. nia.nu?.=zhand. 


to keep ? 


kap ; tot^iand. 




Assyrian. — nada. nu ? shakaka. 
Dravidian. — ta. Hindi. — dena. 




pet =zfoot. 




Teutonic. — tat. dat. 








Greek. — BiSw^i. x<^''p=^^'>^^- 






negci. pii. 




Ifo! 


tern. ben. 


nga. ka. ve. 




not. none ? 


bu. 


haha. ca. qa. 








qou. ch. xa. 




Yes ! (=it is). 




ewe. ze. 




aye. 

A>T). 








her. 








hna. xer. 


baka^f/rcff;". 




Ail. 


neb. qn=much. 


nikuna^:; /«](//«. 




Manv. great? 


nc^(t^stro>ii/. 






the whole, much. 




itta. nye. 

ik; ltd— finger. 


TJgro-Altaic. — it. Coptic. — ouot. 
Polynesian. — ia. iat. 


No. 1. 

finger. I. me ? 


ua. 


sawa. eta. 


Caucasian. — szu. 


No. 3. three. 


xmt. 


zdu. 


Estruscan. — sa. 


No. 4. four. 


ft. aft? 


sida. esa. 


Arabic. — sitt. 
Caucausian. — sugo. 


No. 6. six. 


sas. sc ? 


edse. isa. 


Arabic. — saba. 

Basque. — sazp. Caucasian. — seth. 


No. 7. seven. 


sfx. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



46 



ACCABIAN. 


CmNESE. 


Amkiucan. 
North. CuNTitAL.t South.* 


kiid. gub. 

sig. dii^^ rest. 


sih. sik. ti. k'ii. 
chu. cbi. tu. 

ka.])^=iaeari/. tap=^o sfaiid. 
mi-=:to sleep. 


mac-kaek. cbay.* tzicoa. 
quetz=:^o stand, tati.f nitc.f 
saksa.* barkani.* dat. 
nupp=fo sleep. 


kin ? '/Az=to hioiv. 
sih. see; eye. 


sok. sob. sak. 

sik. k'iu ; ku (old). 

bicu^^o pereeive ; ken. 


boni.f quabbuya.* 
siki ; -Lvc^-eye. 


mc 5 kin=ioo^'. 
iha^-ivriter. sar. 
men. mu=to speak. 


king; sbu — hook. 
sie. sit. tarn. 
chuen^ctters. 
obui — to talk. 


kcU-ka.* nu ; na ; &o-=-speec}i ; word. 
tseksa:=i4'orf?. noob. cbi*=fo«y«<#. 
tlacuilo ]^:^writer. sniiz^name. 


gar. ba. 

si. sig._ 

sum. sim. 

mu. mar. 

shu ; gad:=:ha7id ; /;«<? ? 


pa. kik. sik. da. 
wei. mn. sban. 
pad=pei=pi. 
kib=;kip. 

su. sllOll=//«H(?. 


da.f ku.* ko.* ta zal. 
maca.f caa.f mckau. 
kia.* kie. chu. kon. 
ka; daba=^/iaHr/. toto=/oo^. 
khoni. ara. mika. 


ban. bara. sa. 

mu nu. mi. na-mi. 


pub. put=pat (old). 
ba. wei. ti. mok. 
mu. mi. wu. 


ba. ou. na. 
amo.f nis.* bani. 
ma.f mana. yo. 


gin. din. 


yu=/< is. wei=fe do ? 


haba. la. yan. ba.f 
sa. haue. i. ia. 


bida. bida-ge. 


yu. ye. er. i. ji. 


nebe.f ne.f aub. yuan, 
ac. ane? 


mi=j»!(f7i:=100. 
gin. nigin. zun. 
gbia. mcsb. uk-kin. 
makb ; da^great. 


kai. kii. ta^iiffh. 
pak; peb=Xo.'lOO. 
xam::=pcople ; mamj. 
pak; 'k\\i\=great. many. 


naka. kuna. cecen. kiai. 
gatbe.f kun."' dn=(/reaf. 
mochi ; mieck ; lach^much. 
katsa^)«fl'«y ; much. 

ita. buk.f quih. eonai. ata.* 


id. i. gi=:o?ie. 
gis. 


yit. it. i. yib. 


essa. sin. es. 


sam. 


kunsa.* osh.f 


za. nin=(2 + 2) ? sbi. sbin. 
sliib. lam. 


sat. si. szu. 


tsets. sikhin. huzab. oza. pusi. 


as. assa. 


sal. lok. lu. 


sib. sokta.* chisa. tako hits. tsum. 
hue. chicnaccf (5 + 1). 


sisinna. imin. 


sit. tsat. sei. 


siete. tsetta. nuisa. vescs. 
kancis.* 



47 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Apbican. 




English. 




(Modem.) 


StWDET. 


Principal and Cognate 
Terms. 


EGTPTIAlf. 






Peosouns. 


tai (fern.) ter. 




TJgro-Altaic. — kan. ka. 




nti. pfl=^//(T^ 




„ t;ima. tu'o (Fin.). 


"SMiat. it. 


mu ; nfa^(t7(0 ? 




„ ken. ni. clan. 


that. tbis. 


nima=«7«i '? 




,, nama. az. ez. na. 


-svhen '? wby ? 


ax^M'% ? ia =:/iOif? 




„ ni. kih. kochan. 


where ? how. 


pai ; ])a=this. 




E. Tartar.— lieji ? tore. 


which, who ? 






,, hen ? ene. eri. 


the. etc., etc. 








Adtehbs, Peeposi- 


r. her? am. 






TIONS, ETC. 


m. n. ma. 




TJgro-Altaie. — sa=m. 




an. hnii. 




„ ka ; te=:eM. 


From. on. in. 


Xeft. xcr. 




,, kih. da. dau. 


with. to. cut. 


m-hah=zbefore ; {phal- 




„ den. le. 


thus. at. as. 


lus.) 




E. Tartar. — de. dor. la. ese. 


below, above. 






„ ends. cki. atshe. 


by. for. if. over. 




'ngi. ki. 




Peesonal Peoj^ouns. 

I. 

me. my. 'No. 1. 




ni. ne. na. 


Accad. — gia. men. ngae. 


anuk. nuk. 




Ugro-Altaic. — cen. mon. ma. 


to be ■? finger. 


ua.^No. 1. 


mi. me. 


,, sic; nju^tltou. 


mouth ? man ? 


un=to exist ; to he. 




Berber. — nek. Etruscan. — ma. 


self, life ? 


imti ; Vw^man. 


Taonh.ec=.7nan. 


Assyrian. — auaku. msnz^peopk. 
Hebrew. — anoki. Arabic. — ana. 


mine. 


ankh^^(/c. 




E. Tartar. — a. si. nad. 






'ngo. 


Ugro-Altaic. — ton. tio. ny. 


Thou. 


ntk. -tu. 




,, nyn. te. 


you. thee. 


-k. sen=No. 2. 


ku. 


sxui- 


No. 2. ye. 


ntn^yo;«. 




E. Tartar. — ne. tsi. bi. 


thine, man? 


nii^^thou {feminine). 




Malay. — du. 








Basque. — zu. 








Sanskrit. — ^tra. 






'ngu. 11. 


TJgro-Altaic. — kim. bi. sa. 


He. 


ntf. -f. 


ka. hi=ii7. 


E. Tartar.— t'a. 


him. she. it. 
his. they. 
No. 3 ? man ? 


ntsn ; &ea^^thcij. 


'ng-n. (Ic. 


TJgro-Altaic. — mio. min. 


our. men ? 


n. nen. 



A PHILOLOQICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



48 



ACCADIAN. 


Chinese. 


Amekican. 

NOUTH. C'ESTUAL.t SoUTH.* 


gal. ki. 
bi. nig. 
nin. 
ni. na. 
nam. 


ki. ton. ]i.'i=self? 
Bhi=z(/iis. shui^who ? 
cha^to (old), pi. 
ni^t/ii.i. mx^thit. 
(ma. ga. wo) ? 
si=chi (old), ts'i. 


ti. tu. na. ar. pi* ? 
lie. to ? ca. cula. liu. at. 
ychi. naj=t!ie. inna*? kay.* 
kiisbi. liiimiah. can. tab. 
pon. ta-ka=:M-7/o ? to-as. kai.''-' 
pay. ko ? mas. tewo. hua.* kwa. 
thein ? theco ? a^iiin ? clio. 
go. ae ? job. ima ? maikin ? 
([ucn.f mana. man. kiiii ? 


an=:above ; on. 
mngli. bi. ki ? 
en. li. ta. 
din. gin. 
an. kita. 


si. su. ye. kii. 

(Doubtfuls.) 

chi. ti. jin. li. jo. 

tsai. tung. sai. nei. 

tail. tscu. to. slion. hou. 


tcti. ti. it. to. zo. zui. 
ea. pa. iteck. acbi.f aba. 
nak. nek. mik. sara.f tin. 
knxin. caye. nee. gar.f 
nar-to. aoo.f ha.f tlani.f 
atli.f aic. pao. 

t 


a. ma. mm. gin. 
ngau. mae. 
mi^oKr. mu=w///. 
'ki^=se7f. ni. 
kii^woufh. 
iizn=Jles}i. 


ngan. uung. 

ngie. ngu. 

ga (old), mil. yii. 

i; yit^No. 1. eliao==^w^«fs. 

min=^<'0/;/« ; manij. 

k'i ; s'i^self. niko^^oiirs. 


noka. kaki. nek.f notz. 

tuan. mutsi. ie. neka — ina?i. 

ika. ab-au. di. no. ni. 

necn. onoa^^o be. ma. 

yen. mina. sa. si. tsi. 

nuga.f ki. de.f ai. mena=w«?>. 

niiiii:=(/(fl». 


tu. zu. za. ku. 
tam. dam. gin. 
zae. men. mun. 
nemen=ye. ni'-nf. 
i-ni. zu-nene:=?/oi</\ 


ni-er. ju. ii. 

du. da. so. za. 

nin. nina. 

ki — self, ta-men — t/iei/. 


zu. ano. ni. ne. ta.* 
qui. kam.* yin. mih. an. 
ica. eno. ki. kir. kam.* ken. 
wah. ub. 'ke^f/ici/. iinin:=w(«rt. 


ni. ki. inf. 
bi. ba. na. ni. 
ene. nene=<A(^y. 


i. pi=gi (old), ta. 
ts'i ; clii=r/;('w. 


ban. zcn. y. bee. pae. if:=/»'.s. 
peiig. na. cb-ib. pya. pay.* 
yehi.f nunu.f ngiii.* ujm. 
babiki=:7«'««. kui. biii. 


min. me or mi. 


cha. tsa. za. tsan. 
ni. -wo. ngo. 


nun. nama. ninon. ma. 
nana ; tame ; rmm=ima>i. 



49 INTEECHANGEAELE LETTEES. 

The following list of more or less generally Interchangeable Letters has been compiled from 
an immense number of ■words met with by me, during the course of compilation of the Vocabxilaries 
contained in the present work on Comparative Philology. It is more particularly adapted to the 
Turanian, American, African, Malay, and Polynesian Languages, the Semitic and Aryan, already so 
well examined, having been purposely omitted. 

The Vowels, A, E, I, 0, U, are of course more or less almost always interchangeable ; but 
presumably, and according to Kolbe, the oldest and most frequent primitive letter sounds are. A, I, U ; 
and consonants, M, P, K, T, to which I think S might reasonably be added. These consonants 
again became by time and circumstances more or less changed or softened into n. h. v. d s. I. 
g. h. eh. sh. 



English 
Letteks. 



B 

C 

D 

F 

G 

H 

J 

K 

L 

M 

N 

P 

Q, QU 

E 

S 

T 

V 

W 

X 

Y 

Z 

X 



P. t. V. m. f. (w. h. k. kb. g. 1.) 

k. s. (d. g. ch. kh. t. tj.) 

T. L. p. h. (c. r. g. j. k. m. n. s. z. ts.) 

V. w. p. h. k. b. (s. t.) 

K. S. d. j. m. n. y. h. (1. b. p. gh. sh. w. t. z.) 

K. S. f. d. g. p. (qu. gh. kh. ch. th. sh. b. 1. m. n. t. x. v. y.) 

g. k. y. (d. 1. t. ts. z. V. n. sh ?) 

H. T. G. S. r. p. 1. (q. f. b. bl. d. dz. c. n. m ? sh. sch, sk. th. gh. kh. v. w. y. z.) 

T. D. i: k. (b. h. j. g. q. kh. n. y. p. s.) 

N. b. g. (d. p. h. V. r. t. w. k ?) 

51. t. r. s. (d. h. k. j. 1. b. g. sh. sk.) 

B. t. h. k. f. (d. g. 1. m. n. qu. y. v. w. ph.) 

hu. gu. (h. g. n. 1. p.) 

1. k. s. n. (m. d. t.) (E, generally eliminated in roots) ? 

K. T. G. Z. h. r. c. sh. n. ts. tz. (d. f. 1. th.) 

D. K. S. n. p. sh. th. b. (h. f. j. g. 1. r. ch. ts. tz. w. y. z.) 

r. W. b. (h. m. p. k. y. z.) 

V. u. ou. p. b. t. w. m. n. g. k. 1. (liu. wh. y.) ? 

ch. (sh. k. ks. X-) 

I. j. g. h. (d. k. t. u. r. p. v.) 

S. Tz. Ts. (d. t. sh. sj. k. d. h. j. dj. g. k. 1. r. v. kh.) 

(q ? k. g. h. gll ? X ?) 



OCCASIONAL OR DOUBTFUL INTEllCHANGEABLE COMPOUm) LETTERS, Etc. 50 

(Aeyan and Semitic not included.) 



LETTERS. 




letters. 






bl 


k. (th) ? 

t. d. h. kt. j. ts. s. sh. X. x- 




bh 

dz 


(t. k. b) ? 

k. ps. ds. 


1 ^ 




1. 

g. kh. h. L k. X- th. y. 




dsh 

dh 


(m. d. f)? 


1 5 
^ II 


kh 
ph 

liu 
(jui 


X- p. ph. b. q. h. 1. k. gh. (s. sh. z. 
kh. p. f. b. 
pu. yu. zii. w'. 
shi. si. pi.' 


m.)? 


lit, gw 
kw 
wh 
si 


k. 

y- 

u. w. 
shi. (jui. 


a II •'^ 


,sh 


s. s. s. k. tz. ts. X. t. th. sch. g. 


\ 


st; sk 


k. (n. t. th) ? 


o "* II II 


ts 


kh. ch. z. (n. zh. jra. d. j. g. y.)? 
tz. tsh. tsch. ch. 9? d. j. z. 


■ 


tj ; dj 

tsh 


c. ts. z. 

z. ts. (kz. t. tz) ? 


^ II 


tz 
th 


sh. s. ts. z. k ? 

s. sh. t. tz. sk. k. 1. h. d. 


) 


zu 


z. 

hu. pu. 


^3 II 


— 


(f. bl. V. p. gh). 


1 


zh 


sh. (d. j. s.) ? 


a 



INTERCHANGEABLE POLYNESIAN LETTERS. 
[H. T. V. K. P. S. T.] [K. Y. R. S. H. ] [S. T.] [H. F.] 

[G. Y. J. K. ] [V. W. B.] [N. M. J.] 

The letter T is of rare occurrence. 



Probably the / in Egyptian, as /«=dog, is merely the Archaic or Turanian form of ku = f7yc/; and 
the r as in lia = su.n, corresponds to the Archaic root Na=s\m, eye, light, cte. The Acoadian ^ as in 
/j^=dog, also = Archaic Ic. 

The Semitic haith, J(?«<=house, can only be the more Archaic hat; where h has become softened 
into h ; and in Egyptian, may not the hard h or k initial, as in as, aafchouse ; and a»/-=stone have 
been dropt from the commoner Turanian or Archaic has, hus, hat and kar ? The Semitic sh would 
likewise appear to have been the harder Turanian k as shem-esh=snn, light, etc., comparing with 
Mongol shtcm ; Ugro-Altaic, kon, ktm ; Aecad. kan ; Chinese, kan ; the Semitic m having once been 
Turanian n ? 

In this way doubtless many of the earlier interchanges of letters in Archaic or more primitive 
roots may be traced from one family of language to another, when once the common Archaic sounds for 
cognate similar ideas are determined with a moderate degree of certainty. 



51 



AGEEEME^^TS BETWEEN ACCxVDIAN AND CHINESE. 



By the Eov. C. J. Ball. 

"The following list of moi-c tlian 200 common words is intended to show the close relation of the 
Accadian and Chinese languages. Naturally I have selected terms which present a striking likeness 
to each other, in preference to those which, although philologically identical, have become more or 
less unlike in external feature, owing to the wear and tear of ages. I have not coniincd my 
comparisons to the modern Mandarin. The better preservation of the ancient sounds in the dialects 
is a fact which soon reveals itself to the Chinese student. My view of the connexion of the two 
languages is this : — Chinese is simply what the primitive Accadian has become, in the course of 
some COOO or 7000 years of separation from the mother-land of Babylonia. 1 see no traces of 
' Elamite ' influence. I believe that the absolute identity of vocabulary, the essential identity 
of grammar, and the original identity of the written character, are best accounted for by the 
supposition that the Hundred Clans {poh sing) of primitive China were wanderers from the land 
of Shumir and Accad. 



Accadian. 


Chinese. 


Accadian. 


Chinese. 


I, My, etc. 




u-miin^sheep. 


min, mien. 


ngan. ngin. nga. 


ngan. nga, noiv ngo. \ 


i-min=facc. 


min, mien. 


ngu. mu. ma. 


ngu. yii. mu 


ni-minr=multitude. 


min. 




wu. ma, nuw wo. 


min=:crown. 


min, mien. 


Thou, Yor. 




ka-s, ka-tlamb. 


ko, kao. 


. 




gug=shecp, goat. 


yeiing. 


I'ni. ni-mm. ni. 
na. da. du. 


ni. ni-men. nu. \ 
no (old), ju. da, now ' 


guk-kal=ram, sheep, 
bar^leopard. 


yeung-ko. 
pa, bo, pao. 


si. zu. tsi. ra. 


t'ai. I 
si), ts'i. tsu. 'r. ] 


ngu^os. 
gi^right. 


ngu, niu. 
gi, i- 


This, That, He, etc. 




uiin, tin=strong, great. 


nin, jin. ting. 


na. ni. ni. bi. 


na. ni. pi. \ 


lag, lug, lu^man, slave. 


lang, lung, lau=man. j 


ba. tab. gi. gi. shi. 


pa (old), tap, now t'a. > 


[rag=iwoman]. 


Japan, ryo ; Malay, | 




k'i. shi. ) 




orang. ) 


tin. ki. tsin=self. 


tin, tioid ch'in j 


gin, din, nin^man. 


yin, jin, nin, noiv niang. 




ki. t'sin. ) 


tug, tiing^man. 


ting. 


i-shi=wlio. 


shii-i. shii. 


su=beard. 


su 






shu^hand. 


shall, su. 


gin. gi'm^girl ; female. 


yin. yim. 


dug, zag=leg, knee. 


tuk, tsuk^foot. 


gug=flash, bright. 


yuk, yuh. 




tik, now ch'ek=;knee. 


gin ; duii=walk. 


yin ; dien. 


gu-za=seat. 


tsa, now tso. 


gam. gu=thirst; chink. 


yam. yu ) ^^^^.j^j. 


mud, (lu)gud, (gu)ruu 


mit, mie. ) 


imnia, immi. 


im ) 


r::blood. 


rung, git, now hiit. ) 


u-gug=want. 


yuk, yuh. 


shig, sig, sing=bright, 


shiug, seng, siug^ 


ga, gi=night. 


ya, now ye. 


light. 


bright, stai'. 


gig, kuk=dark. 


yik, kck. 


mu^name. 


mu. 


gig, pig=sick. 


j-ik, ping, bek. 


sim, sig=name. 
Seize, take, get. 


sing. 


gud, ud, utu=:sun; day. 


yit. 


dib, tug, tuku. 


tip, chij), tuk, tck, tik, ) 


gid^sprout. 


lit, it, yii. 


zu. 


choh, ts'u. j 


gi-s, gi, i=one. 


yi-t. yi, i- 


Sec, learn, judge, know. 




ra (s), ni=two. 


'r, ni. 


di, zi, shi. 


ti, chi, ts'i, shi. 


sin=:three. 


san. 




tsu, ts'i, ts'i == lady, 


shi=four. 


si'. 


zu-zu^ady. 


wife. j 


mas=:five. 


wat, now wu. 


shi=oath. 


shi. 


ka=raouth. 


k'au. 


aga, aba^father. 


ya, «o?cye. ha,noiviu. ) 


utu, iti^raoon, month. 


ut. 


ad a. 


pa. da, now tie. 


gu, gud, mc=speak. 


lit, wei=mei. 


am;i, uiiiu^mother. 


ma, mu. 


shi(g),zi(g),tin=spirit. 


shin, zing, t'in. 






Writing, writer, tablet. 




du, zi, duiu, duiiiu = 


tu, ts'i, t'ung \ 


dim, diiiiniu. 


tin, ticn, men. | 


cliild. 


Japanese, domo. ) 


men, dub, tu]), dub-sar. 


wen, tip, tip-se. ) 


nui-s=ma=twins. 


ma. 


k'i=eai-th. 


k'i. 


nin, ni^lady. 


niang, nii, ni. 


u-dub, u-du=lamb. 


t'u, ch'u. 


mu=:male. 


mu=tree. 



AGREEMENTS BETWEEN ACCADIAN AND CHINESE. 



52 



AcCADIAN. 



imi, ba, mc=not. 

mi. 

zig, zing, sig= green. 

gun, yellow. 

bur, ba = white. 

gig, gi, kan = black. 

b-ar=brother. 

la- bar (old). 

sag = lock. 

sak-kul=lock. 

kau^gatc, door. 

ku = dwell. 

sheg, ma-r=brick, tile. 

slieg= stone, 
shiig, sliig=to eat. 
zig = food, grain. 
ka= fruit, 
shid = stone-fruit. 

kin, gan, en. nun = 

to see, ■watch. 

dug=good. 
zig, sig= evening. 
za-1, za = dawn, shine, 
mag, mug= great. 
ii-miin = dwelliug. 
shu= water, 
kin = letter. 
siin=old. 

zun or tsun=many. 
tag=fault. 
kid=to split open. 

tak. 
sig, si=to bisect. 
shud, sud=to go. 
tig = side. 

sag, shag, sang=head, 
top. 

shiim (shing)=wise. 

lig, di-nig=sti-ong. 

shi-lig=hcro. (niin). 

lib, ib= region, district. 

kur=hill, place. 

kal=higli. 

a-zag, zu(g)=silver. 

lib = erect. 

shi=dead. 

tui=birds. 

tig, ti= oppose. 

gam (older) gan = wild- 
goose. 

dim = fasten. 

lag=offeruig. 

shu= multitude. 



Chinese. 



ACCADIAN. 



mu, wu, ba, now p'o 

mei, wei. 

tsing. 

kun, noiv hong. 

pai, pa, po. 

yik, yi, k'len. 

ba-k, now po. 

lao-p'o. 

sak, now so. 

so-k'ien. 

k'ien=door. 

ku. 

sliik=elay, to mould 

ma, •wa=tile. 

shek. 

shik. 

zik. 

ka, kwo. 

shit, sit. 



kin, gan, yen, nu j 

tek. 

sik. 

tsa, tsao. 

mang, mung. 

min, mien. 

shii. 

kin, kien. 

sin, sien. 

tsun. 

tek, chak. 

kit, ki. I 

tak, now tok, to. ) 

sik, si. 

shut, sut, su". 

tek, chek. 

sang, shang, shan. shau. 

shing. 

Hk, lih, shi-lih. 

ning (nin). 

ip. 

kii, kew. 

ko, kao. 

tsuk. tsu. 

lip. 

shi. 

dien (Annamite). 

tik, ti. 



gan, yen. 
tim, tien. 
lak, now li. 
shu. 



lu, dim, kur=to bind. 

tug= clothes. 

dug=heavy. 

sliun = pure, wash. 

tu=belly. 

zag-shu=fate. 

dun = to eat; a meal. 

dul, dun=in(niud, to 

hide. 
bil-lud = law, order, 
rug, rig= bright. 
giin = tribiite. 
ur= young horse, 
ki-sh, ku-r= horse. 
shu = siui-riso. 
ku, lig, liki=dog. 
sim= smell, 
shim, shab=heart. 

sum, sun, sig, si =: to 
_ give. 

sig=to grieve ; rest. 
ba, bad = to open (the 

mouth). 
gad=to love. 
uk-kin=all. 
gusk-kin=gold. 
uru-du(g) = copper. 

I""' ■•'''' . \ =lead. 
(gan, gam) ) 

tud = to bear ; beget life. 

sig (sing) ; shi (g). 

to shine, brightness. 

kiin, lag. lug. 

diin=dig the ground. 

mu-l= lance. 

shid'?=lion (written 

</o(/+ leader). 

shag, sig=swine. 

tin, siin, su=hody. 

ti-r=wuig, fin. 

du, sluin = battle, fight. 
du(g) = hcad. 
gin, kin=fixed. 
g.i (gu), ku=flsh. 
kak= point, horn. 

shib, shit = tongue, 

reckon. 
en=house. 
bi = ladle, 
da = great. 
ta = in, fr'om. 



Chinese. 



Ki, liu, tim, kii, kill. 

tiok, elieuk, (old) tuk. 

tiong, chung, (old) dung. 

slum. 

til. 

shu. 

tun, t'un. 

tun, t'un. 

lut. 

rung. 

kung. 

ur, 'r. 

k'i, kii. 

shu. 

ling, ku, kau. 

sing = stinking. 

sam, sim. 

sung, sek, si. ) 

sik, si. 
pa, pat. 

gad, now gai. 
k'un. 
kin = gold, 
dung, t'ung. 

yen. ion, iiu, ke". 

tut, noiv ch'ut. 

shing, seng. 

kung, lang, lung. ) 

lak, now lok=to burn ) 

tin, tien. 

mu, mail. 

shi=lion (written dog 

■\- leader). 
shi, si. 
t'in, shin, 
ti, now ch'i. 

tu ; tau, silling, eh'Ln. 

du, t'au. 

kin. 

gu, yii- 
kak^horn. 



shit, sheh, shiit, shwo, 

yen=roof. 

pi- 
ta, to. 

ta. 



53 CHANGES OF LETTERS (CHINESE AND ACCADIAN). 

According to the Rev. C. J. Ball, the Accadiun G, GH (G') often=Chmese y; as GUG=yi</.- 
(blazing of fire); also G, K, often= Chinese ^- (and probably h also of the Ugro-Altaic languages.) 
The Accadian T=modern Chinese ch (old, t), as TUD = cA'Mi! {to beget). The Accadian Z = ts; ts\ s. 
Also L=?, d, or a dialectic ?i. The common final ng may represent old Chinese ?«, n, and the Accadian 
M, N; but the final G and N are often dropt in Accadian, as well as in Chinese. Accadian b=j; 
B = /', j;; G, K=//; L or D = Z. M is older than N. In Accadian DAR is dialectic for GAR, and 
DIN for GIN ; also for G not imfrequently an M or a B is a dialectic form, as likewise appears 
in Chinese whore yit=muk, and Amoy J«=the Mandarin ma; but generally the modem Chinese 
'p (=oldor h) represents the Accadian B; as pok=bak=bar. Edkins is wrong in supposing a 
transition from T to G, which is really dialectic GAR=DAR reversed. The Accadian BAR is 
equivalent to the common Chinese pao and p'ao. R is very rare in Chinese (and likewise in 
most of the American languages, but common in the Aryan languages). I think the Chinese / is 
probably = Ugro-Altaic K, as well also the Egyptian /; and r=n. The Rev. C. J. Ball thinks 
also there should be an TTgro -Altaic p = a, Chinese /; as well as a i=a k. Dialectic Accadian 
would give GI=MI (=yL). Japanese /=^= Ugro-Altaic, probably also Chinese h. The modern 
Chinese ch (soft as in 'church'), cannot be an aboriginal sound in Chinese, where it represents in 
Mandarin an older t (=(^), and in Pekingese a Mandarin k (like Eng. 'kirk' and 'church'). 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE 



OP 



ACCORDANCES. 

(PART II.) 

ARYAN AND SEMITIC, Etc. 



55 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Sundry. 


Semitic. 


Hindi. — 'koi&^^forfrem. 


Hebrew. — gal=/(fr7^; {of stones) ? ga.n=(/arden. 


Chinese. — uh. mak. kii. kin ; kia^^o dwell. 


,, birah=:«<;a/^. malon=/M». 


,, kap^fo cover. kck:=.s/.m. pao. mak. 


,, khazer^««cfo«iwis. baith:= Aoms«. 


,, uk. hu. kill. hi. shed. han=H!??. 




Thibet. — pagsha. koba=sZ:m. 


Assyiian.— liitu. e\h\— field. 'ks.Tprn— village. 


Mongol. — boo. giir. karr=^toicii. 


, , (jkaWn^palace. dum^tvall. 


Accatlian. — gal. ki-ku. uni. ku. mal. 


,, agurru:=i/-/(7,-. igaru:=it'aZ/. 


„ ga. tag^=sfo)ie. gai^bn'ck ; icall. kur. 


,, garru=>-0rt(7. isxi=frce. 


„ 'kau^i/fite. ma. 'kar=fo)i. 


,, shallaru=(vyrtf/<;/ ; ivall. 


,, Bila^,ifreef. i\:=(lwell. cri=to"mi. 


„ sulu ; suki\=:strcct. chalsu=/or<. 


Malay. — ball. batu=?//7VZ-.s. 


,, alu^citg. tillu^w(o»«f^. aru=:fortress. 


Polynesian. — hale. fale. pa. 


,, kamxitii^^icalls. ekl\xz=Jield. 


Bui-mese. — teh^/('«^. 


,, tudii^road. 


Dravidian. — era. halle ; wr^rilhif/e. kallu=sfowe. 


Arabic. — dar. nal-ah:=castle. 


Egy-ptian. — ha. baat. bu. aat. baka=io(//. 


,, mahallah — iiin. qasr— palace, kashba. 


„ katr; kaiit ? fma^rZ/te/c . kar=zs?irine. 


„ hiUah. bait. 


,, ■pa=:fotcn. am=itent. as^cJ/aiiiber. at. 


Coptic. — al. onh. ouoh—dicell. 


TJgi'o-Altaio. — khal. haz. huus. har. 


,, ei^iouse. aht; kar:=e7iclosure; f eld. 


,, yu. hat. kota. hu. kar. {kol^sfone) 


Phoenician. — cartha=c;7y ; quarter of a town. 


„ ula. al=^fou!n. gnla=)'c»<. kyla. sher= 


„ tiirracii^palace. 


„ village. pcUe ; maii^v illnf/e. uki^^zdoor 


Amharic. — biat. mandar^r(7/ff(/«. 


,, (riu). koto (Lap), kar; kora=«/i;«8. 


,, korbat:=«X-/«., covering. 


Afi-icau. — gcr. aar. deha—villaffe. ilu. nlo. 


„ dak^sione. 


,, ta. ko. bo. ho. uma. ndab. ile. 




„ hire; axo^sione. nra. ogu. 


N.B. — Coptic is Egyptian rather than Semitic. 


„ bit. daka. ham. hu. 




Chinese. — tub. chi. kot=^ eut. chi. yuk. 


Hebrew. — gal=/(C(y;. sadeh:=^(;W. 


„ shik. shih. sah. \\\=hrick. 


,, tsur=/-ofZ;. ebon. 


,, tukz=fo diff. tak^.yjear. 


Assyrian. — abuu. ir»itn^earth. 


Accadian. — za. gar. si]ig=zstro)it/. 


,, katu ; kasasu=«<< of, cut. 


,, giii=:Iiard. 


,, kakku^»rfl/)o«, sword, kerm^/ard. 


,, sig; kud=«<<. tag. mar^ir(V^-. 


,, ■patra^dfigger. 


,, khar=?-oc/c ; hill, ga^eartli. 


,, bataku^^ cut. nakasu^^o cut. 


Dravidian. — kalle. 


Arabic. — sakhrah=;-0('Z-. 


Egyptian. — tn. sat. aar. tet^earth. 


,, sikkin=/i'M{/c. hajar. 


,, bat; sekh ; naxi^to cut. toxtu. 


Coptic. — al. oni. sho. 


,, tcr=hoiendari/? {terminus). sika=:plouffh. 


,, shot^/o cut. ka]n:=enrth. 


Ugi-o-Altaic. — ach. kao. kalle. kedke (Lap.). 


Phoenician.^cartha=f(Vy. 


„ sil^fo pierce; cut. zelu. kaT^to ploiu/Ji. 


,, tzur. sela? 


,, tnta. kcr. soh. sahso. izo. inyg^eiirth. 


Amharic. — tzenoo^ /«?«/. dak^^stone. 


,, tu:=clni/. kis. keu. kach. 


„ tor =^la nee. 


E. Tartar. — 'kata=hard. tsakur. tzolo. pek=7i«;Y?. 




,, kuruck=>w^-. cola. 


(Sec, To Cut, etc.) 


African. — dak. hire. kau. data. ite. 




„ kot. okuta. sen. taku. tawe. 




„ tal. kor(\ kagan. aehu. te. 




„ to. aro. kittitc. kakom. kou. eta. 




„ oko. tari. kuka=rocA. i\\o:=/wiiiie. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



66 



AUTAN. 



North. 



Ameeican. 

CENTKAL.t 



South.* 



IIousE. Hut. 
English. — hut. shed. homo. ham. cot. wuU. hiirff. stnkc. 

,, dome? area, court, field, byre, bothie. burn. 

„ hall, village, cabin, inn. castle, hovel, stone ? 

,, skin, covering, town, boat? box? nest. 

Sanskrit. — vasta. oka. vasa. pita. dvara=:yffi«. 
Hindi, etc. — hara^canfle ? ur. ghur. khara. dalan:=A«??. 

„ khut? hain? ha.tix'^enclosure. udolut=(;o?<>'<. 

„ hu'wel'ee. 

Greek. — o?ko^. e\a\v<!. avXi'j. 7rv\ij=^f/ate. 

Latin. — polls. vicu.s. casa. cutis^«Z'm. area. 

,, tectum=:;'oo/'. uterus=(i'o«iJ. a\ila:=hall. 

,, scutum:=47( /('/(?. castra^C(?.s</e. domus. 

Oscau . — tota:=fo;<'«. 

Spanish. — callc=s^;-cf<. [Egyptian. — X''>1=*'''''''^> ^ouse.^ 
Persian. — khana. (hara^wiiU.) stan. dalrin^/)«^^. 
German. — haut^s/.:m. hof. Aovb:=^village. haus. 
Phrygian. — (lcba=toit'M. 

Scandinavian. — satar. skali. ioi^field. hus. by. inne. 
Teutonic. — (oku=^o cover.) hutte. bau. 
Celtic. — ti. tigh. cwt. pit. 'koer^^toum. do. tas. kil. 

,, bal. bcile=<o((.7i. had. tre. car. caer. peil. elan. 

,, p\\^^sione circle, kurt. alt. dae. 

AiTiienian. — hark^rof;/". tun. 
Slavonic. — koda. jaza. bus. (kosha^s^'m.) dom. 
Norse. — byr. tot. 

Gothic. — husa. Anglo-Saxon. — helau. 

Wallachian. — kaer^ioww. Frisian. — tene (turig ?)=fo«fw. 
Italian. — covto^court-yard. 
[Sanskrit root. — sku^s/i('//<T, cover.~\ 



SXONE. EOCK. 

English. — earth, flint, rock. cut. crag. hard, tough? strong? 
Sanskrit. — qila. sah^r?f^, break. c^ak.=iC(ipahIe, round. 

,, dur ; khara^/irtrrf. 

Hindi, etc. — pathur. 'kai^cut. churI=X7(//'('. sila=?'0(;X-. 

,, pashan. 

Persian. — sang. khak=wr;'7( ; (Eng. chalk ?). 
Zend. — ctaera ? sm-^sfro/u/. 
Latin. — silex. tellus^frt/'i'/t. ruma. tcro^i'o rub. 

,, rupes^;-ocZ-. saxum. terminus. terra=:i?a;'/A. 

,, castra=<'rt.si'/<!. telum-^wenjion. 

Lithuanian. — akmu ? 
Scandinavian. — sax=:«!ro/-r/. 
Caucasian. — dor. 
Celtic. — lech. dach. carog. caer. do. tud=earth. ail. 

,, cottudh. 'kalg^sword. torrz^iiiountain ; rock. 

French. — caillc=^/«<. coutcau=Z7i//('. dur^^rtrfZ. 
Norse. — tot^enclosure. 
Albanian. — do=zland, earth. 
Armenian. — qar. z'haiT=:rock. herd^zmomifain. 
Greek. — aKij=:a point ; sliarp. wirpa. Tevxoi-^iveapon. 

,, ^/I'l^eart/i. 7re\eicv^=^axe. x^^'S^fl'^t. 

Slavonic. — kraman=^/H^ 
German. — stark=*^/-o»^. berg;=rof7i; ; Jdll. thon:=ffo!/. 



uoa.* coca.* oca.* koya. tah. cani. 

anda^«foree. 

acare. coochut. akkaroo. tee. koga. 

tenika=«i'ora«. wasi. acal f^^s^owt'. 

hochan.f igloo, hi. in.* tec-pan.f 

iQiz:zstone. otoch ]=^stone. hit. 

kah. uta.* ata. ical=:/(«'« home. kiki. 

pan f =« ^;?ace. cani^/(o«w«. tiems. 

no-cal^OT?/ house, nike. kei. 

carratu *=.s<owe. tee-pee. 

hua.si.* kukh. baan. kodja. gyok. 

kotal. aeal^«fo««. 

oal.f calli.f cari.f pitita *^J«rfroom. 

chusu *^tow7i. an ; gb\^villa(je. 

cra.f quit, ku.* tot^»/o;(«. 

khekh^/joM.s«. tapa=?if".s^. 

deba;* llakta*=(77/ffc/<'. 

Vai^^stone. ku.f hu.f ho. itak. 

ghoti \z^ivall. ta ; tal=:«to?»«. 

karpa=i'c»i. 

bocan.* ccara *:=sZ,7'«, covering. 

katani*=^o cover. gai\'*= field. 

igloo (Esq.). too-pek=:^cH< (E.). 



tot. te. tee.f quauhtla *=woM«iffm. 
kak.* cata.* kat.f kidi. thalton=(?«/-</i. 
kuk^f«;'i'/(.. runii.* sal. t'ho. tqt. 
sileh. salla *=:s;'A'o«(;r. eaa.f te-sum. 
silla*=.sfo»y. ta. tot. tsk'uls. tak.* anda. 
era j^iouse. seh. acal.f tak'at^/M7Z. 
tsai. thai, calli ]^wuse. 
cro.* crim. thalli \^earth. 
caratu*=*Yowc. tsai. tupan. 
gar ; sarc=^earth ; land. 



57 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUNTIET. 



SEMrrrc. 



Caucasian. — garmi^c ircle. daba=/r//'w. misa^««r<A. 
Accadian. — kar. gaiia. mada. \\r\i=^cifi/. gin. agar, ma, 

,, ki. kill. kikn=zhome. ma-gan. king. 

Chinese. — kien. yii. yuen ; kiii=('(';Yfe. kai. 

,, eliang^(/(7;-(?e«. mak ; uk ; oc^(o««e. kan. 

„ ti ; t'u ; ki^aiid. tuh^stone, ara (Ab. Chi.) 

,, mak=/(0(«(;. hm^iouse. ]s.nt=ffar(leti. 

Egyptian. — ^kar ; X'luta ; kai ; aht ; bu==y/rtcf . 

„ ker; qct=circle. tet=fe?i(^. mem =/( /% hnd. 

,, hau=:ioi-. bu; m=ij>Iace. ari^iouse. mah^ 
land. 
TJgro-Altaic. — man ; nih=«rtr<A, land. chur. 

,, kar. aker. kyra. giri::=ploii(/h. akjer. 

,, karta. kher ; m.a,=^land. kart. tu:=(;(i!r<^. 

,, hailstone. 
Dravidian. — vc^field. tarai. tottam. 
Greek. — Bt]fn'jT)jf)z=ea)ih-ffoddess. 
E. Tartar. — gt^rr^witse. 'karT=ztown. 

„ iro, \\o^plou(jhed-land. tala. 

Egyptian. — tar^ioundary. \.iA=^town. halak=/'(M^. 

,, dar. to.x^tree. 

Libyan. — ayaw. 
Afiican. — amn^rillar/e. varo. gare^counfrij. 

,, gii'e ; kira; oko=farm. deha.=.house. 



Basque . — arecha. 

TJgTO- Altaic. — ak. ok. sa. aghag. oksa. a^he. mct-sa 
=furest (Fin.). 

„ pu. yii. khu. fu. agash. chiim. 

,, k-dyik^boat. kouii. uca^eech. mo. 

,, toke ; kandu^«to«. oks (Fin.) ; ag ; 
kug=S/-(/«('/i. 
Chinese. — kan. shu. chu. kok=7i/y7(. 

,, muk. mit. muh. mieh. chuk. 

MongoL — moo. 

Dravidian. — kan. d'lru, kadu. a.iti=Jiff-tree. 
Egyptian. — ba. t'aku. agr. tara. tar. axuu. asr. xct. 

„ tati=z.<!ti('/v. kimvn=z2jlfini . kaka=:boat. 

„ mcks=s<(Vi-. kai; A-xix^ilyh. %.A\ix-=»mch. 
Accadian. — mush. mil. gin. tir. shar^' in ulioot.^ 

,, kan. gish. kiT=wood. agga=///y/(. 
Caucasian. — che. 
African. — aka=isfick. chiti. ki. tc. ta. 

,, kana. buo. mota. hi. puicoa. igi. hi. 

„ kiiru. oke. eku. kon. ogi. mosi. 

„ ketog. BU. kogi. gi. ati. egbe. 
mocrc. muri. sadsar. tir. tera. 



Hebrew. — hir&^^castle. sadeh. 

,, kikkar=fl ^>fe/». ga.n=ffarden. 
,, gai^^heap of stones. 

Assyrian . — matum . 

,, mkin^coimtry. ginu. 

„ iiru=('(Yy. eklu. ugurru. kakkaru. 

,, kummu. n&ga.=^district. kiru. kar. 

Coptic. — iohi. aht. kar=?rtW(7, earth. 

Arabic. — ghar^a grotto. dar:=AoM.se. 

„ carria==/ar«t. dhura=:a sown field. 
,, za.r=fann, 

Phoenician. — cartha^rt ciiij. gahir. 

Amharic. — agar^countrj/. atakelt. 
, , mcdcr^and. 
,, arar=JffW; round. 



Hebrew. — shikmahz=«yc«?;ior#. 
,, 'ets. gk—hif/h. 

Assyrian. — isii. etsu. kanu. el\i=.hiffh. 
,, shaku^iiffh. zikaru=wa». 

,, kistu^forest. 

Coptic. — bo. sheu. tart^tcillow ? 

Arabic. — shajar. sidr:=lote-tree. 
,, tiunnr^^date-tree. mara. 

Amharic. — zaf. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



68 



Aryan. 



Enclosttee. 

English. — Garden, wall, enclosure, court, quarter? park, croft. 

,, ham. pen. circle, stone ? square. 

,, land, stone, \-illage. earth, mark. acre. 

„ mead, field, area. park. yard. hall. inn. 

Old English. — to ear (the land), garth, stead. 
Sanskrit. — kiiz=land. aikra^circle. kshctra. 
Persian. — khana^/«», fiotise. km'ch-:=ff lobe. 
Latin. — hortus. arare=<o jjlouffh. ager. terra=fawf7, terminus. 
Greek. — I'r/pos. li/iovpa. ^/ij ; r.j,un=^earth. ^wpu^coimtry. k^ttos. 

,, I'paz^ploughed land, epa^earth. ■)^op7o<i. Kwfuj^villayc. 

,, Te'i)(^ui=^t('llll. (hfvia^strect. 

Armenian. — alii'ii^village. dzii^circle. 
Zend. — yao. za. arta. 

Hindi, etc. — bagh. hata. hulka=c;/r<;^«. chark-ona=:s5'?<ffr«. 
Phrygian. — giuios=z(/arden. 
Polish. — oraiz. 
Slavonic. — gradu. mezo. orati = to ploin/Ji. 

,, do. gora. hataT^boundari/. Icodo. 

Lithuanian. — akmu^«/o«o. sena=M'«//. 
Celtic. — caer:=stone-circle. gardh. dal. mals ^ Jield. 

„ caer:=castle. ire. nT=ici>-cle. dabhaih. 

„ donar. llan. kil. tilh. tigh. niagh. t'oad. 

,, inan=::plain. kurt ? machair. achadh. dabhoch:=/rtrOT. 
French. — champ. Italian. — campa. 

,, maison:=7iO(/s«. carre^square. 

Scandinavian. — innc. fylki. feld. garth. 
Gothic. — ero. German. — menschen. kaito^ffarden. 
Teutonic. — gau. hof . feld. acker. 
Italian. — cortc:=court-ijard. campa. 
Anglo-Saxon. — tun=^}iedge, fence, gham^earth. 



Teee. 

English. — Cane. reed, branch, hough, wood, plant, cedar. 

,, oak. stick, shoot, pine, acorn ? 

,, tall. high. ash. son? man? boat. 

Sanskrit. — gaccha. tarn, druma. daru. tu^to grow, vriksha. 
Persian. — biik=ivak. vak^o«Z:. fakh=ira«('/i. 
Greek. — fivtpov. Kai'i'A. 7r£VK)j=:pine. ftiXor. 

1) (p)j^j6i=zbeech. 7rcTi"i^=ptne. iiXtj. Kai'iiw:=log. 

„ ^it\ia=Lash-tree. (pinoi'^zplant. 
Latin. — arbor, quercus. pinus. fagus. 
Anglo-Saxon. — furh=/?r. tun^tedge. 
Celtic. — cawn. dm. sarach. xaci^boat. 

, , bark ; corach ; curachan:= Jort^. 
Aryan. — kleu^^stem. 
Ariinenian — dzar. Slavonic, — drevo. 
Gothic. — trie. boka. 
Gonnan. — buch=fccfA. 
Lithuanian. — tschaka^branch. 
Norse. — askh=(7s/(. Frisian. — tcne=^ttrig. 
French. — tirer^fo shoot ? 
Hindi, etc. — kandh. bo. gach. bun. deo-dar? 
Punjab. — rukh. 



NoilTH. 



Amkhican. 
Central. t 



South.* 



gar;f gaTe*=land. dega. 

kat; kaka;* ku]i=atone. 

savana.* tarak ; iao^eartli, land. 

cancha ^=zgarden. cam^^house. 

kalpulU f^village land. 

za,c&\^garden. hu ; kah=;/(OMs«. 

mohl^^v ilhige. thalli.f aca^and? 

marka.*^frontier-tower. muya.* 
mak. 

nAdne^garden. amah ; amet^and. 

muy ; * ranyak^circle. in^^house. 

era;* calli f =/w!(S«. temeq*=;«fflr^/i. 

tel ; carratu*'=sfon«. daha^village. 



quauh.* khoka. heicui?* hacha.* 
sacha.f kah.* kar.f qucnua. kan. 
moUi.* meya. kan. shaak. cut.* 
piku=_/?/' tree, kahhuc. muira.*' 
haccha*=7;/(7A, great, shuwi. yah. 
hi. hue.* hi.* aa.* soochis. tze. 
kiia^^branch. sahie.* mamac* 
meyah. yahak ; cahak^^tree. gazo.* 
acotn==/?r tree, acatl^reed. 
agara*:=iort<. kagg. haca.* 
kei-yfi (Esq.) = ?wof/. ket. skat. sia. 
koik^wood. chc*=^trees. 



69 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCOEDANCES. 



Stjotet. 


Semitic. 


Chinese. — kin. kwo ; tak — spear, tao — sword; hiife. 


Hebrew. — sakkin^/v;//*. hcrch^^sword. 


„ sliik; aaXi^stone. tuk=rf(/^ ; cligl 


,, giizar^to cut. karath^fo cut. 


,, kat ; p'ik ; 'ko-na.i^to cut. chiok^cid. 


Assyrian. — kakku=:?<'«fl/'o«. 


„ su; kut^srtic. t'ik=fe<<. Wn^axe. 


„ pilakku^aj;«. agullu. 


Accadian. — kud; twc^to cut. tag^stotie. 


„ katu^fo cut. 


,, a:s.^hiife. ku ; dag^iveajfons. 


„ pat;iru=::fo cleave. nakkasu=: 


,, sheg; Aigh=stone. 


to cut. 


Egyptian. — sek; bksu. ■x^s^sword. ■x^tcm^scissors. 


„ chaclichu=^ooX-. -pain^ dagger. 


„ akes. hesq^to cut. korbi; karti ; ska,=plouffh. 


Ai'abic. — iiik\'ni^= knife. 


,, hat; sau ; x^l^^j shat ; ati=^to cut. set^ 


,, hajar^stone. kirzLn. 


,, arrow, naki; \iks=zsword. xequi^woMjjc?. 


,, jazal; jazam^«<<. 


Malay. — 'kris.zzzdagger. kapak=:«.r«. 


Coptic. — korhi=zknife. sh6t=cuf. 


TJgro-Altaic. — taka; suka=: (?.?•<■. chwc^^knife. aksjo (Lap.) 


,, magi^axe. se&=iknife. 


„ scharp. tiika. becchrik:=/i7»/(!. sogam A. kar=: 


,, onas^to saw. acutus=:c;<^. 


,, to plough; cut. lasem. 


Amharic. — dak^s^owe. 


E. Tartar. — sawa A. suka^fl.;-^. sakx^^to cut. tsakur=.si'o«f. 


„ toT^lanee. saji=^sword. 


African. — sio. sok. aka. dko^istone ; spear ; hoe. 


,, kwdar=axtf; sword. 


,, dake. azio. uka. ko ; lap^&i/i-. 'kiri^spear. 




„ qkau=to cut. m'bago. acbu ; tari=s^o«e. 




,, takxi^stone. katswra^spear. kai^hoe. 




,, sukare; anchau^ knife. ket=to cwi. 




Chinese. — ^jiang; kimg u. yi; yik ; shih A. 


Hebrew. — hets A. 


„ tsien ; ch'i A. shet (old) A. kat=ra<. 




„ shik ; sah^stone. snt^o shoot, tsit ; sok=:sw«/i!. 


„ kcsheth U- ¥u\on=dart. 


E.Tartar. — at=^to shoot, sawa A. saki=tocM<. sch=zstone. 




Caucasian. — bzey A. 


Assp-ian. — kashtu ; midpanu u. 


Aceadian. — ban; bam U. sbar; i-a=shoot. 




„ zin ; din A. 


„ issuiii^)ird. 


,, sig=to dart. sita=:rtrc. gifh^arrotc ? 




Egyptian.— set ; sun ; maka A. sat— stone. 


„ izmaru=.'!/^rt';'. ]yat\\=.dagffer. 


,, koln=/o he}id. \iR=ibird. scsu^bird. 




,, sex; shat^tocut. sn=^wij>g. st:=shoof. alok^arc. 


Arabic. — kaus u. sikkin^Z:«;/«. 


,, put U. ben^ffrc; hcnd. shu^wing, feather. 




Polynesian. — kakaka U. skuri A. 


Coptic. — ehte ; sotbef A. 


Libyan. — eknu^boic ; lend, siisii^bird. 




Ugro-Altaic. — kyot U. zaa U. soegor U. sogam A. 


„ pite u. 


,, saitc A. ock A. sirdan A. saliso:=*fowe. 




,, tern A. chii u. 


Amharic . — f elaza. k wadar= (?.iT. 


African. — kala. bcnyo ; paka ; buta U . 




„ sa; pisap ; pen; appi; sc ; pcnCa A. 


,, mezrek=«^ear. 


,, piCuma; kebia ; mtu ; pcnansoh A. 




„ cai— knife. sus\i=bird. oko=spear. kct=to cut. 


,, agoobota U. tor^/«««. 


„ koko=/(rt«(?. sor ; kowi A. baka U. 




,, kokuro=^-«ce. kako=/oo<. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



60 



Aryan. 


Amkrican. 
NoiiTU. CENTEAL.t South.* 


Axe. 
English. — knife, stone, to cut. hash, sharp, prick. 

,, hack, dagger, saw. chop. dig. hoc. anchor? 
Sanskrit. — anka=:« /«oo/i:. kor ; kutt^to cm^. 

,, asi^sword. ak=:fo cut, pierce, jaszti. 

„ In to cut. tIkshua=^om<(;(/, sharp. 

,, churikri=:A-?i//i?. 
Zend. — aka=/ioo^", point. Persian. — tahar. tawar. 
Scandinavian. — kosyas=«j»<'«r. oex. axe. hugger <o hew. 

,, Ba.x=:.sword. iriik'ki=:.sword. 
Grecjk. — affV)/. aKu>i'=^ javelin. KOTre^to cut. uKfii/^iharp. 

,, KoTTTio^to strike. uKTij^broicen. Tcvxoy=^an 

,, inntrwiient. viXeKv^. K/>iu!i>^saii!. aKij^point. 
Latin. — securis. sccare=io divide, eut. ascia. 

,, acus=:(? needle, acuuuin^sharpness. 

,, ascia. sica. Bcctio-=section. scctum. 
Celtic. — tuah=to cut. a.\irc:=knife. 

,, tah=fl.r«. (French. — tucr=:/o /cill ?) 

,, ga.th=zs2>ear. calg^sivord. qulach. 

,, twcca ; diigi^dat/ffer, sivord. 

,, cwtan^^o cut. 
German. — hecht^j!;e'Z,-«. schlrig=.s^roZ-(;. 
Armenian. — katzin. dabar. qaT^stotie. 
ShiTonic. — topor. French. — hache. 
Greek. — Te/xvw^cut. o^vi^sharp. haKveii'^=.to lite. 
Hindi, etc. — ziikham. kat=fi<<. dokha=:sfl!i«. 


kaka;* cuta;*t llachani*=fo cut. 
chuki^sjicar. ukhc ; fihe\it=z knife. 
tVMix\=.tvar. cac-sa-que. tlok^arroi^. 
kak ; 'katj^^zzstone. -pcshz::zknife. 
hashag; sc-a-pa ; kiai^knife. 
ayri.* ah-so^zaxe. kakswa=.s^on«. 
ketchka*=:a thorn. akha=io«<'. 
mokh.=knife. taqae=. 'itone. 
oonak ; kakkee-lik^/«o/-^oo» (Esq.). 
tsk'uls=oJ.s/fZ(rt«. tqta. skk'um. 
tita; k'tla; akjek^hiife. 


U Bow. A Arrow. 

English. — bond, low-stone, shoot, arc. spear, cut ? 

,, bird; feather? quick; swift; hand? 
Sanskrit. — dlianus U. (jara A. ishu A. vana A. 

„ 'kvii:=zto lend, ak ; kutt^^ c«^ shatatcA? 

,, aqY^swift. ■pa]itihm=zbird. 
Latin. — sagitta A. arcus U. us u. 
Greek. — (J? A. dicrTo's A. rdgov u. ^updv:=ra3or. 
Celtic. — saeth A. saighead A. cuing u . 

,, cuanr=s!w. 
Cypriote ? — ti A. 
Khond. — pcnju. hxaama^ knife. 
Scandina-\-ian. — bue U. or A. sax^sword. 
Zend. — aka^rt poi?if. 
Hindi, etc. — kipi A. teer A. tcz^^swift. 
Persian. — tigra A. nejeh A. 
French. — arc U. Lithuanian. — peiho:=^-»?/«. 
Anglo-Saxon. — gar A. llaro=67r(y'if. 
German. — schiossen=:to shoot, pfeil A. hechtzz: pike. 
Slavonic. — luk u. lok U. sar^circular. 
Annenian. — ujed A. agjegin. U. 
Gothic. — hilpau^; J(;«(?. 


pentat*' U . pihi* A. parau ; * pia* A. 
zii* u. sarif A. ■^a.na.^ right hand. 
us* A. siia U. itz\^;nife of stone. 
shatikh A. akha ; echote* U . sia A. 
quit A. ehiquiti;* shekt^/v^/tf. 
tsalpe ; sape ; ahso ; huia A. 
huachi* u. pesh; kiai=^;»/«. 
kala*=f7a/'<. parani.* leekshoo A. 
mahs ; pama:=^'H{/'«. tzah A. 
huira*^i/r(? {narrow ?). hma A. 
hurapar U. shui*:=Ji>(7. 
ka-kle-oke A (E.). pit-tee-kee U (E.). 
tlok A. skui A. seks ; tlk'et=U. 
ta'qoats U. 



61 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUNDET. 


Semitic. 


Chinese. — shan. gok. kau {old)^ii(fh. kok. vk^iouse. kak=;^ww. 

,, pik:=fZ/^'; peak? pok ; pei;=i«f/v. Vixu=:-head. 
Ugro-Altaic. — hegy. kurck. bor. kar. io-^head. 

,, ugha ; io^ffrcat. -ware, miigas. balkan. 

,, tau. tar. tepe. typa. kolloi^wfc/t. dagh. 

,, giireesli. biL rep. shur^/(o;-«. syrr; kolka^/(ffl(f. 

,, allok (Lap), kirg. suri=/((\/7( ; hi/;. 
Egyptian. — set. men. mer. axa; -xi^^high. tu. 

,, tep^/;^«rf; top. ur^great. x^=^ffood. 
E. Tartar. — alui. oola. ura. Burmese. — kyar. 
Dravidian. — bennu ; hcTi=^l(icl-. malai. 
Accadian. — kara. khar. aka=Lkigh. tuL ili. 

,, magh=(;;Yrt'/. dwi^^ mound; dune? 

,, 'kal^Iiigh. tag^rock, stone, sbag. Au^head. 

,, kala; mahg^grcat; high, kur^kill. 
Caucasian. — tau. mta. takt. khar^rock. 

„ dagh. tar^high. tak^great. 
African. — ora. oke. baku — (/reat. gara. 

,, kura^^;'f«/. ko ; tii^sfone; rock, kak^^stotie. 

,, hoTiga^high. sara. ikunda. boro. 

,, ori; agha:=/ic«fZ. mayo, biquaau. 


Hebrew. — hor. harr. harar ? 

,, gib' ah {gah^back). 
Chaldoean. — tur. 
Assyrian. — shadu. tillu. ilu^^'orf; 

,, Jiigh. arknz^back. kardu^ 

,, strong; brace. Tesh.i-:=peak. 

„ rakdu^much. 
Syrian. — turo. 
Arabic. — jabal. tel. till. 

,, sagri=:i«e^-. rewq'^Aorw. 
Coptic. — toon. tu. 
Phoenician. — tyrc^roei- ? 
Amhaiic. — tarara. dubt. 

,, talak^great. toT=lance. 

,, dak^stone, rock. 

„ paUah ? 


Dravidian. — aneka=»(««y. mahattana. malai^mountaitt. 
Accadian. — mahg. aka. gud. lig. dug. ne. ili:=high. 

,, au ; ganr=/i;y//(. 
Chinese. — da. kok. kao. inh— high. bak. 

,, hao ; bu; kxi^good. ta. aiig^=high. 

,, mok. mu:=w«c/(. min. 'kwx^^many. 
TJgro-Altaic. — magas. h6wa=(70o<?. huv^^good. 

„ dagh. agha:=ZwY7. paca. ki. kar. 

,, koich. arko. haY=:high. pirzc. ma^. 
Egy|)tian. — a^a- kai^high. hi-:^iipper, higher. 

„ ]ivq=ki)ig. 

„ x'U ; vxwx^good. tcx^^weight. ka^hull. 
Caucasian. — maghla. tar. dagb:=/i//^. moka^/icaciy. tak. 
African. — baka. ora ; gara^^iiioioitain. kolu. tu. kak=«fow«. 

,, boro. ori^head. eku. bua. oduku. kura. 


Hebrew. — gU'eh^high. rabb=: 

„ great. 
Assyrian. — paklu^«<roH^. 

,, rabu. madu. shakii. 

,, emuku. eKi:=high. 
Amharic. — dubr^ mountain, talak. 

,, amrak. 
Phoenician. — melek=Z:/«y. 
Arabic. — kabir. rcwq'=^o>'M. 
Coptic. — naa. masha=?«McA. 

,, nasht^sirong. 


Egy])tian. — peh=J«/^c/-s. past; ti.'S=zback. tci^=head. iaizz^hody. 

,, tas^stand? ncxt=^strong. kha(t)=:Je//y. 
Accadian. — kur; tag^hifl; rock; stone. 
Chinese. — pei ; ^ok— hack, iiih— high. hak=great. 

,, lyat^foot; stand, kok^ihill. ka]>^top? 
■ Indo-Chin. — kyaw. piya=///'rtf7. hachur=/«'W. tau; ko ; iio=Mll. 
Polynesian. — Y)00=:head. ainos. poro=A/(/. 
Thibetan. — pV- 'py'i. = Miind. haA\=hcad. 
Dravidian. — bennu. purcni. pin; ■pmtiz=behi}id. 
Hindi. — pet; pceth=J('//y ; back. 

Caucasian. — tep=«<o«e. bugb:=iffrZ:. topti ; teh^stone. 
Ugro-Altaic. — put. zurt. buko. khopp. niaeha. kurek:=/(;7/. 

,, tci)C=hiU. tcT[>=kead; top. dngli— hill. (peka=i«%.) 
African. — baku ; kma^great. tu ; ko ; slak ; kak-^stone. 


Coptic. — !i])i=.head. 

,, nasht^s</'«»(?. 
Assyrian. — arkuz:=.back. 

,, paklu::=.v^;w;y. 
Hebrew. — gab= irtcA-. 
Amharic. — dak=.s7o;(6' ; rock. 
Syriac. — turo^/(/W. 

(See also, " Crooked.") 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



62 



Aetan. 


Ajieiucan. 

NOKTH. CE.NTKAL.t SoUTU.* 


Mountain. 
English.— hill. peak. neck, etone. rock. horn. 

„ high. head. hack. pike, tree ? great, big. 

,, shoulder ? pillar ? shap. fell. dune. 
Sanskrit. — kuta ; kakwiz^ peak, adari. giri. 

„ parvata. maha=^/Y«i. txi^to (/row ? 

,, iicca^hicfh. stui)i\^ tope. 
Hindi. — ghiit^mountain-pass. koh. gii'i. puhar. 
Punjab. — adari ? koh. rob. 

Persian. — khoo. kuh. jiik=ishoul(ler. ]yd\nz=/ii(/h. shuru^Aorre. 
Greek. — o/>af. TrsTpa^^rock. ttu^os. koXiovo^. av-x^ijv^ncck. 

„ Kajja^head. oKpi'i-=:.rocky peak, ftax'^j vuna'!'::^back. 

,, y^ujfuf^mound. 
Latin. — mons. coUis. altus=/;/;/A. collum^«cf/i;. tergum=i«fX-. 
Celtic. — mam. torr. ard. pen. mor=^ r/reai. 

,, man. maen. cottudh. cruach. cairn. 

,, monadh. tyr. tor. tur. bal. knock. 

,, cu\=:bnck. duna. dun. 
Scandinavian. — hoU. brekla. kaugr^»JO?<H(^. hogdc=Ae/yA<. 
Armenian. — dar=;/H7/s. bar. sar. qar=:rock. 
Zend. — hara. tau ? hvland^^hiffh. 

Bokhara — tag, Lithuanian. — rags:= 7(o;'». 
German. — hugcl. hoch ; hlihc^hiff/i. 

,, berg. hug=ishoul(ler. riicheii^hack. staTk^stronff. 
Slavonic. — gora. hrib. rog=zhorn. (? Eng. = /"oc^.) 


quauhtla.* orcu.* arcu.* hoo-tah. 
te ; tee ; tepo ; f tiin=zrock. callu ? * 
])eghe*^head, peak. ahhi. ku^rock. 
tuk^stone. xanth.f ikah^head. 
era ;* coca*^/((/««'. toak. or. k'eq. 
kiikhii* ^toj) of a ht'll, peak, 
knh^rock. 

daj^ffreat. k]iol\o^'r=strot/g; hill. 
niixh.''^'z=head. a'M:\i=^»mch. orcu.* 
atun ; manoho ; f haccha ; * liucy* 

pan ; toro=zhead. hitk;i^ Iiii/h. 
pata.* japa.* ogha\=(rod. chahta. 
makta=.s7ro«y. hacix*^(ree. 
qua.u.\i*=ifree. gn^/icad. kaac. 
khnta,* =:ffood. iikkn^ffreat. 
tee-pee. hitka^/(/^/t. smant. 
takat, apoo^/(ertrf. 


Great. 
English. — much. many. good. high, strong. 

,, big. duke? enough, mountain, chief. 

,, tree. long, heavy. rick=ro//«J. 
Sanskrit. — mahfi. aga. kratu. gaccha=<r«e. 

,, mahriraja;=j)nwc«. mahatva. tavas. tu^sfroiiff? 
Slavonic. — mnogee. Zend. — mese. Hindi. — hara. 
Greek. — fiiya^. Tra'/o^^^hill. ev^good. KapTo^. ?}y9. 

,, KpnTeiv. pay^L^'^back. fyA/as-. jiapv's'^^.heavi/. 
Latin. — magis=:^;-(;rt<. dux=:7ffl'n'cr. magister=;»jos<«r. 
Celtic. — hir. huan=sMM. yi. mor. \R-M\:^good. 

„ ard. kun. hu ?=:(•/«>/, lord. Aia^God. 

„ orda. erg. dag^yooi^. 
GeiTnan. — hoch ; hohe = /;/(//*. mancher. dick. 
Hindi. — oon'cha=/j;y/i. look. 


haccha.* huey.* hue=:s!m ? nim.f 
hockimk^/^V/Zi. manaho.f hitke. 
mach^»(M(7(. makta^yo«»^, strong. 
da.f aach ; micck\^=iiiuch. 
a]\i=zgood. pacha.* koti.d=^sfrong. 
raanra.f ogiman^c/iief. mishi. 
oghaj-^God. na. gi-chi^great. 
hitka:= high, ajar;* ajar'^'zzzchief. 
mochi=:w«c7(. la^good. 
hanak^above, on high. huco=^good. 
pacha;* zac\iti=zgreai. haca*=i!/-«e. 
ca9ique*=;cA(is/'. k'eq ; ([utit^mang. 
ato ; ai ; ia.=zgood. hukz=good. 


Back. 

English. — behind, body? buttocks? shoidder. belly? mountain. 

,, strong? great? erect, stone? head, bent? 
Sanskrit.- — prishtha? kakud; parvata=/(/W. qak^ra^rti/f^. 
Greek. — inriait). Trv^cfj'^buttocks. TrA'^io^'^JitU. fni^L'}. 
Celtic — torr; pen^/«i7Z. m.um=zback. 

Old Norse. — baust. Persian. — pusht. kuh^skoulder. 
Hindi, etc. — koh; pa'har; tope=;A(7/. peeth=JrtcX-. 
German — bauch=i('%. riicken. llussian. — specna. 
Latin.— tergum. dorsum. 


titi. maahuh.* tope=;7((//. 
]}cghe*=:peak; hill; head, 
jjam^bellg. 

apoo ; pu=/(«fff7. tee ; ku=;-oc7;. 
tepetlf=rofi-. deri=:bellg. 
tebou ^-^stone. pacha * ^great. 
dat^i'o stand up. -piita^mountain. 
tetl;f kat=«to««. 



63 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUNDBT. 


Semitic. 


Acoatlian. — zi=sow. fihoT^iftle. te:=cliild. 
Chinese. — tzi=.so?i. siao ; wei^Mle. shao^/otmff. 
TJgro-Altaic. — kis ; hcna^iftle. su ; pii ; sakko=:«£)«. 

„ liene. kis. sakko ; sua; simi^.50». 

,, ksil; kistin. pieni; pei wuz (Lap.)=sow. 
Egyptian. — sa — son. nem ; sher — little. 

„ shevaxi=i!/OH>i(/. nem^iitle. 
MongoL — occai ; cliuken^so?i. asika^yoJ^Mi/. 
Polynesian. — keiclii^f7;/W. 
Caucasian. — koton. bislii=.son. 
African. — kiki; okere — little. kuko:^chiclcen. 

,, dson. nana. 


Hebrew — ben=so«. tsi'iT^ittle. 

,, katon=:little. 
Assyrian. — sakhi-u. isu. shenii. 

„ zeru; maru ; piteku=c/(;'W. 

,, pischu; Vissu^goung ; bird. 
Coptic. — sheri^so?;. kudshi? 

,, kongi^i ttle. 
Amharic. — tanash. ledsh:=«o». 

teket? 
Arabic. — ibn:=«o?j. qagh\T=liitle. 


Chinese. — ^'ak—soul. ung. bam. ki— spirit. 

,, ch'ui. jin. t'ien. tsui. 
Mongol. — ula;he. ki=/(7t'. shalki. 
Accaclian. — ama. inii. zu. ti. tu. -pi^nose. pa. 
Egyptian. — nef . ka^^^os^. maa ?^air. 

„ a.VL-x=life. ta. ncicr^ c/ood. he&^tojl;/. ha^soul. 
Polynesian. — matangi. raka^^/vrnd-ffod. 
Kurile. — kceru. 
Ugro-Altaic. — tuul. pag (Lap.), tol. u'at. mase. pei. 

„ sliil. waim. at. yel. cliarru. ang=r?w«e. 
Caucasian. — kaha. kari. Basque. — aitz. 
Dravidian. — velu. kcU. 
Mongol. — salki. 
African. — pepa^/o hlow. pheho. Vi-oi^ird. 

„ io^io breathe, mi. 


Assyrian. — sharu. pu. riitu. 

,, amatu:=!t'orf?. napistu. 
Hebrew. — 6ph=:i(Vrf. ru^. 

,, nashaf^to blow. a.na.i=^breatk. 

P"X- 
Syriac. — nekhire=wo«<r(^s. 
Coptic. — aph^Hose. 
Amharic. — nefas. 
Arabic. — rih. 


Chinese. — t'ien. ti. jin. chio. kwa — M(/h. 

,, hu^ffod. te^^;o!<.rr. tsai=:to rule. 

,, ka ; ta=:Iii(/h, great. kon=zstar. 

„ kung; k\m=kin{jf. chu=:lord. liao=zffood. 
Indo-Chinese. — ko^ffreat. 
Thibetan.— sha. 
Ugro-Altaic. — agha. asa. kan. kaiza^.??<ra. 

,, ala. ■padshai^ch ief, lord. tara. khun=.?!iw. 

,, ki\\x=Lmoon-goddcss. beg. djar. pa. kaiza=.SM'«. 

,, jcu. ut. ur. 
Accadian. — u. su=.sm». mwn^dng. dupi^ffond. 

,, un. kiin ; hn^brig/if, glorious. uku=X'(«^. 

,, yAr^brig/it. gu=/>c. aka^great. 

,, kur; '^nr^zstrong, great. 
E. Tartar. — kaau. chcu=//>r«<. khaw^cing. namm. 

,, liurchan. — hane^«/o^. 
Egyptian. — ntr; aim; hn&^r^good. x'u; k'l^good, high. 

,, fiar; haq ; utiz^/ciiig. fiah^ight. a;^a=(/rcrt<. 

„ mn-x':=goud. Osir(is). 
Caucasian." — bhaga. 
African. — oba. kauk. hon. auz^zsun. kuru. 

,, kion=«<n. kaka. soko. kanu. 

„ zoo. sochus. juko. cyoz=good. znzu:=god. 

,, mahhu^^oorf. k\iii:=chie/. ani ? 


Hebrew. — Jah. el. s^ax^prince. 

,, rahh=zgreat. 
Assyrian. — Bel. llu. enu=/or(?. 

,, sharru=:^7'«y. belu^fo^;^. 

,, keni^tjood. malikiiz^ch ief. 

,, ishatu=^r«. shamshu^sMW. 

,, rahu=^)r/Hfe. 

,, ellu=9/o/-;'oMs. digiru. tahu=: 
good. 
Arabic. — allali. tajjib^^oor?. 

„ malik:=^-/w_i7. sliaikh=:f7(K;/l 

,, kiihir^c/reiit. khair:=^oof/. 
Coptic. — nouti. -non^=.good. 
Phoenician. — melek=^7'«y. 
Amharic. — amlak. ha.go:^good. 

,, jazer. zer. esger. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



64 



Aeyan. 


AllfKRICAN. 

North. CuN'ruAL.f Soi-rii.* 


Small. 

Enslisli. — little, son. wee. sLort. 

Sanskrit. — annka. knQa. 8U = ^ leyct. 

Hindi. — \i\w\\\x=ilitlle. soot=:«o». pi'siir ; bin ; pootr=:«ow. 

Celtic. — guehi. meac ; zen=:;«o». bug. bycban. 

Greek. — /juKpoi. rcKvou^child. Trat^'=:zgirl. /S/iuxi"'- 

Latin. — natus=«o?». puer=ioy. parvus, esiguns. 

Frcncli. — petit. Persian. — pisr=so« . 

Slavonic.— kussa^.s7(or<. 

German. — klcin. scli-\vaeh. solin=so?2. 

Armenian. — pokr. tziek. 

Scandinavian. — sniaa. Gotliic — sunus^.s'ora. 


ecnck ; na ; cin ; * tzi ; nutz(.'=so». 
'k.ooii]\=^little. chichi. f cliupi.* 
taka ; hake^sore. sie.f -[iKi^^little. 
peeskcc ; pusau=40M. eenek=:«o». 
hua;f saka=:«o«. no7n=:so». 
siex? Q,h\—boij. mikkee (Esi].). 
kuie'sa. aba. 


Wind. 
English. — air. broatli. to blow. life. soul, nostril. 

,, ghost, spirit, puit. tempest, bird? 
Sanskrit. — Ya::=breat/ie (root) an. asxira,=::.ipir!t. 

,, vayu. vaq^fo speak, vad. dbu^^ s/icil-e. 
Latin. — anima.^S;-f«;'/(, life. aura. aer:=«;>. 

,, vcntus. vates^rt ^;rOj«7(«< {divine afflafux). 

„ yitis— life. Eo\us=tvind-(/od. vox, \ocis— voice. 
Greek. — u^'jp- «*'/>'*• "V/^'^^o blow. Trvew. uve/iio^. vaus'^shi'p. 

,, (pvadu):=fo blow. TrXilv^to sail. \l/-v\)j^soul. 

German. — Tp6S^piiJf. nachcn^=ship. 
Celtic. — chwa. gwyn. anaid. 
Russian. — vutree=iY is wind//, vyeter. 
Lithuanian. — vesas. 
Hindi. — hawa. lena? 
Armenian. — hog'm. 


vahcre.* yah. ike. wayra.* vateca.* 

poham. aha. 
takhii.f ano *:=«%; god'i vfohi^ieavens. 
puhu.* nunn=s/;»-!<. xaora^soul, spirit. 
uk ; pah=no.s?. haca ; * su=///(;. iala. 
h'hah. su=life. huiiira.*=mind. 
naual ^=zspirit ; force, 
ank^iouse [?^ife). yoli=?//«. 
puc'hura '^'= feather. ha=:mouth. 
chi^^motith. kikua *^speech. 
pah=«os(;. hcnka:=n ostril. qai^mout/i. 
fx-no-ee; towing-a=.'i^j//7Y (Esq.). 
iroucanf=&i'i7. vok; vaku*=J(rc?; toflg. 


God. 

English. — great spirit, sun ? king. good. 

,, many, much (great), captain, duke. 
Sanskrit. — pati^for;^. -pa^ruler. ae:a.=zmountatn. 

,, snr:=ffood. deva. siva. i\i]i\=zkinff. mahaz=ff rent. 
Latin. — deus, dei. 

Greek. — Zews. Oed^. Kvpie^O Lord ! KiiXHts:; €v=zf/ood. 
Gothic. — tiiisco. Teutonic. — tio. 
German. — 'Kerr=^masfer. 
Slavonic. — dzieu. czar, perron. diiho^=spirit. 

,, Bog; Bogu. korolee=Z7'«r/. 
Persian. — pasha, shah, 'kon^sim. kuda. khuh^^ffood. bagh. 

,, khoda=:.sr//-c;-(Y/^(Y7 ? 
Armenian. — dcr^ord. Astouadz. 
Celtic. — huan=.s'»«. hor^(/iriif. c\m=:lo?-d. 

,, ia\^:i/if/. diu. yi. hu ? Pictish. — i[cn=zsHn. 
Scandina%-ian. — kon^rr chief or great man. 
Teutonic. — mannus=ls< man, and son of Tuisco. 

„ _ k6nig. 
Phrygian. — saba (? sun-god). 
Zend . — Ahura-mazda^.sK^)>v';H^ spirit. 
Sanskrit. — bhadra^/7oorf. asura=«^;//'('<. 
Hindi. — khoo'da. uUah. rub. 


Ilhui cahuaf^wft.'ii'cr of heavens, sun. 
ken=/?re. ken.* tsaf=:^JO(f<'r. 

a\tir*:=eJiief. ata. 
alli*"=//oof/. ogha.f du. eha. teo.f tu.f 
quallo ]^=good. teotl.f te-wa^good. 
tuYiii^great. teotes=:«7:y ; dag. 
te=.si<)«. tattsa.* haccha*=y;-M^. 
khon=«?(». ogimau:=cliief. hunab-ku.f 
paeha-camac *=;//«> creator, god. 
perruna-monuri.*' niou. hun^^r«. 
ogi. hatun^great. illu=»;oo«. 
hooe ; huai.* heue. h\ic=isun. 
yah;* tshi^.s2<». huain *=/?«. 
avf^people. tupanna.* ku.f 
manco-capac*^l.s^ Per avian Icitig. 
tcuehlitli=((.Y»--(7//('/'. atof =;yoo^. 
manito=i'//e great spirit, 
a.tawlu.'^^prince. sibu.f zibo.f 
maiuihof=i//r(7<. pacha ^^y/rfff". 
tcpeu=A('«y ; ruler. 



65 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SuNBBr. 


Semteic. 


E. Tartar. — pata. tukia. garssn—feafJier. gascha. 
Chinese. — mao. ki. pi=bik. tsiao. kiao^cock. 

,, gxa^wild (joose {f/ander). 

,, tui ; Um^icitiffs. hui ; fei ; pi; pit=fo_/?y. 

,, tsni^icind. iiiao. clmi ; \u=zfoJf!/. 
Etruscan.— cu " B." 
Accadian. — tu. gliu. pak '? i^a=icii/r/. tin. 

„ mu-shin. sig ; id-ghu.^eci//Ie. dik^^ dart, zu^ 

tVltlff. 

Caucasian. — neki=fo_^y. husi^tojfi/. kotu^/;f«. 
Egyptian. — aa. ta. sesa. 

,, af; ap; pai; pi; patex; ]ic&=tofi/. 

„ achom=n'(tffIe. 

,, maa ; shu^icin// ; feather. hak=^hmvlc. \a])^ibi.i. 
TJgro-Altaic. — kakai:=<'of/-. kush. surum. kooscli. enek^ 
to fly. iy\'^-:=ifeather. kuruk=*'rty^«. tual = 
feather, kum. gum. kuk. ju^ivhiff. 
AMcan. — pig. pese. susn. pcrat=/oir/. 

,, csu. ho. henam. pitli. pakue. 

„ 'kxiko^chicke/i. papa=fo _/?;/. hu. 

„ oho. \rd=^to f/o. ^oi^ird. kono. 

„ mo. elu. eye. mesin. ezo^bee. 


Hebrew. — 6ph. kiinai^wing. 
Assyrian. — issuru. pischu ? 

,, gappu=?cm^. parashu=io_/?y. 

„ zikiku; sh^xM—wind. 
Arabic. — tair. 
Coptic. — apoi. 
Amharic. — af. semh^ofli/. 


Chinese. — pa. she. sia. ze. Tnin. seh — tongue. 
Egyptian. — sep. seta, hefi ? 

,, nait; shra^sacred serpent. 
Libyan. — azen. Caucasian. — gweli. 
Bunnese. — ngah=/?»'A. 
Accadian. — zir. su=///j. i-u-sh. 
Dra vidian. — nagam. 

Ugro-Altaic. — nanza. ezdissa. nsA.em.^tongiie. 
African. — nya. ze. si-weba. zebe. sa. 

,, \)-AZ'A^izard. edso. agua. ewa. kadi. 

„ nyoka. noa. boare=/sA. nyo. 


Hebrew. — nim=/fs7(. 

,, tzepha'. nahash. sarajih. 
Assyrian. — su'u. 
Arabic- — haiyat. ghul. 
Coptic. — hof. a!i])ez=tonfft(e. 
Amharic. — zando. 


Dravitlian. — kappal. padagu. toni. kaikal=<ree. 

Kurile. — tschip ? 

Chinese. — bat. 'kaw^trunk of tree. muk=i'/-(?<? ; house. 

,, ch'-\Ten. lorcha? ch'nk. pu. tao. pac. 
Egyptian. — baka; kaka ; ha.— tree. 

„ qaqa. kari. ban. scket — ark. 

,, maxen. mah^oa/-«. ma».l=itvind. h'wii^iouse. 
Caucasian. — nawi. t'argi. kaf. 

Accadian. — 'ka.ry^.tree. mak ; ■ma=iship. Wkn^ioiise. 
Ugro-Altaic. — kaic. kayik. hajo. filiki. 

„ kyna ; clia ; i\\.\vdk=.tree. kireb. 
„ djaw. kcbe. knp. konti^^tree. 
African. — bwata. sanduk. kuku. oko eya. ogbo. 

,, kanowa. kokua koye:=!'/-ee. achu. 


Assyrian. — elippu. 

„ kanu=raM«, tree. 
,, m\i=^watcr. 

Coptic. — goi. 

Hebrew. — tebah^rt^Vi:, chest. 

Arabic. — dhow, fclukah. 
„ markab. 
■ ,, fulk. qarib. sambook. 

Amharic. — markab. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



66 



ApTAIf. 



North. 



American. 

CENTUAL.t 



South.' 



linu). 
English. — to fly. wing, feullicr. I'uwl. liawk. pen ? hen. 
cuckoo, cock, to shoot, wind? paiTot. pigeon? fly. 
Sanskrit. — pat=fe_//y. pakshin. apat. 

„ \)\\i=^to fij. paksha=:«f«j^. vaka=«'rt««. 

,, krika=cro;f. kukkuta=(;o(!/i;. 

C. Indian. — urc. orak. 
Lithuanian. — musia=fe fy. 
Latin. — phimn ; penna=/i'«Mf;'. apis. 

,, picus=ci«7i;oo. aquihi^cff//i(6'. Fr. aiglo. 
Greek. — inlpovz^Livinil. tipi'ii. 7r\cir^to sail. (pevyeii>^:=toJ?>/. 

Albanian. — fod^ow. 

Celtic. — poviscd. fag. piotd^^j^y ; dove. 

,, eun. iun. iio^feathcr. \iQaca.T!i:z^fo fij . 
Slavonic. — ptitsa ; pteatza ; ptak=S//YZ. mucha^ff_^y. 
German. — vogal. fliegen=/o /('y. schicssen=fo shoot. 
Zend. — macbas=/('//. (Latin. — musca.) 
Armenian. — thrchoun. \)&A.-^(luck, 



Snake. 
English. — fish ? viper, adder, tongue ? newt ? 

,, asp. seiiJent. [bowels? god? Hyde Clarke.] 

Sanskrit. — qesha. ahi. sarpa. 
Hindi, etc. — samp. mar. 

,, sankln. carawilli. karait. 

,, kupper. gokurah=c(/J/-(? ? 

Persian. — azhder. 
Latin. — serpens. sei'po=fo creep. 
Greek. — ocj^i's. e'x''^- i^Kw\)j^=^ivoriJi. 
Armenian. — ots. 

Celtic. — sarf. nathair. neitb". ghar. 
German. — seldange. 
Scandinavian. — nadr. skammi. 



Ship. 
English. — boat, tree ? canoe, ark. dug-out. bark, skiff. 
Sanskrit. — udaka^wafer. nau. 
Scandinavian. — snekja. knori. skuta. kane. 
Geraian. — segel=«(r;7. nachen=ziort(!. kahn. 
Dutch. — cahute. 
Latin. — navis. scapha 
Celtic. — curaclian {coracle). vaq=^hoat. 
Persian. — nau. 
Lithuanian. — trouks. 
Slavonic. — karawi. bot. zuwik=;/?.s7;. 
Anglo-Saxon. — bat. 
Greek. — vaus;. aKevos. Kiiirn^zoar. 



naku ;* anka*=c(;///('. vidicre*:=it'/»YZ. 
hue.* pa-hue^/o ////. pa^(a»fZ; iving. 
guere.* huira.* huakam^fo call. 
palinani*=foy/y. pat-pa:=i4v'»y. 
huaka^/(«;t'/.;. kukaia. pisku.* penasscc. 
tsit. piksi=/efl^/(«-. sinwa. 
shui ; 'knkn-^feather ; hird. pipil.* zit. 
poena.* she-ah ; touhanna; \m.\wn= feather. 
kaenne. patnani*=^j ^y. ma-ak=c«;/^tf. 
zaquif=/o _/('//. tzuli.* jn-la-^a^^turkeij . 
pu-hu=i«';'«f/. naku*^i!C/'o». vok.f 
aha ; hw.xrn^'^trind . 
mou. huku.* slir)61(]ok=/'rff//;«- (E.) 
■mit-t\k=.duck (E.). totli. ts'ek. spiyu. 
raiJoV^duck. niamic=:_/!'y. 
maran::=/«aM7i:. 



nangar. katari.* atosis. noheer. 
amari.* boa.* sebh. kebi.f tebek.f 
kenebak. wa-ka. koh. coatl.f shi-giva. 
okt. esheista. shardee. 
see-see-ah. tenilla*=:foM^Me. x'hoke. 
oik, si'tiem. 



chimaum. shimah ? kajak ; kei-yat (Esq.) 
huampu.* canona.* kaoua. \iak.{x-:^wind. 
jahak^ztree. cahak. shakah. atqes. 
khoka; ket ; kah ; hue=^;w. k'an=^/-tfe. 
piraga, quermua, huaqnera.* pah-a. 
oomidk (Esq.). kee-yu^ icoo(? (E.). 
na-pak-to (Esq.) = ^re«. wah-lee. 
kuinetl. squam. k'aiq=!coof?. 
ya'uk. ne'quitl. qsa. kanu*=/?sA. 



67 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SiTNDEY. 



Semitic. 



Malay. — mati. Biiiincse. — ncthe = Mack. 
Chinese. — ku. k'ut (old), mut. mi. mo. hi. 

,, tsut. pat = fo hill. kik = 5/oof/. sliiit = ^'(7/. but. 
Accadiau. — miid = Wo«/. mug? laxL^icar. dug? 

„ kukwa. gul=^o (hstroij. "bad=(/(e. ki-magh=fo^?^. 

,, gha = ^ dedroy. vaXxX — bad. 

„ iiSL]s.\\= to sacrifice. 

E. Tartar. — Qch.e = lad. Turkish — ghoul = r///os^ 

Ugro-Altaic. — kaloma = death . margh = deatli. 

„ miu'he. \\Axa = lJacl;. mara=fo kill, maiia. 

,, taro ; gerra=soldier. teulo = ^o»i5. (3hmefk = (!o (?«'(.'. 

Etruscan. — kulma=^OH(J? nat= to kill, cul ? 
Egyptian. — mut. mates, mer. tox = '^o kill. 

„ x(^r\x = ivar, soldier, sek. 

„ -xa^eorpse. ak; meru = /0MJ. axei'=enemi/. 

,, iiiaka = to fiffht. 

,, amviiti = irades. neqer^to fiffht. -n.(ik.\= dagger. 

„ tu; raZ\t = had. raashii= soldier. sc'p = to kill. 

African. — mutu. nigii. ku. maku. idu. 

„ mimet (Berber), mutwajia. mayi. 

,, menfo. kukwa. m-mut. moti. nagu. 

,, dakc. kakwa. kikwa. shule. i\ = Mack. 

,, ko ; kawe. kase=!tw. \.a.=litter, had. 



Dravidian. — karuppu = black, ira. 

Caucasian. — jeg=i«rf. scri = nigjit. 

Ugro-Altaic. — bak. keka; haika = i«(?. kara = ?.i/«('X'. gi (Fin.). 

,, mik. jdn ; am = black, sin (old) = .s/fZ:. 

Chinese. — 'kvk = ni(/Jit. ak^bad. hak {o[tl) = black. mek. 
E. Tartar.— eche = A(/f7. 
Accadian. — tuku; suko. nko. kaka=i(Vi'f;'. dakt'= dead. 

,, ak; gig=.s?ri-. gul. nga=«o^. neti; timc=black. 

,, kukki = ?;fff/. 

Egyptian. — u^a ; ]i.v\i = }iic/ht. aVa — eril. 

,, ■Xii = deiiiii)i. mat; i\sti = bad, nasfi/. 

„ scnk = black. mak = bad. ix-xv:v=e7iemg. 

,, \L't[ni = u:oiind. ariki = 7«frf, evil? 

,, tn = bad. ahai = .sa7;. (jerh. xa^t=(?«r/i:. 

Libyan. — ikma=/^ hurts [ = pain). 
African. — n'ko. kigi. vik\\i\ = black. 

,, tuku. i\;\\i(i=dead. kaka; 'ka.=bitter. 

„ ii('ti = Wrt(7c;. kukwa=:rfrar/. nga=?«o^. 

{!i\hl=bad. 'k6ke.=old. dudu=W«cA. 



Hebrew. — maveth. meth = fo?'/««. 

,, qatal=^77Z. mut = <o die. 

Assyrian. — mutu. tabakhu = ^ kill. 

„ matu=fo die. kabru=y/-ffi-e. 

pagru. 

,, s.x-a\hi.= Hades. 

,, jmtu = dead. dakii=<o kill. 
Arabic. — maut. mat = 7(e died. 

,, sadaka=rt7/».s. 

„ makbara = <owi. lcU. = nigJd. 

,, makarib=^r««s<«; sacrifices. 
Coptic. — mon. mori ? 
Amharic. — mot. makabar=(!owJ. 



Hebrew. — la\i-=nigJit. 'ikkesh = c;'oo^'(;(?. 

,, ra'g = J(^rf. 

Coptic. — ki-h. ka.'ke = dark. ru\ic = erening, 

„ eushe. egorh. 

Arabic. — azra(\ = black; blue. tziU.=s/iadoiv. 
Assyrian. — daku ; tabakhu = ^o kill. 

,, akii^ wicked, hi' shu = ici eked. 

,, da'ummatu = (7rrr/'«ffss. 

,,' sa'mn = dark, sillu = s7(fl(7<?. 
Amharic. — ^Ict. kefoo=iarf. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



68 



Aktan. 



Death. 



English. - 
Sanskrit.- 



-to die. coi-pse. to kilL bury- war. 
mummy, maim, battle, murder, destroy. 
— naq. mrityu (root=mri) ]\im = io kill. 

,, d}iuta = dead. makta, = ajiffhter. 

,, maraya=<o crush. niali=<o immolate. ]ia.Ta=u'ar. 

,, niiika=saeri/ice. kala. 

,, ^arin = sold irr. sagh= /o Z-///. 
Hindi. — 'ma.rn9. = to kill, nina^dcad. kubr; jnuz' aY=(/rave. 
Latin. — mors, mortis. Miirs^ffod of iciir. hcUuva =war. 

„ nex. necarc=fo kill. mori = fo die. 

„ inanes = Jiades. tehim= weapon. 
Spanish. — muerto. Ang. -Saxon. — quclan=fo perish. 

French. — moiirir. dcml=iiiounii/iff. g\icric=tvar. 

,, tuer=fo kill. 
Celtic. — mort. maw. marw. ])neta.=soldier. marb. 

,, tuam = ^ow(J. meath. masu. atbal = ^o ^p;- ('«/(. 
Scandinavian. — dod. deja. val. hcr=soldier? m'6rt = dark. 
Gennan. — mat. tod. todtcn = fo kill. schwert=«wo/Y/. 
Lithuanian. — mirti = fo die. 
Albanian. — x ''/^<' ='<''""• 
Slavonic. — mertvee. mroh. moru. 
Lycian. — guar =to»il>. 
Greek. — veKpo<s=dead. 0vm. re/wio. Kap=soldier. 

,, KiiK6i = bad. fia-x^rj=l)(lftle. 7rrtZ'fia = Corpse. 

„ X'''l'f"l — ii'or. /nttX)j = baUle. Ta(po'i = tomb. 

Zend. — nac^u = corpse, mrt. miu'd. mar. 
Hindi. — m\u-da= corpse. 
Armenian. — mah. 



NOKTH. 



Amekicin. 

CENTHAL.t 



SofTH.* 



mietlan.f mutu.f mucan. iiaka*=fo kill. 
tcmietiaf = fo kill. mou = fo die. k'oi. 
mara;* mean; mai-ani;f ma-v,-Vi=io kill. 
duj = death, meca; nakhani* = fo /tj//. 
nekiitidi* = death. toca,=to bury (Otomi). 
amaya. totlacf =co»7;.s«. tocaf=fo bury. 
umanu.* makana*=f/«J. miqiiij = to die. 
malkif =('(»7;«e. mikkaf = fo;«5. ongul. 
meme. mui=j'joMo«. ma]ki* = iimmmi/? 
muickit. m.ul\i\=dead. huanu*=fo die. 
maran*=» club ; falcon. akka=«A7-0M>. 
tua=fo kill. raixV i\,=sacrif ice. ziik. 
kari; gix-wi] = zvar ; soldier. ka=!t'«r. 
mate = f/ff;7.:. 
tlela'mas. elka. t6'aqan=fo /i(7/. 



XlGHT. 

English. — dark. bad. evil, hard ? black, blind. 

,, shade, sin. (negation), pain. ache. etc. 

Sanskrit. — nakta. agha = .s/K. ratri. \o\-=pain. 

„ kashta = Sffrf. i:;ya.ma = blaek. gup = fo hide. 

,, 'kida^black. giih = to hide. 

„ ratri. 

Zend. — aghe = bad. Persian. — siah = black. 

Hindi. — kharab = bad. kala; si'yah = Wri'cZ,-. 
Greek. — KiiK6<i = bad. vv^=night. aKia=shadoiv. /u,e\a<!. 

,, uxo^=pain, ache. tlTi] = hurt. ovic = not. 

,, Sijr'i/Lia=pain. aixftij — sharp; pointed. 

Celtic. — doe. torca; poc ; dorch ; duh}i=black. be. ce. 

,, dhu. iioco = night. nocht. oidcho. 

„ dorchadas. gaTii = bifter. 

Latin. — mgeT=black. nox, noctis. oTcus=hades. 

,, ciscus — blind. 
German. — nacht. schlecht= irtrZ. niuht = )tot. 
Slavonic. — noo. mrak. 
Old Norse.- — rok = dark. 

Scandinavian. — hlakka. = black. iyior]s. = darkness, sort. 
Armenian. — seaw = black, dew = deril. 
French. — soir. miit. 
Italian. — sera = evening. 



chamaka;* akahha; yana; \.n9,=llack. 
oca.f coco, kachka. 
haru;"* kaka; ku-kush = iffr/. mate. 
kaak = iffrf, black. lox = deril. 
tuta.* anak*=«-«<'/. za.* yami.* 
ta\i = black. ankas^' = bliiish, dark. 
gyama=«;«oZ'y. ukkuj = ivicked. 
yamun.* \wqat=shadc. i\\ia.*'= night. 
ati=bad, unlucky. vacra*=«'47, crooked, 
miivih* =shadow . hucha*=.sm. 
aj&=illness. du = deafh. qana. 
na=MO<. oo-noo-ak. riek=sick. 
ta.k=dark (E.). ta.'ka*=dunff. 
tsk'eq^ = black, snet. nat. tat. 
xibahf = <o frig lit en. 

N.B.— (See, Crooked, Old, etc.). 



69 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUNDET. 


Semitic. 


Burmese. — a-Bee^seed. 


Hebrew. — she\eT^corn. 


Chinese. — mi — rice, wai — miUi. 


,, nian=zmatma. deshS^grass. 


,, hwo ; ha (oli\)=(/i-am. mili:=/(o«ry. 


,, nietbek:=:s2i)e«tee««. debasb =: 


,, zn-:=maise. sliu=wi/tt ; to lick. 


fi07ieg. 


,, shih ; tsii ; ku ; suk ; snh.=zrice, maize. 


Assyrian. — mat food. sheru=/?«sA. 


,, ma; mo^corn; millet. mek::=wheat. 


,, ziru = scgc?. 'kemxi^meal. 


,, shih=zfo eat. sa; satz=seed ; sow. 


,, Benm=zconi. shishii^milk. 


E. Tartar. — su. sink, oo^egg. 


,, -pu^: mouth, amaru ; ittu = 


Accadian. — zi. uzu=^f.s/i. Bhe=^seed. 


wheat, sbe'um^forre. 


,, sheg^wlieat. 'kuiih=:gree>is. z\A-=zme(il. 


Arabic. — dbui-ab=«»7i?c^. 


„ ku ; mu-mu =^ cat. 


,, a.sal=:ho>ieg. shair:=harleg. 


Caucasian.— simicli^H(rt/se. swili ; sji^rye. 


,, niz=irice. 


Egyptian. — sha ; snu==/wrf. maku. maspu. aslien=/iO»e»/. 


Coptic. — soo\ihi=egg. sono=co)-n. 


,, sunesh=/o nourisli. t'a^brcad. sab=flesh . 


Ambaric. — sendea=;<^Acff(!. megcb. 


,, at; uahit=cw?« ; u-Jieat. sua ; sens:=caJ:e. 


,, adsba=;co?'M. endshera^ i;-(;«i. 


„ kaslieser=:/rM/<. su. se^t^meal. at =/«<- 


,, zara=/o sotv. roos:=r/fe. 


,, sliames^corra. suht=cr/y. shens. sem^utter. 


,, tasta^to eat. 


Polynesian. — maa=/bof/. tara^=sweet-potato. kana=:fo eat. 




TJgro-Altaic. — sa.rnu:^egg. ros.^=rge. ziid ; Taaincl^Hiilk. 




,, mooka=flou>\ f^chliih^bread. sui^i/ioiith. 




,, mauu=c^(/. gosh; zic=/?«A; smm^ioticg. 




,, ossa=/ff«A ; nanz^bread. 




African. — maza. zara. mi. mata. gussa. masarmi. \ 

„ magi. san. sinka. lissa. ana. sauye. si. f grain, 






,, zaloza. ris^rice. kowa. ikwo. eze. i seed. 




„ shu. se. su. kuskus. soso. nyo. j 




,, posyo. osese ; mhizi ; sember = ;?e.s/i. 




,, azi; eki; kill =z egg. 




Chinese. — yii. gu. ii. 


Hebrew.— nun. Uaid=gi7me. 


Egyiitian. — aba. maau. au. bari. 


,, dagon=fish-god . dag. 


,, banana, samen. x'U- 


Assyrian. — nunu. 


Accaclian. — gba. ku. a. mm ? 


Arabic. — samak. 


Drawlian. — min. macbam. 


Coptic. — samak. 


Polynesian. — ika. 


Coptic. — tebt. 


Burmese. — ngah. 


Amharic. — assa. tulum. 


Caucasian. — gar. tcwsi. 




TJgro-Altaic. — kan. kal. bale. tyg. balyk. tschari. 




African. — cya. boare. nsi. babi. zu. cdsa. sliu. nye. ekuc. 




,, kliut. ndgua. agijo ^ .s«nZ-f . 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



70 





AlIERICiN. 


Aryan. 


NOKTII. C'ENTUAL.f SoUTH.* 


Food. 




Englist. — maize, seed. eat. grain, flesh. meiiL mead. meat. 


mahiz*=;w«(zc. supia*^^^^. 


seakalo. soup, to sow. wlieat. husk, millet, milk. etc. 


sam-an ; sara;* iiiji=. maize. 


Sanskrit. — anna. mar=fo grind corn. 


mati*:=boiIcd maize, luis-cum. 


,, yava — corn, sara — cream. amiaha—Jlesh. 


Baxi\=food. (Otomi) t\vLii''':=bread. 


„ pa^fo feed. mata=:/«o</«;;\ 


sum ; maah ; sumit — corn, maize. 


Zend. — miesh = flesh ; meat. 


sohan=:cor?8. zona. tzoma=:fo bake. 


Hindi, etc. — sesemc. ^asjaz^crop. khana=to ««<. roti=J;Trtf7. 


shoman=^e.s/i, meat. ptchumif=ire«f/. 


Persian. — ma-shiza. gosht=wpfl<. T\a,n^^bread. 


maze-morra:=maize-2}uddinff. 


,, madar:=i/iother. shu'=:milk. 


mauka,* mohu=^ram, seed. 


Armenian. — tsou:=f(7^. miseh==^<".sA. h.a,tz=bread. 


maaskapa. 8tsif=fo eat. 


Greek. — fini^a^barlei/ bread, airoi^corn. '^dXa:=milk. 


iiank\i'--:=meat. iiia.-m.ds.=.suffar-cane. 


„ ^eri^barlei/. adp^^=flesh. inrcpfia=zseed. 


\\c'hc:=corn. ahuati*^wajze. 


„ fid'^ot^izbreast. o^jror^cooJced food. Kw^io<s:=.banq^uet. 


mankani*=:^ eat. mate.* 


,, ecea/^m^meat. /.uji'^IIIOllth. errOt'cu'^eat. 


magnef =^es/( . tsoali^ir««!(JJ. 


„ a/iToi^bread. ^w/i6^^^broth. opv'Ca'i^^rice. 


ta-moo-a (Esq.)==/bo(^. 


Latin. — secale=;-^(', seseme ; semen, sator. 


manig=p^y (i.). mannian (pi.). 


,, mamma=?«-ras<. silTgo=n/f. mensa. 


souk ; stek==;?(;«/«. 


French. — seigle::=Jfl';7<'y. manger=^ eat. 


marmi *=^mothcr. 


Slavonic. — buzo ; zmo^w/ieat. sjet^to sow. 




„ mayse. sosat^^o eat. shliib=irPrtrZ. mooka=^OMr. 




„ ssiin^f7;ff.sf. yaitzo=cyy.s. majasho==/?cs/(. 




Lithuanian. — \na.ysc^^bread. Spanish. — maize. 




Gothic. — nasjan=^o nourish. 


. 


Celtic. — maise=:/oor?. teaz. magh. min. mad. 




,, manchaine^f'o eat. segal^rye. 




German. — weizcn^^wheat. essen^fo eat. 




„ speise. fleisch^wra^. gauma. 




,, suppe:=«o«<^. gerste^ a rie I/. 




Bengali. — miingsha. Indian. — sorghi^^r«s«. 




Fish. 




English. — snake ? ship ? canoe ? 


caoua.* hai.* ican.* kay.* 


Sanskrit. — matsya. 




Hindi. — muchh. dou'na ; kishtce^io«<. 


yee, kekon. piji.* kanu.* 


C. Indian. — kaku. hai. ayo. 




„ keiye. nkkn^is/iake. 


cagna. heica. haon.* pague. 


Slavonic. — ryba. zuwik. 




Latin. — piscis. 


pira.* keesapa. miehun.f 


Greek. — «x^'''- 




Celtic. — pys-g. jasquaich. kanu ? iasg. 


iku-iLk^s««/:e. num. 


Lithuanian. — zuurk. zuwe. siws. 




German. — kahn^shp. 


ekkaloo (Esq.). mah-mik. 


Armenian. — tsukn. 






tatluk. ma ; meat^s«/wo;(. 




han. 



71 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SlWDET. 


Seiutic. 


Accaclian. — ]s.a = h'f('. kn = moufh. ban. dug. 


Hebrew. — sir. kas. ka-d. 


,, aga = u'afer. nag=to drink. 


Arabic. — kas. abriq. 


UgTo-Altaic. — kab. kannu (Fin.), bardak. beitak = fo cook. 


Coptic. — go. bnu. 


Chinese. — pei. poh. kan— pipe. pet. p'au. te. k'i. 


Assyrian. — kai-jjutu. kailuttu. 


,, p'ao ; hak = io bake. kaY> = to sivalloiv. 


,, basba,lu = fo boil. 


Egyptian. — pig. kellu. akn ; ke])h = citp. akana. 


,, sbatu = fo drink, narmuku. 


,, let. kai. bek ; tex = io drink. t(ikt\i=earth. 


,, ini = moutIi. cru = box. patanu = 


„ x'^t ; toka.=Jire. sura^drink. akch = water. 


,, to eat. didu. pashshuru. 


,, marex. tes. ketol. kaban. 


Ambaric. — tzcv^a— cup. dak=stone. 


Mongol. — ajaka. gaku. Corean. — sbat. 


,, kakala = to cook. 


Eti-usean. — nippe ? 




Dravidian. — pattiran. kudam. 




Burmese. — kwet=?'o drink; cup. 




Berber. — aoukal. 




Polynesian. — ■pei=sJwn. 




African. — ako. doko. tat. koko. saku. ize. 




,, pat. bora. 




Cbinese. — ^bien. 16. shen— to shine, -pak — ivkite. 


Hebrew. — debash = honey, kerach = ice. 


,, siieh ; s\it=snow. s]ia'taTig=suffar. 


„ viietheq = su'ectncss. 


,, mih.=!wnei/. hi\n = cold. 


„ mL'Iakli = sff?<. 


Indo-Cbinese. — sugu = sM«. tsab. 


Assyrian — malkkbu = «(??<. 


Caucasian. — se = snoio. 


,, fiai-pii=zc/i ite. 


Aecadian. — sh.eg=snoia. za.\=s/iininff. 


Arabic. — milh =4y//;. sagE = cold. 


Corean. — sba. sbukan. 


Coptic. — hmou. 


Dra\-idian . — sakare = sugar. 


PhcEuician. — salaca=«fl/^ malaca ? 


Egyptian. — besmcn. shn^hrigJit. hmat. maan.? 


Ambaric. — tsbawoo. 


,, a.&]ien=honey. kch = coId. 


,, natsh^ichite. shookar = SH^ff;'. 


Libyan.- — tcsiut. =s«/<. 




Ugro-Altaie. — sok ; saksi=sfl//. so\cv\= sugar. 




,, sbo. saltc (Fin.), sjak. mak. sbak. sii'. cbo. 




,, sal. solu. s\niu = lwney. 




,, kaisse (Lap.) ; tosb = SHOt<;. sboty. sbat. 




,, Ji\ni = snnw. 




Afiicau. — etsa; maka; ussu — sff/^ salo. 




,, titu = foW. 




,, nsalo. mazi=Jwneg. iyo ; koro ; is=s(iU. 




Chinese. — sake? k\i=spirits. sok = fo drink. 


Hebrew. — jajm=tvi>ie. met'hek = sweet. 


,, sam-sum? 


„ soho=Mead. 


Aecadian. — aga.=flood. ka=Iifc. niig= to drink. 


Assyrian. — sikaru =««(<; wine. 


Caucasian.— sura. 


,, sbatu= to drink. 


Japane.sc. — sake. 


Coptic. — shomer. tlial). 


Polynesian. — asega. keshcgii. tava. karaea. 


Arnliaric — nefas. 


Dravidian ^ — cburukka. 




Ugro-Altaic. — arpc. rakcc. sokeri=«!/9«r (Fin.), sbarab. 




Egyptian. — tex ; ■d([t=drink. x\i = sotd; spirit, sra. 




,, arp ; tin = icine. hcqt^bccr. aahon = Jio?ieg. 




African. — •/.ogga=palm-spirit. kaki\.T=cup. 




,, dnkn = mouth. mi; niu = drink. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



73 



Aryan. 


Amekica.v. 

NOKTH. C'ENTUAL.t SoUTH.* 


Pot. 

English. — jug. crock, can. beaker, quern? pan. pot. 

,, (lisli. ewer. tub. beaker? jar. shell. 

,, pitcher, flagon, vase, kettle, bake? 
Sanskrit. — mhi]ia= water. Y>iita,=cariti/. ])ac = to cook. 

,, nianika? kahisa. patra. kapala. suna? 

,, kii =earth. ma = fo measure. 
Hindi. — gharra. lota, batlor. 

Greek.— TTOTfy/Hov. XeV-o?. \>jkv0o9. KvaOo's. aKV(j)oi. \ini>6i. 

,, XeKui'tj. Kav€ov^=ca7i. XiiKKO'i ^Cistern. 

„ a(TiiO^ = boftle. tTdk-KO'! = baff. Kii/ni^. 
Latin. — ^poculum. tassa. calix. condia.=sliell. olla. dolium. 
Celtic. — pota. cuach. oupan. 
German. — hecher. kclch. krug. anker, topf. 
Slavonic. — tshfishka. kyla. French. — croc, tasse. 
Scandinavian. — kcr= tub. Teutonic. — skaL skol. 




;zotzocolli '\=Jar. llakliuay. 
£aka* (ggaglia). potum ? punu. 
;econiatl.f uichi.* bannah=fo drink. 
;zsy. sanu. manka.* 
akkik^ kettle. ak = water. 
laukkara. kuyka. puti*= Jo.r. 
£oto.* kotu.f a9-ka-hua.* makas. 
ewak ; aka; iiru* = ivater.'] 
'huira=r»YT.] pa; -po = water. 
;apachtlif = «/)«//. 
oot — kvo — seek (Esq.). 
ikap ; suti; kuetia = ^'6'<^/<; ? 


Sam. 

English. — snow, -white, ice. cold, sugar, .sweet, shining. 
Sanskrit. — sara? lavana=M/^. hima. =shoio. skan =to shine. 
,, madhxi=sweet,ho>tei/. qvota; quci=white, shining. 
Hindi. — shakkar = sngar. s\\ied = iphite. 
Bengali. — chini = sw(jr(irr. tushara=U'«. 
Greek. — aX^. mXi=honey. x"i'''=«»OK'. 

,, XevKo's^tvJtde. fc/)V(TraX\o9=:ice. (i(TT)jft = st(tr. 
Latin. — sal. nix, wWm^snow. saccharum = ««-cf^. 
Bokhara. — akh = white. 
Slavonic. — sal. soly. zachar = .'!»^ffr. sima=('«. 

,, singea=swow. snogas=?V«. 
Armenian. — tsiun = snow. 
Scandinavian. — snce ; sno = snow. 
Gothic . — melith = hon ey . 
German. — salz. ii\ifis = sweet. 
Celtic. — halen. llyr = (V«. nuA = honey. kann = ?(7»Vc. 

,, kuisne = «<;«. sncadihdha = s«Oi(i. 
French. — glace = /c« — glass 'i sel. 
Persian. — sa.TCi=coU. 


sachi.* shukosh. shukesh. 

seepo; sahs; shmaa=snow. 

kais=s«o(y, ice. she-eh. 

sudnk=sweet. oh-zel=ice. 

suteri ; jas = snoto. iztatl.f 

mizqui* = sweet, za—sun. 

2ak;f yaruk'^^'white. sikkoo = ice, snow. 

ki.sini = w. fihotto =white. hayu. 

mam.ak\= sugar-cane. on. 

zura = !('/j;V('. koyal; yolo = «HO(t'. 

rassu ; * kharsa*=j(;e, snow. 

sia't=cold. man. eti. lesal. 

spe'u; t''ek. = ice. kwis ; n!x'e=snow. 

jah = water. 


Feemented Liquoes. 

English. — sack ; beer. mead, shrub, liquor. 
Sanskrit. — mi\Aa.=mea(l. soma. sura. 

,, uAstkn^icater. asaTa= spirit; soul. 
Hindi. — arak. duruklit=j'/««. shur-ab =«■/»« ? 
Greek. — 'X"'/^- ''"''■"/'• ara^t!.n' = a drop. !Kfid'i = liqnid. 
Latin. — Bacchus =_()rorf of iciyie. bruton=i««/-, nectar. 
Celtic. — uiske=/'V«-«'«^c/- ; spirits. 
Slavonic. — rake, vodka. 
Persian. — badah ; miii=wine. 


acc'a* = maize-beer. octli.j 
thaoloctli.f huarapu.* 
mas; viakosha.^ to drink, 
ak^water. nash* ui.* essauh. 
sova.'^' = fermented maize spirit. 



10 



T3 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Sttitdet. 


Semitic. 


Chinese. — t'ien — slcy; high, nan — eye. kan — Iright ; eye. 


Hebrew. 


— 'iir, 'or^ight. 


,, su. tok. t'in. king, cheu (old), 'k^a^iigh. 


n 


shamaim^heavens. 


,, jih. Tmo^suH. 


jj 


jom^day. 'or=ilight. 


Accadian. — di=<o shine ; fire, gush ; az&g— bright. 


J> 


Tuqa'^to spread out. 


,, mm. enu. ami=^sl-g-go(l. an. jiir^ight. 


)) 


tzutz=:;o shine. 


,, utu=S2(«. tam^dag. zikara. na. nim. zu. 


»» 


salal:=7o raise ; Jtigh. 


„ mu ; zik\im^!enrens. 


n 


ts6haT=light ? 


Indo-Chinese. — kivet. &lia^i(/hf. nay:=f7(ry. 


Assyrian 


. — shamii^iearens ; shy. 


TJgro-Altaic. — ia.va.^iearen-god. tina ; tan ; tu=f/rty. 


)) 


ibbu ; ■pisu=zwhite. mim^ight. 


,, tangri ; na-^slcg ; eye. num. kiun. es. 


)) 


namaru. aru=/o shine. 


,, siel ; kun ; nai=:s««(. shi ; lun ; 'kaiixl^clay. 


J) 


enu^eye. urni ; umu^day. 


„ paiwa (Lap.)=(7fly. aUok (Lap.)=/(/i7^. 


Arabic. - 


-sami^heavens. n\iT-:=Iight. 


,, ninnah=:sZ;(/. taiwas; alma; tul=s^'y. 


»> 


da — h'ght. 


,, sami; nawe=!<)/(jY«. sarui. 


jj 


nahr. 


Caucasian. — za-=z}ieavens ; skg. 


Coptic— 


-pe. hoou— day. 


Corean. — hallo ; alo:=(/ffy. 


Amharic 


. — tcherka=:/;Y. 


Mongol. — tangra. eha=fy<'. nian. sliun=SM«. 


). 


semmi ; sema. 


Libyan. — safas=.sZ-y. 


it 


kan ; elat — dag. 


Dravidian. — oM^iylit. nixl^=(I(ty. ^-in. pa'ttiram. koppai. 


ji 


berooch; ]i.a[el=light. 


Egyptian. — hert; teka; pe; kals/cy. rck—fi're; day. 






„ ham; ra ; har; her=day. tna—iiw?-ning. 






,, shu=Z/V//(^, hright. teka=_^Ve. x.i^tigh. 






„ ses=dag. xa- nei^h— day. 






,, duau-t=7(«rt(v'«? dawn? 






,, shep; ncuim^iour ; time; see; nut. ■[)-i=^heavens. 






,, inm^^sefting sun. ra ; 'hor=ztIie sun-god. 






,, (Osir(is) ; asar) ? 






African. — sema. taih. sui. imine. oni. lelo. "j 






,, antu. die. lana. tana. hucr. 
,, iiri. dalkah. tangu. otaua. 






,, kese. leUgh. aou. di. to. za. J 






,, iru. oni. obo. cluk-wei. zoo. ^ 

„ tsanna. lo. hvallo. homnia. - ^ sJcg ; heavens. 

„ nebo. jouil. k'tak. szemma. J 














„ zu ; tan=«MW. to ; tia=:/re. 


. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



74 





Amekican. 


Aetan. 


NOHTH. CENTUAL.t SoUTH.* 


Sky; Day. 




English. — light, eye. shine, heavens, white. 


skie. sua. zarni. antu.* nfda. 


,, sun. dawn, bright, high. 


cahua.f=/(i"«)r«. an(>.*^yod; day. 


Sanskrit. — Burya:=SM». div. diva. svar. hari. 


caan.f taui.! andi.f gauick. 


„ nayana^ey*. ahan=fZffy. E\a,vgu.=iheavens. 


cun ; ]s.(tnzzisu>i,. tina^liy/it. 


„ ushas — dawn, dina — day. nabhas. dyu. 


numa*=:/Hoo». eeska (ish=zstar). 


„ netra=«ye. las:=fo shine. 


itag.* hello ; annak==^r«. kishto. 


,, InAiA^god of day [Greek Zem']. divarshi=(?ffy. 


tschaan ; ara — day. tak — heaven. 


,, a<^vo.a.-n^^heavens. Ayo^^heavcn. 


uru*^=«% ; day. taiki=«t<». 


Hindi, etc. — ccrua. anin. konda. din=(/rty. dino. 


tu. tani.f tagg*=f7«y. teotes.f 


„ teon. nak. nfir. roushun. kas. 


tuf=:yor/. ibo. tahur^rfay. 


Zend. — gairya. usha. kai ? circ^day. shodem=/o see. 


amma.* eleek. i'kee ?* tie. 


Persian. — tab=rfrty. sitrirali=Z/^/(<. 


a.ri—?noon. do.* kin.* cini.* 


„ sarah^^miraye. dar=«K«. ishtar^s^a/-. 


huaca.* siela. kehl=.s^-y. 


Greek. — opaw^^to see. ovjjavos. 


olo.* sua*^«/-y. sakh=»K«. 


,, tj^idpa; ia-Ti'a^/iearth. >jp"t. ijii}^. u'pa=^hour\ time. 


nolok. tupak.* zak^irhi/e. 


,, cKta=sJiade \ sky. Zevf. cTof. (pe^/^^o^^^Iight. 


nikf^^ye. tzuma. zuna. 


Latin. — (\ics:=:.day. iiio=:burn,. hora^iour. Jiino ? Hestia. 


tina^iyht. suna*=:s!<». 


,, aurora. Diana, ammn^breath ; life, ccelum. 


zura^=white. ena. see-la (Esq.). 


French. — azur. or— gold. 


inti;* khon; hashe; huarassi*=:«M«. 


German. — tag=day. lk'ht=liyhf. himmel. luft. 


neiga ; tuni ; hueisu ; zu=sem. 


Armenian. — i\y— day. or=zday. 


s\\tei=tvhite. sillo*=:s;rtr. 


Slavonic. — teraes. diena; dan^day. naybo. nebo. den. 


nachich. nakou.* nich.f cahf^.s%. 


Celtic. — tio ; huan:=«M». twyn ; dai^^day. 


nei-ya=«M« (Esq.). ei-ee-ge=:eye. 


,, eann — fxU moon. cwyn. neanch. nif. 


■pck=Lwhite. skuayil^si-y. 


,, lo^^day. ncx^ieaven. ur=«M«. silsighim=«/M«e. 


sen ; sa ; naia ; ts'ok ; m\s=z.day. 


Anglo-Saxon. — dteg^=.day. 


WBMhisch=zdaivH. natos^sKw. 


Teutonic. — dag. tiv. 




Polish. — dzien=:rffly. 




Dalmatiim. — daan. 




Albanian. — kicl=.s/y. 


! 


Lithuanian. — diona=f/(;y. 




TTin di. — saf ed^ w^ He. 





75 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUNBET. 


Semitic. 


Chinese. — jen. jili. yat. lim=(/old. khon^fire. nao. 


Hebrew. — shomesh. el=yo(^. 


„ yeii=(v/(;. shu ; sinf;:; shm^s/iine; bright. 




„ tsao ; sho ; shcn=:b/aze ; hot; fire, nih ; nit (old) 


,, kharutz=(/o/(/. 


,, ^hof. SLng=.yto/'. k'au^^to roast, 'kho^fire. 




„ _ joli=^o^ 


,, kesc^w;ooM. esh=^re. 


Indo-Cliinese. — sugu^s?m. 




TJgro-Altaic. — khon. tsi. kwel. kiin. tu. giinescli. 


Assyrian. — shamash. vWxi^right. 


,, hurura^rfa*/. sonne. haya. siel. tan. nai. kar. 




,, saan=A'''''- »ar\n:=irhite. 


,, sharuru=:^/r ; bright. 


Accatlian. — za ; iLuii^hriffht. sii^liffht. zal. tu. parra. 




,, ku. su. ui ; ur ; hH^Jire. di; li^to shine; 


,, shami^n'/ig. kliurasu=^oZfZ. 


si=ei/e. 




MongoL — nara. tan^^liffht. shim, toann^iffht. tel ; 


,, 'kasin\^=silver. 


„ _ tu =//•«. 




Caucasian. — chor. Basque. — su:=Jire. 


,, ishutu==^j'<'. shamshu. 


Jajianese. — fosi. zuki=.sf«r. 




Corean. — hen ; ha ; hSiMo^flai/. 


Arabic. — mir= fire. sama=sZ:(/. 


Egyptian. — ra. turn? x^ ; shu — hf/ht, shine, mer — ei/e. 




,, siih=z!i(/ht. Tpe^ski/. sua-y=^/'(!. sui^star. 


„ 'alaw=;f;-e. ari.sat^sim. 


,, saui=(/o/(7. agh=_///-«. rek=:^ burn. (Osir(is) ; 




,, asar) '? sui^s^ffr. 


Amharic. — tsai. asat=_^/-«. 


Polynesian. — Ta=zsim. asa. 




African. — kion. heiuni. kicli. kar. tetce. 


Coptic. — re. siv\i=star. 


,, kase. tschen. koara. keze. turi. 




„ ta; te ; tia; mti^fire. usana. su. 




,, tonih. uru. nyam. fosseye. tubia. 




,, sungi=w;oo«. sorrie. sorre. scmme^sh/. 




„ eliang. a-un. zu. ua. hallo ; h\icr=drii/. 




,, zoo. sure. ellu. jira^_;?r«. hjalla^heareiis. 




Chinese. — sing. khon=_;?;r. tsao; sa; sho; ho=i^;r; hot, etc. 


Hebrew. — tzo\iav=z?ight. kukab. 


Acoadian. — sig. sin. kill. sir=//(//i<. 




,, azag^silrer. si = (>)/«. 


,, kese=wooH. 


Mongol. — Sara, usika. singsu. 




Dravidian. — prakasi^/o shine. 


Assyrian. — kakkabu. cl\uz=brighf. 


Egyptian. — sui. sba. shot— /Vr. shu — Ji(/7d. 




,, act^iyhtning, fire. hashar=^'r«. x^i^^" shine. 


,, shamash=SMM. 


Estrusean. — set ; Ocs=fire ; usil^.sM«. 




Ugi'o-Altaio. — zara. nara^.s««.. aisin— 170W. 


,, ishatu; sharuru=_^/'c, i/v^/i^. 


,, si. kase. tisil. kaiza:=.9K«. tiigti (Fin.). 




,, }-Udidz. kosi. stal ? tuli=^;'c. 


,, khuratsu=//t)W. 


„, tagti (Fin.), taste (Lap.), kisili. tsillag. kos. 




,, haiden. zuldur. shuder (Fin.). 


, , tsarpu ; kaspu=«;7c«r. 


African. — kono. kase. kose. nioha. nuiesi. 




,, kiele."*»'-"uol. kelc^^ivhite. 


Arabic. — kaukab. najm. 


, , koara ; su ; sorre ; kar ; tari^.«!«!. 




,, ika ; si; akan ; kash ; kako ; tari= fire. 


„ mn':=fire. 


,, aparu ; teiah=zi,'oon. sinz=:fire; smoke. 






Coptic. — siou. 




Auiharic. — kobab. 



A nriLOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



76 



Aryan. 


Amekican. 
North. CENTiiAL.f South.* 


Sun. 

Englisli. — moon. star. fire. cyo. light. 

,, to shine, clay, gold? god? 
Sanskrit. — inchh^zfo shine, hvarc. suryiu 

„ mihira. agni ; vahui — fire, las — to shine. 

„ qushma=_^rtw*«. ras=:/ore. 
ZencI^ — hvare. atar=//-«. ari=.sZ.7/ ; dmj. 
Persian. — aftab. rnihi". hiir. tkh^ight. 
Greek/ — rfKioi. Ka'uv=.to burn. (fiCci^ight. 

,, !^iw=to be hot. {^i]v=<joo8c.) 
Armenian. — arcv. 
Lithuanian. — saulc. 
Albanian . — natc . 
Vannio. — ardinis. nara=:/?;'e. 
Latin. — sol. urere=^o burti. 
Slavonic. — bayle. solnsec. shar=:/ie«/. 
German. — \vQ\\z:^bri(iht. 
Celtic. — huan. hull. vier=/r'r<'. ur. 

,, griau. teas. tun=//rf. tio. 

,, veT=moon. oiam^'iill moon. 
Teutonic. — son. sonne. 
Hindi. — soor'uj. afteb. ui-k. eri=fo burn. 


nciga. tona.f khan—^re. zun. 
suna. 'kun=fire; sun. zii. hoiscu. 
tata ; hello ; tah ; haan:=/(V«. 
kin.f hiuch.f pin.* lupi.* tshi.* 
illu;* cari ; keri ;* ari=:OT00w. 
hindi.f yah.* rcra^/ire. sillo=«!'«/'. 
ylluyllu*=//y /(/«/«//. nait; iato*=^eyc. 
inti.* haic.* ho ; nee ; una:=AVe. 
kesis. sa. channu. tsi.* wah.* 
tina— light. \\ra*—s];ij; day. 
ine.* cun. kon. te.* nas. 
chirau *=Lresplendcnt. curasi.* 
ra ; ran*? (Uuichuaroot=:^r«; tohurn). 
huarussi.* sirif=«^a*-. sonh. 
khangra^,s7»« (Othomi) tschol=s^ffr. 
nei-ya (Esq.). z\n:ix-\^tvhite. 
nae ; kwi's=sMO(i'. stsok. nates. 


Stab. 

English. — sun. fire, sparkle? shining? 

Sanskrit. — tara. rikshah. 

Persian. — sitarah. 

Celtic. — syr. silsighim=s7«/«e. seren. 

Greek. — aaTtjp. 

Zend. — atar=//-«. ^tare. 

Latin. — stella. so\=^sun. 

Armenian. — azdegh. astla. osgi^yoW. 

Slavonian. — svesdil {czaT=zewpcror). shavzz^heat. 

German. — sterar. 

Hindi. — ta'va. sa'bit. tarika. 


sah.f ikerai.f tysel. ^ivce^fire. 
siri.f taosi. kase. ish.j-^.s^rtr. 
casiri;f cayaeu=:>«oo«. ceri.* 
khun; tata;* sah ; sg.(^&^fire. 
siUo.* ussi. io-hakta. koscn. 
kakkaan; utshi=sM«. caccatos. 
citalli.f serrika.* taosi. ta'tos. 
zarin*^j9foMe^ Venus, tysel.* 
zuraf^ifAiYe. 



77 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUNDBX. 


Semitic. 


Chinese. — yuen — circle, hwo, to^fire. nili^sMW. 


Hebrew. — yareakh. kese. 


,, yneli. gwet (old). nao=«M«. nan? 




„ mu ; muk {o\iY)^=ei/e. 


,, halal^^o shine. 


Corean. — taeL koriac. gailgen. 




Accadian. — man. e\l(i=:briffJif. erm^sk^/. 


Assyrian. — ellu^ bright. 


„ namia^ moo/1 -ffod. 




,, gil^bn'i//it. izi=^r«. murium; eye. 


,, sin=»ioo«. arkhu. 


Caucasian. — masah. mt'warc. alxz^fire. 




Egyptian. — aah. shn^lic/Jd. men^sh/. tmnz=sim. 


,, tsarpu^s(7i'«r. 


,, nennu; ma; mu^=to see. mer=fy«. 




Etruscan. — eku. tivi. tu ? 


Arabic. — shahr. liilal. 


Ugro-Altaic. — mano (Lap), lah. hare. ilio. aee. amo^white. 




„ siln^=ei/e. 'kun=:stm. tyles. era. ira. shui=^white. 


,, qamar. 


,, ay. ai. nai^sun. manen^«^-y. ku. nawe=»7ii<e. 




MongoL — muran. mang-i=sZ-y. tylys. angha=cy«. 


Ethiopic. — alsa. tcherka. 


DraTOlian. — mathi. nila. 




African. — sungi. hyalla — heavens, keana. 


Coptic. — ioh. 


„ eUu ; eilang; lelangii ; tschen=«MW. 




,, huana. herre. manga; masso ; bal=«ye. 


Amliaric. — tsharaka. alsa ? 


„ asara. mone. kalla. moeri. men. nueri. 




,, mireng. wa-a. haho. mucsi. doaL 




,, ayk. bate, aifi-am. eran. arba. 




,, terah. aou. massu. maz ; ih ; ma=_/?;Y. 




,, kiele^«?(M. kuol=sto'. guele. liulu. 'koic^star. 




,, lass; Ta.Ti:=fire. masa^eyt;. 




Chinese. — tsu^«;7(YT; iihi-n^ff old or silver, zirr? 'km=iffold. 


Assyrian. — khuratsu=yoZ(f. 


Corean. — soj^ron. Polynesian. — asa=s«o«. 




Accadian. — guskin^fj'oZcZ. azag^s(7iYr. 


„ kaspu; tsai-pu=s(7c(T. 


,, zaha.r=sJvini»t/, hriglit. zu^ffoJd ; silver. 




Malay. — besi = iron. amas=yoW. 


,, sipaiTU=co/i/;«' ? eru ? 


Finn. — sihi^ei/e. 




Caucasian. — spilens:=fo/i^fr. okcr=yo/(?. 


,, kakkabu= s^rr. 


Tungus. — sall:=iVo«. 




Libyan. — azal:=si(M. 


Coptic . — noiib =zgold. 


Jiasque. — zillar=.«7i'er. iza.r=sf(ir. 




Thibetan. — jaer^ffold; shining. zakar=<w. 


,, 'hi\\=zsilver. 


Egj-ptiui: — saui^ffold. xmscm^brass, copper? 




Mongol. — a;:.-in^^oW. tseher^iVore. 


Amharic. — nahas^brass. 


Dravidian. — tai^'ha^coppcr. surya ?^sun. 




Ugro-Altaic. — gunj'ish^*77tYr. osjs:=tin. 


Arabic. — Rxiih^lead. 


,, fiima^gold. "sys ; siia^silver (Fin.). 




,, kuld {'Fm.)=gold. golle {La]))=yellow. 


Hebrew . — kh aru s ^gold. 


,, jeso; besc ; kose ; l-uos=:?m*. 




African. — .sanoo; oro=//oW. kasc ; zoo=«mm. 




,, irc=w-o?i. dinar=^«W. sik-d—gold. zcm— blood. 


(Soc elsewhere.) 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



78 



Aktan. 



Moon. 

English. — montli. sun. eye ? fire ? silver ? 
Sanskrit. — mihira.:= sun. anala:=_/?/'«. 

„ chandra. 

„ mrisa=:w(o«//i. 

Hindi. — kani ? 

Latin. — luna. mcnsis=:)H(5«Y/i. 

Greek. — ae-Xi'ivt^. finffi- tjXto^^suu. ijpf^duwH. ivptiz 
Armenian. — losin. 
Albanian. — vme^sim. i\e. 
Celtic. — re. mi. mos. ghajlac. lloer. eio. 

„ avl^zjire. caim. cac. eas-ga. cann. 

Scandinavian. — maane. diel=s««. geal^((7»Vr. 
Komane. — kano. 
Slavonic. — messez. loona. 
Lithuanian.- — menu. 
Gennan. — monat=»80W<A. 
Persian. — mah. 
Zend. — maorih. 
Bohemian. — mesye. 
Polish. — miesyac. 
French. — oeil=;«y«. 



-hour. 



Metaxs (shining, red. yellow). 
Sanskrit. — Vmiaka^gold. surya^ smm. 

Greek. — Knaai-eiwi:=:.tin. y^jivao'i':^(JolA. a!cii]i>o^'=:.irOH. 

,, '^oKv^^steel. 

,, ■x"X'^°'-'^'^'>PP(>'- ^ni'Oo'i^ijellow. 
Latin. — aurum. xs^brass. 
Hindi. — somiz=ffold. cha.m]i::=siher. 

,, srirh=r«/. us'far=y«/?ow. 
Zend. — zarana^yoM. 
French. — or=zgold. 

German. — zin=</«. silber=:s;7c«\ eisen=;(Vo». 
Slavonic. — soloto=i7oW. stal=s<«e/. 
Scandinavian. — lys. giil=yoW. 
Persian. — arsis:=<j«. zar^gold. 
Armenian. — osgi^ffold. 
Kurd . — sukh := red?. 
Lithuanian. — szwit-waras^ irrtss. 



American. 

CENTUAL.t 



Sod 



khangi-af =*?<« (Othorai). paksa.* 
masa* ? tschane. mctzli.f dls. 
khan; mots; mna.*^Jire. hak. 
metsat. kuvari. menakkha. masa. 
inusseete=:&y. mushe. mengil. 
killak. nana =:«/«<«•. nwar. 
manaok. nuna.* numa.* kacha. 
igaluk. sillo*"=s^«/-. ([uela.* killa.* 
quilla.* chie.f uh.* illu.* allit.* 
maitsaca.f ol^cye. auhe. ailhai.* 
yllani*^^o s/iine. yasi. paksi.* 
zana. mata*=cy« or fire (forehead?). 
ari.* bari.f enoo.* channu^«e(». 
alauk:=s/rtr. aguai. can. sah. 
kisis=«<». aii-nlnga (Esq.). 
k'un. nosi. ma'qe. muk'ola. zana. 



ccaxi*; curi*; kon*^ffold. haxij ^silver. 

zakj-:=ivhite. sati=^i>iefal. sah=«(oo». 

huarasi*; kisis ; sima^sun. 

yasi*; killa*=;«ooM. cuztocf^i/ellotc. 

kholki*:=s;7w/'. sirif; sino*=:«ter. 

tysel*^«^«r. shooney=««7i'(;r. 

zch.=ired. ozah^i/ellow. 

cui'asi=s«<«. irets:=?Vo». 

chac^red. zak\r^wMte. 

z\iTa*z=white. 



79 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUNIIKT. 



Semitic. 



Cliinese. — ^hwa. ho. tu. hi. sa. fo. pei. pu. 
,, pao. slio. hw^ffod. bak. Vdk^bi-ight. 
„ shaug^lifflif. k'aii. tok=zc(indle. yok. shak^bn'ffht. 
„ mu ; muk (old) ^ eye. yuk. 
Indo-Chinese. — bela 

E. Tartar. — tua. sc\mm:^mm. Malay. — hai=;?«. 
Accadian. — ai^^moon. gar. ne. izi. di. gug. 

,, zagk. parra=:s(M(. bil. shii^fo burn. 

TJgro-Altaie. — su. tiiz. tuck. ot. hat. esk. uot. 
,, kiij. khott. saan. zil tet. atescli. tuli. 
,, riikk ; hararat^/«Y/^ tana^rfr/y. kurt=:ii'flrw(. 

,, gunesch. nai ; kun=:«;«i. mato (Fin.). 

„ keite:=fo ?ooX' (Fin.). 
,, beitak; pait=iff/.:«. silake:=h'fflitnhig. 
Etniscan. — set. ^es. 
Dra^-idian. — akkini. tu. eri. 

Egyiitian. — x'-'t- shet. agh. afi. siiax- rck. ra=s«wi. 
,, aten=.s(«« ? hV^bn'f/hf. liashar. shw^shine. 
,, utft = bur>i. matati. teka. sct=;^o lighten. 
,, kal; hah; -pc^skij. 

Caucasian. — abedi. za. ali. matli^/(o^ 
African. — 

N.E. — ika. tone. shah, kion ? ik. koe=fo biirn. 
asat. cssat. tcherk. gira. tonih. inti. 
ag. ea. kako. lia. tona. koe. 
S. — mu. amoya. kash. emanga^w(oo?«. 
W. — kako. massii. mazi. ahuia. ta. te. ttso. inc. na. ne. 

zo. eso. die. sie. akan. oka. mot. attashi. 
C. — arsi. moto. akan. ag-ning. tei. 
riso. liso. ili. la. ongiuk=4««. 
oko ; tuk ; eiou^wt. 
ma. uta. tee-lee. hu. genea. ncdda. 
( tia. te. arsi. ika. noro. mosa. 
? I kaisu. ta. met. tcloss. ako. oko. 
( ibo. tona. inti. dsou. fossTe=si(?i. 



Hebrew. — kham =zJtefit. 

,, kokah^star. esh=fire. 

„ saraf. yatsath. ziv^ir/'y/;^ ? 

,, hitstsith. harAk^ igldning . 

Arabic. — nar. sukhn:=/(o<. 

,, h'araq. alaaw Inflame. 

,, kaukalj^star. 
Amharic. — esatch. tcherka. 

,, asat. tsai ? 

Assp'ian. — ishatu. shariiru. 

„ kakkabu=:s^?;-. 

„ 'kilutu:=:bii>'nhiff. 

,, sharapu=/o bum. 

,, kamu ; ka\(\=fo burn. 

,, klKimmu=/«Y?^ ; fame. 

Coptic — klom. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



80 





Ameeicax. 


AliYAN. 


NOUTII. CENTKAL.f SoUTH.* 


Tire. 




English. — sun. moon, stiir. liluzc. liglitniiig-. hake, liciit. 


annak. ignach. cha.f kak.f immi=:Jieat. 


,, ])nrn. liot. scorch, flame, briglit? spark. 


sacche=,?;(W. hot? ho. aguai^woow. 


Sanskrit. — bhu=.s/((';«'. dah. ngni. 


iakai.*" iche. oko. isu.* u.* 


„ ras=?ov« ; joy. ghanna=w«rw(. 


kera. U8.si. ischi. assista. taika.* 


,, yalmi; mi^x^tolluzc. laii=:fo sliine. surja^siin. 


mna.* ua.f tali. kese. 


Hindi, etc. — agun. ag. 


kisiti ; * kakkaan=:s«». hoc. sah. 


„ puk'ana=A(/Z,Y'. surj :=«?<». 


kak*=i«'o rt(b {"ifiresticks). tsa. 


Persian. — atcsh. azer. ]iidah=^toucIacood. 


kakha=woo«. nlna.* oeska=«i?-y. 


Tannic. — nara. 


eleck. Lng-nek. nari ; jah^sim. 


Zend. — atar. atheresch. tnfuu. 


naika. saku.* tina — light, tasi. 


SlaTonic. — ogein. og-ni. olien. okon. 


musha ; masaf ^»ioo«. cooh. 


„ ugnm=/S«r». 


coun. koso. Lllu.* pira.* ari=:woo«. 


„ agon. e.'har:=keat. 


(pir*=Quichua root==/?«. " Lopez.") 


Latin. — ignis. [Vesta=Hestia, Gr.] calor. 


haika.f into*=;fye. tata.* k'an. 


„ iistiis^^liiriit. asso^roast. urere=i'o bum. 


llukllu*'"= //y /( /;; ing . te = mn. 


Greek. — ttP/j. Oep^oj. Kai'M:=(o bum. ^iw^to be hot. 


ta(m=.st(ir. taande. uru*=:A/y. 


,, \vxi'o^=^iumj}. ha><=itorch. 


mata^'^fy^ ov fire. to.*^suii ; heat. 


,, <pao'i:=Iil/ht. 0Xof. epwi2:^love. 


tupac*=Sr(7^/ff«<. topa.* istcl. 


Armenian. — hour. krak. 


ra ; rau (Quichua)=/?r« ; burn. 


Scandinayian. — iyr. Lettish. — lu.ste= /««^ 


ok-ko^/(o< (Esq.). raca*^f«««!(s. 


Celtic. — aodth. yier. ghcr. teine. taan. 


inik. te'ik. re'ta. 


„ gunnes=;r(7;v«. bcl. tes. teas. 




,, tuu. smer. 




,, an. ain. ong. caer=:crt«f?/(?. grith=«!<«. 




Albanian. — nate=:«M)». 




Lithuanian.— blizqu:=?/y/(i'»/«y. 





11 



81 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Stostdet. 



Chinese.- — mi ; h.a.i=zsea. sliui. man. mo. mao. zo. heueh. 

,, ku. ho; ka (old) ; kiang=;;'i(W. yiii. 

,, ju=zraiii. ji=:wet. lou^dew. dap^Zflie. 

,, ch'ue'a=istrea»i. 

E. Tartar. — mu. muke. niederi=s<'fli. 
Accadiau. — me. a. ai. ab. ba. 

,, shcg^rain. aga=_//oof/. imi=r«iM. 

,, gid=rh-er. ab-zii. gur^fo flow. 

,, a-abba=«rrt. lagh=^o tcmh. nag^fo drink, 

Etruscan.— ar. epa. 

Dra-vddiau. — ar. er. nira. erram ; aru=r/rfr. rmm^rain. 
Basque. — ur. errio ?^rwer. aintzira^/fl'/:e. 
Caucasian. — tz\vrina=:/'am. dzeh. psez. 

,, tatso (Lap.), -wat. vis. yni. sgTva=wff. 

,, jog; wiro (Lap.)=ruw. pisscms ; sor; sso=>'«/w. 

Ugro-Altaic. — mora ; mcri (Fin.)=:sc«. ar. allot^2i'flj.'«. 

„ sarsh. wat. ai. wesi. viz. kynu. nai. arke. 

„ mut. mu. zoo. mo. hi. ki. ai. wa. ky. tu. as. 

,, su. sug. nare ; tschaii=r/t'«'. lamu. su. 

„ ur^rrt?'«. mar^^tffl (Lap.). 
Egyptian. — ma. mu. akeb ; uka.=flood. 

„ mati; uri ; j>C'x= flood, ageb. 

,, ima; uat-ur^sra. aa=ifo wash. 

,, ssh; mesket ; 'pch?=:a marsh. ;;(enna=?ffX-i?. 

,, mor. mas. at^dew. akana:=rffs«. 

,, aur; atur; alu=:;'(V«'. bar=M'<'//. hck^drhik. 

Malay. — ayer. 
Burmese. — yay. myit. 

DravitUau. — pani ; imara^dew. tanni'r. jalam. 
African. — mema. mese. mane. maz. 

,, mye. ma. min. man. meya. 

„ menuya. nietsi. mini. nyam. 

„ ngo. nu. nke. lu. lo. li. lam. lua. 

„ be. beni. amo. ame. ahma. 

,, aman. aya. akwa. anki (J^i/e). 

,, acho. hama. kero. hatsa. cam? 

,, ko. dok. onata. inu. uke. ira. 

,, eza. zi. sua. sama. 

„ mongo ; lu ; lo=;'(iw. bar; heni^ake. 

,, nyaiija ; irwa; ru-wa; kitanga=?«ie. 



SEmiic. 



Hebrew. — mayim. 

,, nahar^r(Vcr. yam^«pfl!. 

Coptic. — man. moou. iom. eir. iaro. 
Arabic. — bf'r. wadi. bahr. kiui^well. 

,, m&=zwater. matar:=;'«'j'». 
Assyrian. — mu. motra=ram ? 

„ manu. me. tsutsu=^ooZ. zib. 
Amharic. — wooha. azket^teell. 

,, baher^sf«. basash=rMYr. 

,, alma. mi. hor. zer. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



82 



AllYAN. 



North. 



Ameeicax. 
Central. t 



South.* 



"Water Words. 

English. — water, beck, force. ■welL river, lake. mere. 

,, clew, flood, sea. wash, drink, splash ? wet. 

,, wave, humid; moist, to flow, marsh. 
Sanskrit. — nira. iidan. ap. jala. udaka. 

„ mih=:r«/». varsha=:r«(». 

,, ambu. mira=«e«. vari=:rflm. uda. 

,, pa;::::^o drink. mi.itra^w«w«. 
Hindi, etc. — nir. pani. lanni. ar. wahe. Lhe6ga:=iM<. 

,, wa. am. chiir'hao:=;-('iT;\ 

Zend. — khonka mej;liem=;i«)/. wero=rrt/«. 
Celtic. — aber. dur. lo. siiir. can. 

„ an. oiche. lo('li=/fl/i:e. mun. dysr. 

„ air? gwy. ar. dwr. a. afon. 

,, dwrf. uisk. arh. oixe. abyr. bir. 

,, ebyr. ear? flynnou. forwyd. miiir. 

,, eil. cuan. orche. tiu. uirge. abhuin. 

,, aches, vakia. cask. waii. don. ei. 

„ uy. can. inver. allt. eas. dobhor. dour. 

,, sionann. mor; moige ; mara^sra. ga;neg^nWr? 

„ rheg=:/'ff/«. fi-as^nrm. tain ; inver=r/f«?". 

„ amhan; flynnon ; esk; axe; aber; ■^'yc^^river. 

,, [force; beck; gil; foss. — Scandina-vian.J ? 

Greek. — vSivp, ttotujuo?, veTo'?. vafia. vw. OaWaTra'^Sed. 

,, irTtTos^moist. 7riia^-:=a spring, xe'iu^^^o j?oi<'. 
Albanian. — 01*76. 
Zend.^ — apcm. 

Persian. — ab. darya^scs. chah^^tvcll. 
Portuguese. — para=rnY'r. 
Lydiau. — fiwv. 
Latin. — aqua. h.x\.vio\^moisture. imber^rflim. 

,, mare=sert. laeus=Z«^'«. lianrire^fo swalloio. 
Scandinavian. — vatic, vatu. {'Siki^icater-spirits ?) 
Lithuanian. — vandu. seer. sjar. apa. 
Slavonic. — wod. vada. oode. reka. teschu. ezcro^ake. 

,, moray^ifff. apa. ronaka^;v'i.Yr. Y'rn^^iraferfall. 
Teutonic. — wasser. fluss. see. piz. meer. zumpf=;w;ariA. 
French. — eau. humide. mer^.s««. 
Gothic. — vato. saivr. Noi'se. — hdra=^ivave. 
Armenian. — dzow:=«cff. alikh=;rrtr«. 

,, aka^spriiiff. hor^well (? Arabic). 



kho. aha. aba. unu.* pa. uks. 
nash. a.f sie.* po. koon. ak. sa. 
meanee. tsha. soTH^^fermented liqtior. 
oci|uie. ay>na. essaxili. mem. 
tza.* tsash. du.* eia. hauiri.f li.*" 
humu.* enak.* waao.* maja*^river. 
ahmah. huma.* pooz.* neah. aah.* 
hu.* uash. sahs. ui.* ia.* uni.* 
uhu.* waca. uke. he.f beb. 
pass-ayah^rwvr. ma.* dzu.* ko.* 
keche.* uru.* yaku.f to.* ui. ka. 
naahaa.* na. bat. mcm.f 
momi.f amayah=:ra'ej-. wahegu. 
(ama-zon^i-iver, S.A.) ? 
hahuirij-^r;Ver ; canoe.* 
sinu.* immek (Esq.). tsatl=:W-<'. 
wa ; bin ; strik=ra'«r. ogke. 
vaat. 



83 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SimDEr. 



AxniAxs. 
Chinese. — hu^^tiffer. sH; sliid^?/o«. ytaoi^leojjard. 

,, hu-ti^/ftr. Vu^hare. shaxi=:least. cha.\=^uwlf. 

„ s[ang^=elepJinnt. tuk=f«{/". 

„ ku; niu ; H ; jakz^wi'M ox. ngaxi=zhuU. 

,, ma; er; k'i^horse. In^ass. loh.-t'o=:.ca»>el. 

,, cVan^elk. luk ; pao ; tsu ; kia=(7e«r. chay^M^. 

,, cH; shih:::=lMle pii/ ; chu^/ioi/. 

„ hvi'an^ffoat. t'u ; ]s.u^la/>ih. 

,, liii^ram. lu^mmtiff. k'uen ; Mng^dog. 
Accadian. — lu; lid=:fOw. gug; vAu^sheep. 

,, kas-kas:=a*«. sig; pish=^/(jf. li'k=idoff. gn.d=ibulL 

,, kuT^iorse. gag=zantelope. ama^ivild hull. 

,, lii-Iim=rrtw. sikka^^ort^. dam=^^/^. 

„ kis ; 'kxirra.^Jwrse. 

,, skid^Z/oH. Iik-ma;i^:=?i'o» (biff-dog). 
Etruscan. — outu ?=idoff. damnus=7io/-«(;. 
Thibetan. — tah:=^/^cr. yak^o.r. chixnko=zwolf? 

,, lam; raraa^ irild goaf . rnaraa^sJie camel. 

,, jjag=^j/y. lug=:.s//ef^. idom:=/«o;'s«. 
Tasmanian. — leTanook.=l-angaroo. 
Polynesian. — puaka=:^;/y. wacca^js///. 
Corean ? — gama=^ors?. 
Malay. — singa^/('o«. lemba=:o.i\ karba^i»_^?o. 

„ hin^zsheej). kambing^s/ir^y. 

„ ]Liiw!in=zherd. 
Japanese. — kuma^icffr. zo^ele^tliaiif. ^oraa=horse. 

,, sli'ka;=r7«r. j\\mc:=sheep. 'bxita=^pig. saru=:a«s. 

,, (>okami=:;ci9//'. umi ; ushi=o.f. iora^tiger. 

Mongol. — kull^/o.r. kandagai=rf/«(/«f;-. uhcr=o.r. 

„ icvao^camel. irmis^a tiger. 

,, taoulai^/wre. katoo^5«(?iw. morui=//o;-««. 

,, ky; 'kor\:=dog. 

Basque. — v]icma=^jjig. ]aca^mo)iJ;eg. ahari:=j"«w. 

„ aquerra^(/o(7('. 
Mantshu. — moiin:=/io/-s^. gachi=^pig. onker:=o^. 

,, tuaulgi=//r«-c. kon; koj:=dog. kom=yoff^. 

Ugro-Altaic. — ])ors^pig. tar'wa.s:=bull. kos (Lap)=M;o. 

,, karhu; kuti ; ugmuki ; anukau; medve^ifflr. 

,, amp:=fZoy. shier=oj-; steer. 

,, ugoa; toumaki=/'rt;'(;. kayik^.fi'ff^. 

,, kar; osc-\\=:,iheep. kiir; bua=;co!i'. 

„ biick^o.?;. hewoiscjt (Pin.) ; guss=/(owe. at=:7ior«(!. 

,, kauris=:^oa<. (Fin.) vetek = .soi<;. 

,, \u\du=^cow. sa-rw^elk. mosha^coic. 

,, peura=;m«f/c«r (Fin.), key; kaik=(?oy. ga\=^cow. 

„ kadad=:fa^^Ze. ehmii (Fm.)z^cow. biea^ox. 

Mon. — khapa=yo«<. 
Berber. — alkoaki=^>/y. 



Semitic. 



Hebrew. — bakar^fOit's ; o.ren. 

,, seh=^sheep. attud=zgoat. ez. 

,, purash; sus; susah^forse. 

,, 'kelch^dog. sh6r=J»//. 

,, sh6r=o.r. zc^iihz^tvolf. 

,, giimxil=camel. p'ureh^coftf. 

,, akko^^roe-biick. 

,, hamor ; uth(jn=s/'f-«s«. 
Assp-ian. — sisu=//ors«. shuru^ox-. 

,, te; a[jm=bHll. kalbu=(?o^. 

,, aliidu^yoflA sakhu^io*?/'. 

„ kiiTu. ulu^r«wi. ].u.=zs}ieep. 

„ neshu=//o;i. 

Arabic. — air^riss. ri'm^sfag. txii^biill. 

„ his(:=zbuc/i. 

„ ayir; khousan=/i!orse. 

„ dalul=:rf;'ow(c(ffl';'y. 

Coptic. — ouhor^dog. kie=(70fff. 

, , i amoul:=('(?«; el ? 

,, bahsi; ehi=cow. 

,, esho^ p ig ; sow. 

,, bahsi^crt//'. laboi^Jcffr. 

Amharic. — para ; laam ; la:=coM', etc. 

,, wosha=(?o^. 

,, anbasa:=//o«. 

,, fcras=7i()?'s«. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



81 



SUNDET. 



Dravidian. — ■puli-=t!ffer. simlia; Bmga,ra-:^lion. dmvd^calf. 

„ pauri=:^;/^. koti=ibison. dnnrm^bear. 

„ a.nai=^ elq^hanf. kadnma-^stciff. karadi:=Je(?r. 

„ kara^/iorse ((ilioiul). pacu=co!<'. punrii=m<. 

,, mesluim^/'rtw. knr'mvdvi^s/ieej). ontd^cainel. 

,, cliuma==:J«aA kudukv^'ackal. iida^i/oat. 

,, ktittn^iiffer. 
Caucasian. — kliar. shiin^cloff. loma^ion. chemi ; tz[=zhorse. 

,, tsm^<'lep/i<mt. os ; elicri ; kan=oj;. t'chaz=ffoat. 

,, aklemi=c'««(c^. giiri=(7s«. la=/;or«e? \ioton=.piff. 

Corean. — mao ; zio=^ox. 'kaTam='wolf. shode=lion. 
Burmese. — tsin^elepJianf. khami=:coi<'. kjueh^buffalo. 
Indo-Chinese. — kliami=s/;cc/>. gara ; me^=ffoat. 

,, Y>arcn^buff}ilu. kacn:=fOiw. kyri=//o». 
Mongol. — stag=:</^e;-. tcke:=buck. tcmoz^cainel. 

,, arston:=a bull, gaca^pii/. akc=t/o<it. 

,, tserlik^/;or.s«. lay^caf. kgu^iiuve. 
Egyptian. — 'k.aa.ri^=(/oat. shaau=«oz«!. 'xA\=zanimal. 

,, kennu^iors«? mik.\=ibuU. kauT=OTi4',?. 

„ ka; ga=o.j;. labu; t'am; ta; shcna; mali=//o» 

„ kamaar^tfSOTe?. ses? sems=/jo/-se. ah; ab=;ca{/'. 

,, ^tit:=liriness. ar ; \«^deer. 'kahs^^gaielle. 

,, serau=:.s7i««^. ar ; Wiu^deer. 

,, uher; hx^dog. naa=(70ff/? 
Afn 'pmi — jagcrri; kama ; tau ; chinkuniba^i';'y«r. 

,, simha; turum^^/V/w. lalom=:(;tf;«(;Z (Berber). 

,, shukokim; c\my:\^eopard. tura; oko^^bull. 

,, uku ; tsu; ene=zeli'phant. 

„ nakac=OA'. lo ; la; gos; m'gombi^W!(j. 

,, ulu; kui'e ; kara; gbe; afu ; adsa; nifo; mboa=f7oy. 

,, kom ; ninge; engo; fatura; eko^eopard. 

,, shuku; ungur^/?o/;(i'rf/. esi. »o^wrse. so-sa:=»i«re. 

,, guara; keniu : simba; neiige:) 7- 

" '^ ' ' , ' [ ^lioii. 

,, tambu ; tau; lu ; kun ) 

„ aku; oruka; ba; baia; la; laba | ^ f_ 

,, pori; sireme ; bagai ) 

„ bakai; teko ; ouko^^buck. laba^deer. 

,, 'k.oo-doo:=anteloj)e ? kadara^/iorss. 

„ kuku ; kuro ; rigboko=://2«r(7. 

,, todi; gbo ; kokua; koko=:/;-oy. 

,, ogoro ; 'bi=zpiff. ngiia=io«r. agbo=rfl«i. 

,, bagamre; Icmcue ; ba; meme=«/«"f/J. 

„ gono ; koro ; ona=:, 



Semitic. 



86 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 





American. 


ASYAH. 


North. Central. t South.* 


AsiMAXS. 




EngUsh — lamb. ewe. cur. dog ; hoiind. goat. 


Bog. — jagoura.* shonka. ta-yo.f liki. 


,, jackal? colly? pig; sow; swine, stag. 


,, merteh. chichi. f cher. anakara. 


,, tuck. cow. hog. steer; ox, etc. 


,, kallatu.* kokoku. cannu. puka. 


Sanskrit. — kukkiira ; <;\an^doff. 


,, itzcuintli.f shonk. keikua. koks. 


,, simliaz=//oM. yyo-ghra^tiffer. 


,, yaware.* ka-meg("Esq."). p'ck. 


,, go^coiv. ■pac;v.:=catile. 


Bear. — sus. matto. yono. nriu. na-ne. 


,, chaga ; aja^ffoat. 'kui-o=:caIf? 


,, me'qati. 


„ aqTa=zJiorse. ukslian=o.i-. 


,, mvak. meerapa. uku. mari.* 


,, sukara=so!i'. qa(;a^i«re. {qy^swift). 


,, nannoke (E.). mavar. muckwa. 


„ rikslia^Jfrt;-. g\\hya=^fo)ioise. 'b'hek=Jro(j . 


Goat. — paca.* yuk. auoha.* 


,, akoasa^/iorse ? niaba=^;/y ? 


,, vicuna.*' 


Persian. — kliukgur=^;;y/. az ; hnz^ffoat. asT^=horse. 


chuika*=^i(w;«. ocelo=?/o« ; puma. 


,, Bher^ion. gur=o«rr(/rr. mCireh=zserpent. 


sha-u-ee=er/W cat. ak\=pig. 


,, kliar=«.s.s. gau:=cow. mesh^sJieep. sag=f/o^. 


cha-ra^biiffalo. ]Lha=zhiiffalo cow. 


Hindi, etc. — gaur=J('so«. mankhor=r(/o(7<. 


katchu ; tutzi ; ji\gnah=tiger. 


,, hiran ; goa^ffttzelle ? ga\\=:coic. 


hocto^hoar. i^ecch.ari*=^peccart/, boar ? 


,, clieetali^/co^;«;'(Z. bakri=^ortf. 


kamela; tsisk ; addik ; guaca*; quehf ; 


,, hagh^tiffer. 


kut ; huanaku*=:(/«w. aueha*"=^r{^(V. 


Bm~]>ig. 


ak ; kucbi=:^>('^. nmik^eaver. 


„ kutta=f%. gbora=7;o?-s«. 


no-kuse ; kusman ; tara* ; phanc=7ior*«. 


,, shikari — hunter, siri — (joatl barn — hoar. 


9358 ; yiskacha ; tarui*=;-«Mi^. 


,, snkht = /«»■(;. 


tavu; tuvu; toclilf; to; jo=hare. 


Pushtu. — spa'e=rfo^. 


oo-ki-lik (Esq.). waubos^r«JiiV. 


Phi-ygian. — ysxAz^sheep. 


tarukka*=:fi7'W sJicep ; hud,: 


Ostiac. — biea=:o.r. 




(See elsewhere for horse, ass, etc.). 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



86 



Aryan. 



Latin. — poi'cus=/)/y ; Im;/. lurcus=yo«<. sus=;so!<'. 

,, leo=/«o». canis=A;y. lupus=;fo?/'. 

,, taunis=/(«//. \i\.cca.-=LC0W . capcr=i7oa<. 

,, pecus=s/iec/) ; cattle. bos=o.;'. dama; dorcas^f/cc;-. 
Greek. — al'^=(/o(it. kdw/wi-^boar. x"^i">'^^^P'[h "v'i^sow. 

„ ^luij^ife (hence zodiac), ictiwi'^doy. 

„ ■ri)a^jo'i=^hc-goitt. uf>KTo^=bear. jiou>s=cow. 
Scandinavian. — drosid^/iorAY'. lam=/rt«iJ. 
Slaronic. — bik ; bak=o.r. lo&^zdh. kon=7(o/'««. 

„ medvid=irar. koscl=(7orir^. losliad^/(o;-s(;. 
Celtic. — muk ; uirceau==jij/y. hocha ; houcli=/(6»y. 

„ viocb ; hi; bo; bu=co((-'. poc ; pocan^^o«<. 

„ madaigli ; kalhc ; cu. cimaich:=(/oy. 

,, 911; ky ; bnad=f%. karw^s^rty. kaora=^0((<. 

,, tawr^5«(/?. damh=;o.i'. 
French. — rennc=zreindeer. chicn=rfo/7. 
German. — hocV^huck. m;ihre=//o;'.s« ; mare. 

,, h\uit\=:Jiouiid (^iund). kuh^coi^'. 

„ 'kote:=cur. z'mgc^r/oat. ross=/(o;'«o. 
Armenian. — garn=/(»«J. ezn=o.<;. 

„ shovL=^doff. 
Lithuanian. — shams^zdocf . 



NoiiTir. 



Ameiucan. 

C'E-NTUAL.t 



South.* 



ccaura* ; una=::«/(««^ ; ewe. 

ichamef=:s7j<!«^. llania*:=^aOT«. 

hukkiicha*^r«<. vuehf=/or. 

]s.oycha=itortoise. zokf^bat. 

okkoko ; koka*=:/roy ; toad ; lizard. 

so-pak-tu=<o«(?. 

amaroke (Esq.). 

tummc ; mo-ah ; ja-ha^wolf, 

cuitlanzitli=:/«o^()!r(?. 

chula=/o.r (= yiUa ?). 

tike ; 'kniaj^ion ; ^;M«(fl. balam=</^«r.t 

jagviara\:=jaffuar. ocelotl^ jaguar. 

ahuara*^^(yj//'. anta*:=('f(/;(V. 

txiizi^t ifjer. (Heve). 

ponoka=('tt. cniw a=.huffalo. 

aucha*= tapir. 



87 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 




A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



8S 





Amkiucan. 


Aeyan. 


North. CENxiiAL.t South.* 


Man. 




English. — ^kin. malo. husband, son. kith. mate. 


aha.* annin. yon. aba.* inin. 


,, I ; me. family. 


nuin. umo.* a.\Y=people. neneo. 


Sanskrit. — jana=^"w. manusha, man=fo think. 


uani.* cnene. hucma f tema. 


,, \aa.=to measure, manu. nara. nar. 


amo.* amashe. mena.* sunta. 


,, jama=tmti-brot/ier. Aama = household. 


i-A.] = mu.le; man. tamma. dohme. 


,, mfirfci=/oriw. manas — mind. ]s.\\\a. = family. 


tama. k'hommo. nama hama. 


Afghan.— zoc = son. 


hoiema.* qari.*f uare.* dara.* am. 


Santal. — hor. 


hahri.f = (('(/)/wH. me.* diua. dini.* 


Hindi. — Jan. manas = »iw(?. 


dinne jazi. ermuid.* anini. 


Greek. — di'/jp. ujli'ttip=mcde. ^^vo^^=mi7id. 


sune.* ncka. runa.* cin = .9ore. 


,, ciifio<s!= people. oiKOf = hoi(sc. 


uni. tenai. n:\]t'e = husband. 


Latin. — homo. vir. miis=male. gcns=/jeo^fe. 


matei.* emka. andua.* dame.f 


,, mn\icr= woman. meni<= mind. 


neka. taka. hake* = *•&«. 


„ femina = !row(«ra. domus = //o«se. 


umasoi. kosa* = husband, cune. 


Zend. — nara. morcte. 


masa=)»oo». mc = /, me. vinak.f 


Persian. — mard. nar = male. man = /. 


hanninf = brother, annin = tuan. 


Celtic. — damh=peoplc. iVac = man. bolg. g\xo\ = famihj ■ 


niuysca.* aht=people. ka. sueka. 


„ ar. an. miati ? dyn. duine. 


mnmomj =ancestor. xil>^ = male. 


,, eearn. reim. cia. dome. cas. \\i\=people. 


huanc* kiana,-\ = mouth. 


,, maon=ma)i. nert. ]liwL'd=people. 




., innai=«ie. /. nyni=i('('. toma=^7YA. 




Old Persian. — adam=/. taama.=j;eople. ma.itija. = man. 




Armenian. — ^1x1 = woman, mard. air. 




Scandina-idan. — manu. karl. 




Teutonic. — sonne. sun= so«. er. 




Caucasian. — (Iron.) moi. 




German. — mann. kind = c/i/7r7. mcnseh. 




French.- — homme. 




Anglo-Saxon — guma = ?»fl«. te-'im=people ? 




Italian. — s^poso = kHsl>and. 




Slavonic. — moosh. moo,shecma. 




(See elsewhere.) 




Beothek. 




Sanskrit. — bhratri. {hhar. xa]i = fo carry ; bear.) 


teicaugh. nicta. 


Hindi. — bhai. biradar. 


teaahautinf = «Mt brother. s!-sT. 


Persian. — biradar. dar=^ take; carry. 


hisauki.* ghuada.f (Othonii). 


Pelehvi. — berur. 


taka = Hi<?w. tata,=fatlier. 


Gci-man. — bruder. 


hako=«o?i. sie.f saea = son. 


Slavonic. — brate. 


hahrif =woman. tegu = daughter. 


Celtic. — brathair. 


akunf =.so«. neka =»««?*. 


Armenian. — eghbaii-. 


kik ; k'eok ; sh'ak^i/ounger brother. 


Latin. — fi-atcr. 


k'atek ; tai^ic = elder brother, hannin.* 


English.— brat ? 


kat; kii-\ = to take; carry. 'hmxno*= man. 


[?Has bhratri any relation to Ifew "^'orld, hahri ; hake; 




taka ; or Old World tuaka ; bar ; yaka. acha. kaka ? 




and W( = h.] 





12 



89 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SuiTDET. 


Semitic. 


Japanese. — donio. 


Hebrew. — em^mother. ishshah^w if e. 


Dravidian. — stri. sen. 




Chinese.— nu. niang. da (old), niu. na— mother ? 


Assyrian. — chirtu. wnrau^mother. 


,, yim=:/«;»aZe. cli'u=^o hring forth. 




Thibetan. — c\xn-mi.=^io if e. 


,, ashshatu. 


Burmese. — a-mah. 




Accadiaa. — geme. gal. ninni. rag. gin. 


,, zinnishtu ; sltu^wife. 


„ umu ; ama; imi?^mofher. dam^spouse. 




,, niii-:=ivife; lady. Cmmw^daughter ; girl. 


Coptic. — s-himi. mau^^mother. 


Caucasian. — masa — moon, nana, — mother. 




Lycian. — la-dar=M'(7« (Jadij ?). 


Amharic. — wond. ammah=/«cii'/(er. 


Egyptian. — ma-t:=;««?/if/-. TxiSca^parent. 




„ him't ; sa-t; xnemt^;cowrtra ? 


Arabic. — umm. 


„ ■^aYz=widou>. qua ? him-t^wife. 




,, hennu^g irl. kcnaM^womb. 




Etruscan. — imi^niaide?i. acxa^^mother. 




TJgro- Altaic. — ana. zin ? mama. ema. kiz. 




,, kilra. emet. cheka. -waimo (Ein.). 




,, kuree. naina. ne. imi. nisun (Lap.), anke. 




African. — junoo ? anna, yehana. muka. 




„ naa. onya. hona. numame. de. 




Chinese. — tie=da (old), fu. he. ba (old), ya. 


Hebrew. — ab. 


Dravidian. — appan. pithar. 




Aecadian. — ada. a. aba. ada. ga. pa:^^ make ? 


Coptic. — iot. gpo. 


Etruscan.— ai. 




Basque. — aita. 


Assjrrian. — abu. 


Egyptian. — atof. tcjia—aiicestor. anx=life. 




,, t'ii^nian. mahi^parent. hi^msiand. 


Amharic. — aba. abat. 


,, Y)a=zaneestor. t'a=:male. jiat^^peoplc. atcf. at. 




TJgro-Altaio. — baba; ceehe. ta-at. aja. atya. 


Arabic. — abu. (dhakar^wrt7<;.) 


„ atte (Lap.), tato (Fin.), anka. atah. 




Mongol. — abha. p ui. ama. atai. 




African. — baba. dada. tat-a. ba. ta. 




E. Tartar. — enie. 


Hebrew. — cm. a.mah=:female slave. 


Burmese. — amee. 




Chinese. — nu. na? ma=^female. 


Coptic. — mau. s-'inmi:^W03nan. 


„ iim=.wife. 




Aecadian. — ema. nin. dam. I'rai. iimu. 


Assyrian. — ummu. 


Egyptian. — m-at. him^t^irife ; woman. mahi=;wr«!^. 




,, {mn'=-to give). qna=(t'ow(flM ? ankh:=///('. 


Amharic. — enat. mcsht^wife. 


Dravidia,. — amma. ayi. matha. tay. 




Ugro-Altaic. — mama. amc. ana. ennc. 


,, saa.'t=-woman. 


,, omma. mamo. edne (Lap.), mum. 




,, ank. aidve (Ostiac). muori (Fin.). 


,, mesha — wife, ammah. 


,, cmnia (Lap.). 




African. — ma. aya. mamma, anna. 


Arabic. — ummz^^mother. 


„ 7n{'tshe:=?<'o»irt». ya-ya. aniai. 




„ noi. nana. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



90 





Amekicax. 


Akyan. 


NOKTH. CENTllAL.f SOCTII.* 


Woman. 




English. — luothcr. nirl. wife. maid. she. mama. 


kannm. china.* weeah. ami.* 


,, jeiniy=teiu:ile ? huly. dame. 


diiniie;* nnin^w)«». huaina.* 


Sanskrit. — stri. ]anam::=nwthcr. 


.sun. shema;* donu; ; naa-| — mother. 


, , Byaarii^mot/ier-in-law. 


guarmi.f nana ; wiin^Hider. 


Bengali.— ma. ma.ta.^^mother. 


rakka. wecwo ; wecwiki^if//*. 


Hindi. — nan. 


nantli.f cunha.f cunia.* cihua.f 


Latin. — femina (Juno, a ffoddess). 


samaeu. hahri.f nsii.j- kona. 


,, mater:=/«otter. cimnus. 


zeemo.* dansu=ii'//t'. masa=:/«oo«. 


French. — dame=fo(/y. 


uisis:=«M;er. marmi.*" panura. 


Greek. — 71H'?). "/vi'niKi'i. i'e7rofit=:proffe>iy. x'h'"—^'^'"^^'^' 


naca.*=:mother. nitemi.* uantli. 


Slavonic. — jena. tihaj-na. German. — madchen. 


d'ja ; g'ancm=zwije. stia'ne. 


Armenian. — kin. dzeminel^/'o ber/d. 




Celtic. — naing'. gcan. (ari=w;rm). nao=»!«». 




,, mcrch ? koinne. koinnt. been, geni^^o begif. 




,, banen. nighean. m=dauffhfer. 




Old Saxon. — cwcn^qiceen. 




Persian. — zan. kaniz^^«V?. ma,diir=zm.other. mtidah^female. 




Gothic. — guina=«v7J' ; woman. 




[Aryan root. — gim^to jiroduce ; generate.'] 




Fathek. 


balja. dada. ooch. oss. tayta.* 




tata. tatli.f patnah.f yaya.* 


English. — papa. dad. daddy, life? prooreator ? 


aha^man. appa. anak. 


Sanskrit. — pitar. tata. pa:=fo protect, janaka. 


ta^=Man. angoot^iiiale. (Esq.). 


„ -^a.t\=^lmsband. ank&^wok. 


attata (Esq.). annkha. man. 


Slavonic. — ozlia. otze. 


Ic. maa. man. te'to. so. 


Armenian. — hayr. 


kun (said by male) ; qat (by female). 


Celtic. — tat. tad. athair. dad. 


k'a=»j««. a'ta=yof?; sim. 


German. — vater. 




Latin. — genitor. pater. 




French. — pure. 




Gothic. — atta. Lettish. — tews. Lithuanian. — tewas. 




Bengali. — tut. pita. Hindi. — bap. baba. 




Zend. — federe. pita. 




Greek. — Trarijp. Tina. utto. irawTroi-^^ grandfather. 




MOTHEE. 




English. — mamma, mammy, {gal^girl) ? dame. 


mania.* ah-nah. marmi. 


Sanskiit. — matri. 




Bengali. — ma ; mata. 


amanie. me. naa.f layka. 


Old-Persian. — mata. 




Hindi. — ayah=:HMr.s«. 


gal. nanna. shcma.* yaya.* 


Greek. — /<7t///< (/in'/i/o/). •^imn'j^^tvoman. 




Latin. — mater. 


hona^ivoman. ta'a. tan. 


Italian. — dama. 




Celtic. — mam. mathair. nam. 


ma. atlT. naka^wife. 


Slavonic. — mat. 




Armenian. — mayr. 


cunia* ; nitemi* :=(co»ja». 



91 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUUDKT. 



Semitic. 



Chinese. — ts'i. tsu. ni ; ir = hni/. tsAO = free. 

„ mi; siao ; sliao ; yao ; vrei=liUle, young. 
Etruscan. — clan. 
Dra-^-idian. — suthar. 

Indo-Chinese. — kichai. thami. sani = w«». 
Accadian. — zi. a. Aax—liitle. (bi = boi/. 

,, tnr ; gi= little, sissi ; sm=brother. 

„ shar=fo shoot forth. gish=tree. Bissi=hrother. 
Caucasian. — ua. zui. ze. niisch. mse. 
Egyptian. — sa. nexeii.=chtld. atu=boi/. net'i=yo«wi7. 

„ i\.tet= a lad. mes= child? 'he-a=boi/. 

,, sems=eldest son. ncm ; 6hcr= little. 

,, shcvan = boi/ or ffirl. iit's^liftle. 

,, Ticxen = youth. ti[\cn = tree, hu = ?«««. 

Ugro-Altaio. — sak. pa. ma. ar. kisi. ninetz. siunk. natui. 

„ pyes. sen. son. kiim. oghool. \VAZ = brother. 

,, oggm=d(n(ffhter. pijiwa (Fin.), peiweg (Lap.). 

,, kistin = W('/?. wer ; ai(:ho=i/ounff. 

,, Fin. — n\xov=youiig. manna = /;o//. 

African. — nam. uma. ansa; ashkir = J'«/. 

„ knko=<7HV"^-f«. keke = W//«. dsdn=little. 

,, yen. dzanna; bushan = ioy. yu. 

,, sana = p/;(7(7. 

nan=brother. vioana. = child. 



Chinese. — tsie. tsi= yirl. 

,, n\\ = tvo)n(m. niu ; nii-er ; yim. =ffirl. 
Etruscan. — so;^ = f/(n'///i/fr. nuv^girl. 
Accadian. — sis. (^»issi = brother). ga.l = woman. 

,, gmo.=youn(j. <^\m=girl. 

,, nin =_(/(>/; tvife. dumu=/7;V/; daughter. 

Caucasian. — zin— family, da. clio. dashkun. 
Burmese. — amah. 
Dravidiun. — saho thari. 
Egyptian. — sent. 

,, nexGTi= child, nher^girl. &9.i= daughter. 
TJgro-Altaic. — suser. kis. nyl. cna. 

„ kiitz — kaixlash. kutz=_i7(V^; daughter. 

,, neita (Lap.) ; njl =daughter. pobem. bisop. 

,, ]nm = da)(yltfcr. 

African. — ndugu ; min=brother. 

,, mona=elder sister. 



Hebrew. — ben. tsa.'iT=little. 

,, ua'ar=Joy. 
Assyrian. — ablu. babu. 

„ pitiku = ('/(/W. 

,, maru. 8akhru = .sw)«//. 

,, sherru ; pishu=y6iM«(7 ; little. 

Coptic. — alon = child, shere = son. 

,, sn ; son— brother. 

Arabic. — ibn. (dhakar=?««/<;. 

„ dharrah = ff^o;«. saghir=swflM. 

Amharic. — Icdsh. tanash =47ym/^. 



Hebrew. — akhoth. \ta.i\\ = danghter. 
Assyrian. — nishu =people. 

,, akhattu. nabnitu = f7(?'M. 

„ iniirt\i = daughter. 

,, amtn = maid. 

,, zmmsh.t\i=female. 
Coptic. — sone. 
Amharic. — et. ledshetoo= daughter. 

„ st;'at-ledsh=_i7('/'^. 
Arabic. — \>va.i= daughter. ■akh.t=sister. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



98 





Ameeican. 


Aryan. 


NoiiTH. Central. t South.* 


Son. 




English. — little, kin. wee. boy. man. child. 


sune;*" fiunta.= man. cin.* su. 


,, c]uv}5.a-i = littk one. tiny, younker. n(^phc;w. now. 




„ kind, .shout, troo ? branch, hid. youth. 


tsi.f liua.f sie|=W//('. nama. 


Sanski'it. — putrii. .sQnu (from root svi=ito procreate). 




„ su. i\\x])i\:].=ijrttndiiOH. yava.a=twin hrother. 


sun = u)oinan. imn'k=gowig. 


„ yuvan. 




Zend. — pnthra. hiinu. 


nare;* i[Uim'''' = inan. paser. 


Hindi. — put. sunu. nixii=grandson. .sut. 




„ na\i=Hew. 'k\xc\ih.= little. 


pera. kooch =^little. m=I {ego). 


,, ja.i\n=f/oidh. 




Persian. — pisr. jaan = i/outh. ■niiYixdiih.= ffrandson. 


sie=Uttle. nanmm=girl. 


Pushtu. — zoe. 




Slavonic. — sziin. syn. izu. jvin\i=i/outk. 


uniu. tiniir. natsi. nah. 


Armenian. — ordi; tgha. sough. = Uttle. 




Celtic. — ua. seen. mcac. cear. luan. 


nani (naa.=woman). pilzuintli.f 


„ nea = wm». zen. clan. sil. 




,, mA = descetid<i>its. huth. 


tuaia=^/;-/. hua.* cin = Joy. 


Latin. — pucr = ioy. iic])os= ffrandson. nevus? 




,, nutus. \ni\\uii = i/ounf/. juventus. 


wai. huama.* hua-hua.* gua.f 


Greek. — vios. i/eos. ttui^. leicvov. fyeVo?. Te'xo?. 




Anglo-Saxon. — sima. son. geong=yo?»jy. mecg. 


hiic = boi/. hake, tshana. churu. 


Teutonic. — sunuw ; sohn. 'k\\\A = child. 




German. — nen^i/oin/ff. gnabe = ioy. sohn. 


ayllu =y««; itg. chichi ••' = son. 


Norse. — ma5r= child. 




Lithuanian. — simics. 


-mik'kec = small (Esq.). ]>isi = little. 


Sclave. — syuu. 






tu'ot = i«y. sk'se. qaholf = w?is. 


Sister. 




English. — daughter? girl. gii[=ffirl? 


snn=woman. qaca; sief=brother. 


„ niece, wom.an. 




Sanskrit. — .svasri. toka = r/(/W. 


x-sa; taski;* nasuim ; nika=y(V/. 


„ nanda. ncim\ami = da uffhter. 




, , naptri =ff rand-daughter . snusha=dauffhter-in-law. 


naca ; naa.=nwfher. sl-sl. 


,, nimdii = huslaiurs sister. 




Gothic. — swister=.SM^cr. 


nisis; iiaiia.= sister. 


Greek. — i'v^i6<i=daug}iter-m-law. veo'i=young. 




Hindi. — naptni =grand-daughter. baliin. 


cihuajf nuntii =ivoman. 


Celtic. — niliean; naing=«'o/»rjM. siur. 




„ ni; nic =daughter. nionag=girl. ehoar. 


mterm=datighter. kanisswah. 


Slavonic. — sestra. dci (tsi). 




Latin. — (nasccre) natns =horn. neTpos= grandson, soror. 


nunk-shone. nitu. 


French — naitre = fo be born. saiu.i= sister. 




Persian. — kanrz. kh'ahar. 


gal=^mofher. sVatiq=girl. 


German. — schwester. toehtcr. 




A rmenian. — kiur. 


mi&l^= daughters. 


Kurd. — kh'oyr. 




Zend. — chcnge. 





93 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Sottdet. 


Semitic. 


Chinese. — kok. kak (old) — 7(7. to tsuk. tuk. 


Hebrew. — regal. berekh=X-w««. 


,, ■p'a\i = fo I/O. da'k = fread. 


,, karsol = a»r?(;. 


,, (lak = ^o trend. i\i\i=.sfej)- 'kv:h.-\cn = micles. 


Assyrian. — shepu. alaku = !™?i-; go. 


,, bo = ^o run. ts\ih=Ier/. ])ok = b(i('k. 


,, padunu = >-offfZ. urkhu=yoMnw'y. 


TJgTO-Altaic. — kiissa. pud. kok. siielia. lab. 


,, kanshu = bent. garriru = n««. 


E. Tartar. — sahu=s7ioe. lagyl. no. 


„ karsxd=ancle. kharranu=roa(^. 


Accadian. — gin; di; du ; ra = to ffo. gir^foot. ga.= toffo. 


,, kibsu ; girn;=^j«/A. shuku = Z«^. 


,, dig. gad = fui>id. di\g=knee; leg. 


,, tuddu ; giiTu ; durgu—u-ag. 


Caucasian. — pog. pecchi. 


Arabic. — rijl. ka'h = /ieel. Ta.ks=dance. 


„ kukh=/oo#. 


Coptic. — rat. phat. arik. aur=/<'^. 


Egyptian. — pet. tebt. ret. kep=s^cj?. knlie=iw««. 


Ainharic. — eada = to go. igger. 


,, abeq = fe^; run. ]ia.-[> = to run; go. 


„ kurah=/wo^. 


,, kenken ; &x^X=^o dance. \v\v=leg. 




,, pad; \:)ah = io pursue. 


(N.B. — See crooked, old.) 


,, x^t- xas=''"'*- tot=J>and. 'ka[=knee. 




Dra^ddian. — kunnukal = (7?irfc. tal. pa'tham. 




,, kriru = /«jr. kuttn =dance. p5 = (?o. 




African. — keka. peka. peta. pase. eko. 




,, afo. bata. hen = leg. sing. 




,, t'sab. dedo (? = pcdo). itta. yi. 




,, nugee. kussengal. t'ooh. 




,, kokuro = A7(rt>. baka = Jow ; hent. 




Chinese. — tso = left hand, kon — to pull, chi ; di — finger. 


HebrcTv. — yad. kaph=^M/w.. 


,, tak. tso. 




,, shau. yau=^;rt;i('. kap ; ich. = to talce ; capture. 


Assyrian. — idu. re.shu. lak;itu = )'o take. 


Accadian. — shu. gad. ek — finger. tiig=^o fake. 




,, . zag = right-hand. g\\h = left-]iand. dib = fo take. 


,, qatu. makharu ; liku = ^o sc/s«, 


,, mar; gar=to gire. da. ti; tu ; te = to take. 




Egyptian. — tot. a. thi\ = finger. 'kai—paw. keT=carry. 


take, shuku 'i = hg. 


„ cnah = «r»i. (jeb ; \'ebt = /(rt».rf ; arm. heh^to take. 




,, hag; teh ; nt& = take, ma,; tu=_(7w. xep = /iWj». 


„ laktu=_yy«//(V. \mmx=right-hand. 


,, kahu = (7/7rt. shep. xefa=_j^*<. ermen = («v». 




„ dat. pah=/o go. 


Arabic. — yad. caa ? 


Nepaul. — khar. 




Mongol. — gar. gara. 


Coptic. — api. jo. shap. koh. 


Ugro-Altaic. — eU. kar. tok ; mm=fnger. ket. 




,, katal ; p:irna=/«i'/fr. ju = whig. kaymick =/oo<. 


Amluiric. — id. edsh. 


„ ki. kul. kiit (Lap.), kesi. ell. tM-ka=fnger. 




E. Tartar. — petche. sabu = 47(0«; glove? 




Caucasian. — kukh. kirrun, kwer. kiti=fnger. 




Dravidian. — karu = /(//. ta ; a\i = to gire. 




jVfrican. — peka. kogo. kako. akkaki. 




,, kuagu. kok. tu. dawa. toko. 




,, banka. naeva. \ia = to give, tu ? 




,, tan. kumi = .iVi3. 10. si\= to give. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



94 



Aryan. 



Foot. 

English. — step, knee, hock, crooked ? shoe ? leg. pad. 

„ shin, sluink. claw, ancle, paw. 

„ kick? run. toe. to go. step, stand. 
Sanskrit. — pfida. jangha. ri ; car=to go. kapati = /(rt'«f//'MAs. 
Bengali. — pad. jifi. YM\\\ = hue. 
Latin. — pes, pedis, sto ; steti ; statum = s^«;«rZ. 

,, itcr=a/ournei/, way. u:c = to yo. calx = ^^«^. 
Persian. — \nm = root. pai. 
Zend. — padha. barra=/yo. ar. 
Hindi. — takli'na=ffMcfc. jruia = _i70. 

Greek. — 'ttqv^^ ttocov. I'^po'i^foot^tej). Tn/daic. 7r?j'^v^=itVT'l8t. 
Celtic. — cic. ped. pan. cos. koes. sprag ? cas. seir=/(Ctf/. 

,, Ilk. spag=ji;fl'w. broatlh ; lat; hia,= to tread. 
Scandinavian. — fotr. fot. 
Armenian. — thath. tzern. otz. 
Slavonic. — niiga. = le(/. (tauka = //r?«f?.) 
German. — i)tad == foofputh. fuss. 'kBic= knee. 
French. — pied, sabot = «/(oe. 
Norse. — leggr. 
Lithuanian. — neta,s=thii/h ; leg. 



NoilTH. 



Ameeican. 

CE.NTIlAL.t 



South.* 



pat.* pats. po. pai. ape. kar*=foyo. 
pi.*(pui;* pateen*=/(awf/.) pata.* 
apo.* sit. nuchii.* n=to r/o. uoc.f 
paco ;* fan; pan; ak ; isTpcsikc = /i and. 
podo = /('^. puih.* gola.* gua.f 
chakqui.* tai. 1^0.]= finger. 
sacchi. caki.* looga.* by. py. 
tao.* keesapa. kuki. 
canka* = fc(/=10. tolniaii.f kayu."* 
konka*=^viec. oc* irie. loto. 
kussie. shou-shey = /(««r^. 
lloke=/(f/«rf. i\.iiiiQ=go (E.). 
itti. get; attec=^o (Esq.). 
k'os. si. sk'aqt. iha. 



English. — paw. arm. ancle ? claw, carry, catch ? limb. 

,, have ? finger, measure. No. 5. point, fist. 

,, give. keep. grab. palm. No. 1. wing ? 

Sanskrit. — pani. kara. pancha = i\'(). 5. eka = i\^. 1. 

,, angula— /?Hy«r. i\i(;=point. m'\ = to measure. 

,, irnia ; bahu = «n». {Ahix^to place.) 

Latin. — pugnus=;?i'<. manus. (capero=^o take.) 

,, quinque = iVb. 5. digitus =^w^«r. 

,, do; dare = fo (?«'i'«. armus. 

Greek. — x^'/'- Xn/i/3«i'(y. Ktoirrj. £iSwfii=give. 

,, haKTv\oi=finger. 7rij-^v!=arm. Trv^=jist. 

I' X>l^>'l = '^^»"'- /«'/"/■ 
Pushtu. — la'[>a=palm. 
Bengali. — hat. 
Persian. — panaj =Jist. dast. 
Zend. — arcma = arm. 
Celtic. — lam. Haw. mag. pen. glac. cas. 

,, sprig=^;rt«'. bar. dahai. brak. laon. 

Hindi. — dena =give. martol = hammer. 

,, rooka. reka. ramo = a/'w«. 
Slavonic. — tauka. geba. 
Armenian. — tzeru = finger. thath=^j«7w. 
Lithuanian. — ranka. 

Gernum. — hal)cn = Artr«. nehmen; haschen = /(rZ:('. 
Wallachiau. — pawen. 
Norse. — bogr= «?■««. 
Ai-yan. — hasta, yasta, zasta. (Canon Cook). 



mautl.f mamo. poh.* taehli. cab. 
\'dx=to go. ka ;"'■" chab=^o take. ka=/(a»(^, 

give. 
ma. maho. aman. pan. aha. gor(i*=give. 
jiaco.* iku. kollota=;?.s/. maki.* 
]>ixna=right-haii,d. tai=foot. acu. 
apa=to earrg. law. (pannumsio^t).) 
mail, maoua.* maqui. daha. Ilapa. 
manif=to day. 

ye.f maco.f ara=i!o gite. mahahtk.f 
looga. Hoke. ispeske=/4««rf. djin. 
gepo.* goca^'^ foot, acang.* zal. 
canka.* = /<'^. onca. ek. ca.^ =finyer. 
shou-.shey. picha* =iV^o. 5. 
cull. pat=/ooi. kuki = Joo!!. 
keHata*=/'.s^ kapata.* kan= to steal. 
ka ;* ■pa= to seize. tik-]iick.=finyer {}i.). 
pat;* U\o*=foot. 
tee-go=fo take (E.). tSk=finger. 
go'uc ; 'koni\.=thi(.mb. 



95 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUITDET. 



Accadian. — ge. miisb. mushtug. tug=fo hear. 

„ shi'g^f'o listen, gi. dan. 

Berber. — ukkega. 
Caucasian. — qiiri. an. lianka ? 
Chinese. — slii. er. ni. ngu. din. 

,, t'ing=('o /jc«r. {slicll=z.^e\; kak). 
Burmese. — nah. \\a\n=^navel. 
TJgro-Altaic and Mongol. — kuo. cike. ku. koolaek. agna. 

,, iikor. korwa (Fin.), pel. pila. 

Egyptian. — an^. mstr. stm=<o hear. 

,, Ties=fonffHe. aten ? 
Polynesian. — pei=slicU. 
African. — nua. hana. uwasso. uluk. 

„ utuh. okua. adan. etun. 



Semitic. 



Hebrew. — ozen. (uzn.) 

Assyrian. — sbemu^^o hear. uzn\i-:=ear. 

,, TinVlm^iole. 
Arabic. — utlbn. 
Cojitic. — maaje. 
Ambaric. — dsboro. bama=fo hear. 



Cbinese. — 'ki=^ireafh. man ; men=:s7«e/^. 

,, tu ; tze. pi (.ihell^-pei ; kak). 
E. Tartar. — oforo. 
Egyptian. — feut. m.aa.^air ? ka::=ireath. 

,, atix^^ear ; life. 

,, nei^^toiit/iie. xu:=si'!V2Y. 
Indo-Cbincse. — uakbu^wos?. 
Caucasian. — banka. findsc. scbwiri. msli^narel. 
Polynesian. — pei:=47(f//. 
Dravidian. — nasi, anuktin ; m'ukku. 
Accadian. — pi. ti=:li/e. wg'u^breafh. sim=«?8cW. 
TJgTo-AItaie. — aug. posa. jna. kamar. nal. 

,, nyr. nenii (Fin.). i)ei=»r/w6?. 

Afiiean. — bangi. cbinga. sico. bongo. 

,, naso^Mouth. nimg. io^^hreathe. 



Cbine.5e. — t'ien. t'im. ban ; bam (old). 

,, siat. zeb. yob ; i^i^eaf. 

Mongol. — klia=«io«^/(. lapibi^7f«/. 
Turkisb. — dil. 
E. Tartar. — ilongu. 
Burmese. — sbab. 
Malay. — tiga = tail. 
Dacian. — dalla. 
Tbibetan. — sbrul=.«??fl'^-«. 

Caucasian. — nuia. cna. lame^Z?};. gweli=s?i«/ir. 
Egyptian. — nos. ateb. anx=<'a'". 

„ isir:=/("rt/. dep. 

Accadian.— erne. imi. 

,, su=/()). sbib. 

Dravidian. — nakliu. talai. cdu ; ilai=7(r;/'. \'\\^iail. 
L'gro-Altaic. — mv^^nnae. k(d. alep. tcl. 

,, kotab=;y;//rt//?<.v. \w\^ear. dil. scbmc. 

„ nalem. niiiiii. kcre ; itscbali=/ra/'. 

„ k'gti ; lywat:=/''ff/'. \n-\=.ear. inna. 

African. — tele, lialla. dali. tolam. lakb. lella. ning. 

„ ncno. limi. ila. cna. la; ewe; ixio-=leaf. 

,, lila=/o cry. clcb. milalb. daka. 



Hebrew. — nasbam^io Ireathe. 

„ apb=«(/se. x\\&\\=^ivind, hreath. 
Syriac. — nabire:=?ios^;-(7s. 
Ambaric. — afinka. afcntsba. 
Coptic. — sba. 
Arabic. — adan. 
Assyrian. — appu. esenu^smf//. 

„ resbu ; k\\ix\::^height. 

z\h\i\xii\^ ail. 



Hebrew. — lasbon. 'aleb=Ze(7/. 
Coptic. — aspc. 

Arabic. — lisan. glniwal^.s«ff^'«. 
Assyrian. — llsbanu. kalu=^o speak. 

„ sbaptu^^yj. zibbatu=/fl(7. 

,, (-Wtw^^prominence. 

,, \\ru=^j}lial!iis. kibu^/o speak. 

Ambaric. — ambasa:=^7;. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



96 



Aeyan. 



North. 



American. 

C'ENTUAL.t 



South.* 



Eae. 



Engli.sh. — conk. lug. to licnr. tongiie. slicU. noise? navel? 

Sanskrit. — karna. gliosha. uabhi=wai'«/. 

Persian. — go.sh. 

Celtic. — tud. ogli. cluasiin. 

Latin. — amis (conclia=«7(,f W). 

Greek. — wt/ov; oP^. ('iKovw:::^to hear. 

Slavonic — us.s. uclio. 

German. — olir. 

Hindi. — nahh^navel. kan. 

Armenian. — akanclik. ounkn. 

Lithuanian — aidis. 

Aiyan root ? ar=e«/\ 



Nose. 

English. — tail ? cape. ness. scent, nostril. 

„ prominence, breath? 
Sanskrit. — ghrana. nusikfi. kuca^^ slirink, curl in. 

,, puccha:=^rt(7. ]i.uca^iiij/jtle. 
Hindi. — nrdc. nasfi. 
Persian. — hini. 
Celtic. — scrbn (canan^f on t/ue). comar. cuinean. 

,, ros-=promontori/ ; nose. 
Greek. — ^ivKTtjp. pw, 
French. — qucue:=^rt//. 

Latin. — concha^s/fc//. nasus. cauda^^n'/. mucus ? nares. 
GeiTEan. — nase. 
Slavonic. — noss. 
Lithuanian. — nolis. 
Annenian. — kith, ounch. 



khiunc. ceiin.f huchu.* conka.*=:?;o«e. 

eani (ghancf^ toy !(<;). ohta-kiss. oco. 

inaka.* (caua:=«w»'«). delasu=?Wf«^. 

cA\-=^tongue. nau. kiss. 

ekh. xAxx^^^tonijue. iota.* otovreegie. 

pasii. gu.f guk. tlTina. t'ena. 

k'olan. 



TONGTIE. 

English. — lip. leaf, tail ? palate ? lick. 

„ prominence, to speak, snake? 
Sanskrit. — jihva. vac=('o speali. luigam::=p?iallus ? 

„ lih=fo lick. ta\rA=z/ieat. 

Greek. — ica\eu!^to call. 0i'i\\oi'=?ca/'. ^Xit'Tjn. 

,, \a\iw:^speak. ^e7\o'i=:lip. CEt-)(^w. 
Latin. — lingua. Inhrura^ip. folium:=^ert/. 

,, gxila=:fJiroat. 
Slavonic. — yahsuk. golos^icad. 
Armenian. — lezou. 
Lithuanian. — liezuwis. 
Celtic. — liab. canan. teanga. duille=/fff/'. 

„ ligim=;/o lick. 
German.— zunge. zagcl^tail. blatt=/f«/'. hals^f/iroaf. 
Old German. — zunka. 
French. — langue. cxie^iail. anguille^eeZ. 
Hindi. — pat ; dal^eaf. 
Persian. — zaban. 



cenka.* cana.* cinga. uk. cam. 
nau=('ff;-. sohn. yame. henka. 
cani. kinaga. huohu. kcnka. hu. 
coson. cn*^to)iffue. no-din=M';«f?, breath. 
kuchuch;* tuciira*^/a(7. kei-nok (E.). 
puchu ; * chupu ; f vicchinea*=;^«(7. 
tio. me'kscn. kiin. 



tuuu. tenilla.* glume. f gu.f 
linga.* aku.f ahnak. lakka.* 
cuit-lapalli=/rt(7. pu*;=/c«/. 
del.* ulue. thoula. kanik. 
cu.* hcnka ; cana'-'rr^o.sp. 
tatsih^iead. hol^iole. 
wce-laulo. nuna. kuchuch *=/'r7 (7. 
ni ; 7ia-::=ispcech . ceallu.*" 
inquill=/fff_/! pakani ; iancs:=?ea/. 
tl'ot. tatia. gyi'lem. 

13 



97 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SONBET. 


Semitic. 


Malay. — m\\ni=:face. Mongol. — taVd=ranei/. 


9 

Hebrew. — hoT=Jwle. pch. 




Chinese. — kii=rrt//py. k'au ; hu ; go^(/afe. k'iu^7/o/e. 






TJgro-Altaic. — krapoo=c/rt/c, door. ko. kau. kba. agkitz. 


„ khek=:^aZafe. na.iih.am=to breathe.] 


,, ukfi=iffate kom^raNf'i/. kurga. agUtz. kuu^S«%. 






Caucasian. — mukam. 


Assyrian. — pu. daltu^rfoor. 




Accadian. — ka. ku. gu=.sj»«r/(. kan=r/fl!'e. cma— tongue. 






,, gal=rfoor. gnd. mu-niu^i'o cut. gab^^o gape. 


,, shuplu=fKH;(KS. 




Dacian. — Aa\\A=^tongtie. 






Dra%-iflian — kapi3ii:=«rti'f?. 


,, khurni=7io/(;. babu.=y«/#. 




Egyiitiau. — ro (?r=k). hat^gafe. ken. qcr^circle ; hole. 






,, \icalok=:cavitg. k51g ; holk^cuned, lent. 


Coptic. — ro. bab=crtie. 




,, kar^inside. haka=zvaUeg. 






„ dapn. makarta^cai'«. cliapa:=««»e/. hetkau=ojB<'». 


„ ouatuc^»os«. 




„ 'kcnau:=!fomb. hoqr.=z/(U)iger. mrit=^ hind. 






Polynesian. — kona;=»-flwi. manga. kana=^ eat. 


Arabic. — ghar:=c'ai-c. fam. 




Dravidian. — kugai ; kelii=rar<'. 






African. — naso. bo. dabu=:«crir/. kun. nelii. 


Amhaiic. — shamak. alu ? 




„ iwo ; iiko^naret. enu. da. unu. 






,, daka. eku. ko ; ]L\i=idoor. mana. aru. eru. 


,, kadaka^/iO?^. 




,, manna, me. dali^tongue. 






Thibetan. — snyin ; semQ=:Jieart. 


Hebrew. — Homered, dam ; tetab= 


-.heart. 


Ugro-Altaic. — -wen. szi^ieart. kann. yiireck=7(frtr^. 






,, syda. sem. 


Coptic. — snaf. ter.sh. het. ter. 




Chinese. — hit. mi't. sani. sig=r«'f?. kik. am^ieart. 






,, hsiieh. si-su^dead. 


Arabic — amd. qalb ; khTitir^i eart. 




E. Tartar. — scngi. tchsu. muchu ? 






Accadian. — mud. gud. shag^ieati. sa. 


Assyrian. — sharku. adamatu. 




,, zi^ife. shim=:/(efO'/. us^b/ood. 






Dravidian. — hidiija.:^hea)i. irrattam. 


,, sumku. libbu=7«'«/'<. 




Caucasian. — urki ; guiiz^heart. schita. syrch=rc(f. 






Malay. — hati=/«m/-!!. yahra. 


Amharic. — dam. yakala^;v(7. 




Polynesian and Papuan. — koko ; dugo. saqno-riki. tscra. 






Egyptian.— sent. tcAn-r— red. al} ; x^^'^- hati=/«'«r<. 






Atncan. — bir. edsi. dsi. bu. zem. mas. 






„ dcie^zbellg. 






E. Tartar.— dyl. 


Hebrew. — rosh. 




Indo-Chinese. — kop. katau. 






Chinese. — shau. su. mieu^= /«■('«. tix^g/raf. 


Arabic. — ra's. 




„ yih. t'au. du. hieh. 






Malay. — hat\^ieiirf. 


Coptic. — api. jo? afe. ta. 




Ugro- Altaic. — kluch. kola, koigo. kcd. bash. 






,, kaglu. re.sh. cukku^/(rt/V. njak^necJc. 


Assyrian. — reshu. kakkadu. 




,, pii. dagh^/»7/. lub= /«;•(■/«'(«/. chaiiy:=/fl!ce. 






Caucasian. — t'wai. 


,, zuktu^fop. \i\mm=.pea7c. 




Accadian. — kara=/i(7/. iikii=hig/i. gu. sag. 






,, tig. du. gud. mu. ka; imi=z/ace. 


,, iihMiu=:moimtaiH. 




Egj-ptian. — tetu. tcp. tiitd. kai ; iixa=/iigh. ta=/ace. 






„ mixt-:=iitrorig. maxaq ; x<-'t^M«/i:. ap. 


Amharic. — ras:^top. 




African. — ko. ku. kai. mutu. olo. agher. 






„ yiru. ori. bol). yika. mo. isi. ta. 


„ angliat=neck. 




,, mum. 8uk=//rt(>. kuka=?-oc/-, peak. 






,, kung. koor. klogo. go. ko. kohho. 






,, la. tu. bo]i]ic. tabu. mutu. dasa. 







A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Aryan. 


Americak. 

North. CiiNTKAL.t South.* 


JIorTii. 

Eng'lisli. — cat., nmncli. fiiiincL circle, chew. oavo. 

„ liulo. door, throat, check, mo (I. No. 1 ?) 

,, open, round? valley, gape, hollow, box? 
Sanskrit. — kuyi-d^/io/r. niukha. 

„ dvixm^duur. oshtliii^//y>. 
Celtic. — ceg. cean. genau. man:=^o eat. 

,, curnz^ItoUow. beal. gaeta=//(//t'. eel. 
Albanian. — 70(6. Persian. — Tn=.J'ace. 
Latin. — cavca^rt cavity, bucca. cimnus. os. circulns. 
German. — laut. loch ; liohl=//o/tf. mnnd. ^cViev— cellar. 

,, essen^^o eat. gimmcn^^palate. 
Greek. — ko7\o^. Kvfifio>sz=hollou'. rpi/Tra^wle. ttv^. 

,, ii€w:=to speak. KVKXivi-^circle. Ovpa^^dnnr . 

„ aTofKt^zmouth. r.jv,')^=LWoman. KccXwi^ip. 
Hindi. — yoni^?^'o/«S^Chinese yaen:=circlc ? pet:=K'OH/J. 

,, ghav; kandar=:(V«v. bil=//o/t'. h-.dku^circlc. 
Slavonic.. — rott. varote^y«^«. mezaz. dol^ralle//. 
Latin. — mangerc^fo eat. 


chi.f u. qui. ca.f mu(liu=M«7.:. ha. 
uk ; ceidca;* hu^«ow. yencu. ku.f 
lakka.* ukku*=/iollutc: sane.* yu. k'a. 
shum. maukana*=/o eat. maku. 
sohn. simi. cenn^car. hoi. kanik. 
qani^to feed. ]nikru*^(Y/cc. sti^/o eat. 
koptra*=c(?i'«. poncu*=:f/oor. df\*^tonr/ue. 
cana=«o.s«. vig=/ioZ« ? hob*=:;r/oor. 
kan-nee-pa (Esq.). pa-kint,— /(o/« (Esq.). 
raank'd.*=./ood. 9ogin. pamf:=if//y; hollow. 


Blood. 
Englisli.— red. heart, life ? kill ? vein ? 
Sanskrit. — rudhini=r('(^. hridaya^Acrt^-^. rakta. 

,, asan. smi^^o drop. 
Greek. — al^ia. ipop'::=.heayt. 

Latin. — sanguis, mucus. coccinus^/-<;(Z. cov=:hcart. 
Persian. — khnn. Zend. — ereslieem ; zered^/jc«r<. 
Gei-man. — blut=Woorf. hcrz—Iieart. 
Celtic. — gwar. crau. siol. coch=red. 

„ snnadh=; J/oorf. 'kixli\n=zheart. cride^icart. 
Shnonio — wen-i. krasnee=>Yrf. serdtzay^Aertri. 

,, schermo=;vr^. krovee^ Woof/. 
Armenian. — sirt=:/*f«rA-^ arinn. Caucasian (Iron). — thuh. 
Hindi. — surkh=/Trf. hiyix^ieart. Hunza. — ai=w(// heart. 
Lithuanian.— szirilis=/(e8r<. Greek. — Ka/>cia^ieart. K)jp. 


uah. sutsa=r<'r?. iso.* kik.f 
kiket. tek. mokum. bah. cuallo.* 
estli.f ghi.f ts\iiil=rcd. 
yahwa.* erat. zahhuar. soncho=/«efl!r<. 
zeh. hihe»^i eart. svk^ieart. 
sekroon=:ref/. kikf^ilood. 
a-60-nah (Esq.). ci. hosmis. Qo'cjin. 
tek ; selhi ; tsale^/(««r^. kux:^/iearf. 


HE.4.D. 

Engli.sh. — top. face. hair, mountain, cap ? strong ? 

,, poll. pate. pash. skull, peak. neck. 
Sanskrit. — agra^-s;<«(w;V. kakiid^pcak. 

,, (jiras. kapala^.sZ:M//. brila^/(«(r ? 
Hindi. — kacli ; cuti^//ff/;-. 
Persian. — tab^f'ojo. sar. koh^/«7/. 

Greek. — ('U-fia^zfop. niipa. Kapiifov. opo^=imountain. Ke(pa\)'i. 
Latin. — caput, pileum. =(■«/;. vertex ; cacumen^^o^. 
Armenian. — gloukh. 
Polish. — gnrk^f/iroat ; necl-. 
Slavonic. — galova. glava. golos. 
Italian. — testa. Zend. — cara. sara. 
German. — haupt. kopf. gesicht=:/(/f('. topji. 

„ k'6mg=ki)iff {head), kchle^throut. 
Celtic. — kloigcau. jx'.n^iiwuiifam. cenn. 

,, baic. baghar. ken. copu. pig. beic. 

„ toin^moaiifaiii. 
French. — tcte. ehapean=7(a<. Lithuanian. — kepure. 


pacu.* pan. ikei*=/i«/r. acang.f 
■pcgke.=zhead. pok. hete. yaeac.* 
baccha*=y;-«a<, kit/h. pah. ikah. 
chuca*:=/MW-. kakha*=)'oj'; of a hill. 
tata que.f coba.f taken, thie. 
ta. tuts, chukku-'^cff/i. tore, 
ta-pa. katchstakh. eni^iouse. 
kah. ikah. ppekei.* acang * 
xawku^nec/c. uchu.* apoo. 
tatsh ; taesh^iair. boppe. dup. 
uptup. ne-a-kokc (Esq.). 
ke-niak (Esq.) ka-ou-ga (Esq.). 
ca. kiitse. moo^. kenek=?(aX-. 
vach*'=/(7Ctf. 



99 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Sttntibt. 


Semitic. 


Draviilian. — kesam. 


Hebrew. — se'ar. Tosh=head. 


Ctiinese. — san. slia. mao. mu. sa. 




„ shan ; aiu^Iiend. cT^wIiis7:ers. 


Coptic. — bu. fo. sbne^« net. 


Accailian. — kislii. su^bcard. sag^head. 




„ sig. z\ig= wool. 


Ambario. — sbar. tsequr. 


Egyptian. — sii ; sah^head-dress. liinsti. ta. 




„ karna. slien. seh. ha-t. 


Arabic. — suf:=«-oo/. sba'. 


„ y^ah^bcard. Ishaau^Iiead. snu. 




Ugro-Altaic. — to'spon ; schaqs. skautja (Lap.)^J«ar(?. 


Assyrian. — sbartu. nabasu=!roo7. 


,, zac. shag, satch. bukka. cac. \o])ta~leaves. 




,, rcsh ; og ; f 6 ; oike (La'p.)^head. 


,, masbku^/«V/e. zaknu^beard. 


,, -parda^betird (Fin.). 




Mongol. — nsu. kutsu^HffA:. Caucasian. — toma. sliatz. 




Afiieau. — xika^^Jietid. tsabka. sere. 




,, ku; isi=fietid. zau. ikarare. 




,, kimsi. sitsi. asi. sak. kanimu. 




Kurile. — pone=Jo««. 


Hebrew. — keren^Aoj-re. sben. 


Dra vidian. — tautham. 


Assyrian. — sbinnu. \ani\i=horn. 


Polynesian. — hake^zcrooJced. tang; (lauga=:^oo//j. 


,, sbin ; \nri^iiori/. 


Mongol. — g'n-am=bone. icta. yesa=Jo;;p. 


„ sikkatu^itfffX-. kiretu=/c(T«^. 


Chineso.^ — ivak. si. t'in ? ya. ch'i. kub. 


„ karu ; akiihi^to eat. 


„ kak=Jo«e ; Jiom. kiob^JoHY-. kat=icut. 


,, dwami^J/ard. 


Caucasian. — rka. dendag. zib. 


Arabic. — sinn. qam=:/(or». vauk^iom. 


Aceadian. — kak. si. gar^^o eat. sig=ihorn. 


Ambaric. — ters. sin. azent^bone. 


Ugro-Altaic. — takte (Lap.)=Jowe. peuk. paduc. tang. 


„ nakasa^io bite. 


„ kar=/i(?/-rf. tez. saw. ten. sarwi (Fin.). 


Coptic. — najhi. obni. tap. kas=Jo«e. 


„ kcnk. discb. sior=:/iora tiwa. tibe. timia. 




Egyptian. — abb ; tes=tooth. bemti ; kai'nat=;7(Cir». 


[See Ceooked, etc.] 


,, ho\'k=:nail. sekb^fo cut. xfil^^froo/a'f?. 




,, sabu ; ten; aku=/o cj^^. kcs=So?ze. teste=J«fli'. 




African. — kuru. aku. kanga=/i(7;-f/? dino. 




,, kau. time, cyo (^ti-yo ';*) lecno. sou. 




„ oso. soku. kolo^kora^««ri-ff?. pak. 




„ din. teta=/o bite. irku. 'ka=:Jm>-d. 




,, na. nyi. dino. ckki. eknu=;/o bend. 




,, sila. eko. 




Dra\-idian. — pangju^fo/i'ow. 


Hebrew. — ga.g=^roo/. 


Aceadian. — tig. tu. 'kiku^Jiousc. tm=:life. 




Egy[)tian. — peqit=//»«i. t'ai. sa. ubcx- 


Arabic. — bri'ik=rt linen wrapper. 


Cbinese. — ta. tan. pui. tak^to weave, hwa. sheng^io live. 




,, tsih^^o «/;/«. zik^f/o!'/(. 




TJgro-Altaic. — tiku:=,9ffr«/c'«/. jay leek. 




„ kuricb. cbusicb. nakka. 




African. — togo=shirf. tsaka. tugwo. kusa. awu. 




, , okua. koat ? 






(Sec Part I.) 



A PHILOLOGICAL TA15LE OF ACCORDANCES. 



100 



Aeyan. 


AjIERICiN. 

North. Central. t South.* 


IIair. 

Englisli. — wooL head, tross. beard, busli. wliiskor. 

„ sliock of Lair or corn. polL jxish. leaves? 

„ fleece, thatch ? 
Sanskrit. — kega. qirns^ /imd. kaca. kuutida. 

„ kshupa; chhiipa=:« izWi. hala ? 
(Jreek. — Kofii/. O/n'^. Kwi^a Jieece ; wool. kIkiwo^. Krip. 
Latin. — criuis. pilus. 
Celtic. — .sioch. bil. 
Lithuanian. — harzdH^bMrd. 
Hindi. — chaka. cuti. 
Slavonic. — zub. chcrstee. volossii. 
Armenian. — moroiisk^bcard. her. 
Persian. — mu- 
Afghan. — wokkhtah. 


zoz.* tzotz.f sahua.* tusu.f mu. 
koshahoo.* kal.* cutz. cuca. 
soeca.* ikei.* tatsh=//(Y«/. 
chuca.* xta.f chupa=</Y'«« of hair. 
kakhstakli. gue. kutteko. tash. 
kakka*=foj9 of a kill; peak. 
mitko=_/«r. too-wa (Esq.). 
sa'ia. ma'ken. S(iik'en. 
sk'oans=i('«r(;?. itzmal.f 


Tooth. 

English. — horn. beak. bone. hard. fang. tine. cog. 

„ curved? tusk. bite. gnaw. claw, hack? 

,, ivory, chew. nail, crooked ? 
Sanskrit. — kankatika^comb. lialu. danta. 

,, ak=<o cut; pierce, crooked? qringa=/;o;'w. 

„ vakra=:eMrt'e(^. nakha=«fl!7. 
Zend. — aka=r7, pohif. srcono^/iorn. 
Persian. — suru. shakh:=/;()r«. dandan. 
Latin. — cornu. os. dens, dcntis. nncus^ciirved. 
Greek. — Kepa'i, oSovv. ow^'^chtw. pv^^'^^o^'^^-hca/c, 
Celtic. — dyns. dant. piacal:=5o«6'. atUiarc. 

,, ghabal. feacc. croc. 
Afghan. — ghakh. Hindi. — dant. hi5r ; asthi=io»e. 
Hindi. — shakh ; smg=//w«. Armenian. — atam'n. 
Scandinavian. — tand. vngl.^iiail. 
German. — zahn. zachen. knochen=Jo««. 
Slavonic. — zub. rog. nogteo^«fl(7.s. 
French. — ougle=M(?(X hce^beak. 
Lithuanian. ^rags^/ior« (? Eng. rocJc). dantis. 


kirau.* quiru.* tong. tanus. 
tlautli.f tollau.f tullu.* cXvi=lone. 
cui&^^to cut. ha-okah. nati.* 
io.* zah.* gua.f huakru.* hall*? 
yen. garra.* saca.f co. sa.* 
dza.* yah. onna=:io«e. totlan.f 
tsi.f hogua^Jo»(!. naka*^M«(7, comh. 
kak=.s^«r. akaklln^i/VfZ'.s heak. 
pakh:=iu»c. tangwa. kchaka.* 
cang.* nahe.f ke-u-tcet-kii (Esq.). 
nag-gee-6 (Esq.). heow-nik^io«e (Esq.). 
kookee=»«(7 (Esq.). qak; s'ak=JoK^. 
oq. nan. dz'en. gyiky. yi'nis. 
qia'k. 


Clothes. 

English. — garments, etc. to weave, coat, covering. 

,, sark=.s7/jW. (See Skln.) 
Sanskrit. — tri = ^ cross over. 
Hindi. — choga=^««!V. parchri=rfw^/i. kutn^co^/o«. 

,, chhat=/-oo/. 
Latin. — toga^tiin/c. texcre=i'o weare. tunica? 

,, cutis =. ■./,■/«. tcctum^roo/. tego=cot'er. 
Greek. — pnKos. 
Lithuanian. — plankas. 
Celtic. — aodach. cnltac. hrsccie^lreeches. 
German. — twch^cloth. 

Slavonic. — te]iat=zto icctrre. koja:=«/i;;'re ; covering. 
Armenian. — cliouka ; k'tau. 


togai. pacha.* he. 
tilmatl.f pahru.*^47(«'<. 
yacolla.* tiki:=«-os« ; tie. 
uncu.* 



101 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Stixdkt. 


Semitic. 


Chinese. — ^yen. mu. nye? t'ien=sZ-;/. mok. 

„ ch'u. di. zi. ngun^ei/es. hill. 

,, kien^^o see. shi^to see. ts'e. 
Dra\ddiaii. — kan. netiram. kelii=rar«. 
Accadian. — ne. sM. gin^««e. zal:=%/(<. 

,, iti= »(oo». sig. enum. 

„ anii=s/,-i/-(/od. mu^hearens. sig^=star. 
Egyptian. — nennu. merti. an. ma; nu — to see. 

,, ^a,=ito shine. 

„ haTii^dai/. ra^stm. shxi^liffJif. aba=#o see. 
IJgTO-Altaic. — sei. scliim. sseiil. selii. silu. sin. 

,, szem. kus. ain. na=s^7/. nogi. giitz. sima. 
E. Tartar. — esha. yase. shun ; gim=;«««. 

,, hurara^r/ff//. nan^sl-//. 
African. — intva. uuko. khasso. ali. koi. 

,, ]e. eL ile. ze. aita. liaslii. isu. 

„ nito. ne. sun. ycL icho. lisu. 

„ nya. auku. liklo. yissa. liho. 

,, num. sooa. odsu. di'z. mo. raasa. 

,, lelaugu^si/«. kuno=f7/('. iira=(7(/y. 


Hebrew. — ayn. raah=:^ see. 
Coptic. — bal. nau. eiorh. 

„ ouoein=//yi'<. 
Arabic. — ayn. iioor:=light. 
Amharic. — ain. awaka=<o hiow. 

„ semme^sl://. 
Assyrian. — enu. miru^ir/ht. 

„ khatu ; idur=fo see. 

,, aru=^ shme. 

,, urru ; xmm^dai/. 

,, shamshu=SM«. shamu=s^-y. 

,, nuru=Iif/hf. 


Chinese. — sien. Sf^coloiir. We=:ei/e. 

„ kicn. shen. ssu. 

,, nu. yen^«y«. shu^ ?//■////(/. 
Accadian. — sig. sin. sar=.s///«£". mu=/if«c«w. 

,, tin. mar. 

,, si; sir^Iii/Jif. kin. in. 
Dravidian. — kan. 
Egyptian. — shu=:/(r//(/. ka ; teka=fo see. 

,, seheq:=to see. san^to observe. 

,, shuu=«»». 
Indo-Chinese. — nun^cyi?. 
Thibetan.— iiiik. 

E.Tartar. — kahna. hararu. yase; hal^ei/e. 
Ugro-Altaic. — sei; shim; sehi^cyc. 

,, na^.s^7/. ncndie; am^ei/e. 
African. — ne. nito ; masa^fye. ye. nea. 

,, liklo; liso; li; sooa; gicko; zc ; isii=zei/e. 


Hebrew. — 'ayn=(;y«. sliam=«Z-iVs. dim ? 

,, raah^fo see. 
Coptic. — cidrh:=ei/e. kosht ? 
Assp-ian. — hwi^ei/e. idu. 

,, amaru; khiitu^to see. 

,, namaru ; mi^fo shine. 

,, shamu:=.>(Z7/. nuni^ iffhi. 

,, ■pKu^ifhife. shamshu=«M«. 

,, naplusu=^o see. 
Amharic. — ain:=(>yc. '-dld^ir/Jit. 
Arabic. — 'ayn. 


Egyptian. — kenau^«ro»(J. bant, ken ? 

,, ;y;emem=:«Y;/;(ff«. hennu=y»7. Iiimt = «v7c. 
Accadian. — genie; cmc^ icoman. kan=yrt^e ; tree. 

,, mur=»(«M/A. gana=r/rt/Y/('«. 
Ugi-o-Altaic — kan^OTO!(//); Iiole. ]icna=zm(m. kon;i=:/c«<;. 
Thibetan. — kwn—liole. cum-ma — tvife. ka, — mouth. 
I'olynesian. — kane^wo;«(7». 
Papuan. — kene:=?co;«f?M. kane:=«(wi(//(. 
.ra])anes(\ — kuni^fOMw/ry ; field. 
l)ra\-idian. — \>n\^n-otiih. 

Chinese. — yn\z=^thro(d. yncnz=eirel.e. kan^ree. 
Aflican. — j'elima; im\iona:=ico)ii(i>t. kiini\=zmoutk. koni=^r«c. 

„ amo=.lreast. \ion=dour. \iim\=ivommi. 


Coptic. — shimi=!('o»;rr». 
Arabic. — rihm = womb. 
Hebrew. — rehem = icomb. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



102 



AllYAN. 


AMEIirCAN. 
NOKTII. Cn.NTltAL.t SoUTU.* 


Ete. 

EngUsh. — to sec. light? sun? to ogle (look. sec). 

,, spy. ken. day ? seek. 
Sanskrit. — nayana. nabhas=«/i:y. Iksh ; Ai[q=to see. 

,, ukshi. i)aq=^fo see. netra=:(^y«. aknia? 
Hindi, etc. — nak^«/,:y. aiikh. aklii. amn^s/ci/. naiu. 
Persian. — kliau. ar. L-liashm. kbur=«(e«. 
Punjab. — kan. 
Albanian. — su. notc=«M«. 
Zend. — circ:=dai/. 

Latin. — oculus (admire?), iris (o/^y«). mctarc=fo wink? 
Greek. — oV-o?. cUae. el'cio. o\jr. ijvL ofi/.ia. XevKov^^light. 
Armenian. — atcbk. akn. 
Litbuauian. — akis. saulc=.«(». atze. 
Celtic. — lagat. suil. Uygad. 
French. — ail. 
Italian. — occbio. 

Slavonic. — oko. glas. oebsbi. aschk. 
Seandina\-ian. — oie. jeg. auga. 
Gennan. — auge. 


ishyik. nahui. uolok=(7ffy. 
nik.f nakay. ano*=(/of/ 0/ f/«y. 
nacro.* nahte.f nayc. no.* miri* 
cno;* sicla=siy. kian;f 8in=::to see. 
naa.f nakou.* nieoto.* zu.* asu. 
ishyik.* nait. shillau. toke.* ossa. 
gassa.* sesa.* into.* kosbakb=:«/{'y. 
kassec. ilah.f oi. atzi.* iiu. alno. 
nanacoeo.* snaga. il. zhig. 
gbual.* arn=:dai/. nocki.* nik=«y«. 
kannab. inti ; neiga^.s«w. 
rikuni*=^ see. ailbai::=/Hoo». 
mata*=:('ye or fire. nab=4'%. 
wvihvc^ski/ . naai-=.sun. na. 
ei-ee-ga (E.). naui. kase. 
k'eio'm. k'ks. wak. ne=^o sec. 


To See. 

English. — scan. eye. spy. ken. sky. 

,, ogle, perceive, glance, vision, look. seek. 
Sanskrit. — aksbi=^'y<!. svar; sku=s/:y ; li(j]it. 

,, iksb ; drig ; paQ^^ scp. 'ku^.to look at? luk. 
Celtic. — seall. siiil=('(/6'. 
Hindi, — dis. dekh. 
Persian. — didan. 
German. — seben. aublick. 

Greek. — opaui. aKO-n-iw. XevKOv^H/ht. ccpKOfiai^to look. 
Latm. — mcttxro ?=^to ivink. iris, {of eye), mlere ; visus. 

„ (?) seun. sui=.s/i'y; dai/. spectare. Iwnen-^li'i/ht. 
Armenian. — akn; atchk=«ye. tesanel. 
Slavonic. — veedyet. 


zu;* sesa;* tzie ; kussee==?ye. 
skee^«Z:y. oasa^ci/e. nuita.* 
sikobo.* kian.f liia. naira.f hcsh. 
\)\<i\im.^pupil of the eye. nocki.* ni(;. 
ellib. nikf=py«. to see. sui. 
scbillu^«y«. asma. chacn^.s-Z;)/ ; day. 
rikuni.* caan 1=4^7/. sillof^.stor. 
suiiz=ski/. tesa.* zu*=.sm«. eno*=.eye. 
neiga=.SM». sab ; hen^cy«. 
ten; k'iu ; ne. 
na-\^zto feel ; know; perceive. 


Beeast. 

English. — bosom (woman, womb ?). 

Sanskrit. — ydniim^woman. 

Greek. — r^vtn'j^womati. r/ei/vdw^to leget. 

Latin. — cunnus — woman, etc. (mamiiiffi). 

Slavonic. — jena. 

Celtic. — koinne. koimit=;eoOTfl«. geni=<o heget. 

Hindi. — \>(.-i^womh. sTua. 

Ai-menian. — dz'nanU (roots "tes"j dz'n). 


kanum; shema;* ciin\ia*=woman. 
cunia;* china;* kona^woman. 
kanik=HiOK</* cana=:mouth. 
kab-kun:=i/'ert.s(^. 'kim:=tree. 
tia. ts'am. sk'ma. k'an. 



103 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeicax. 


Su^'DET. 


Semitic. 


so. sa. 


Egyptian. — sau. sam. tex- kai — cuj). aku — cup. sug? — suck. 


Hebrew. — kas^cuj). 


mu. mi. 


,, sura. hek. ro ; kha^ mouth, aqt. sx'cb. 


saba. 


nfia. nasa. 


Accadian. — nag. ga. ka^woufh, life. a,^a.=.jlood. 


,, shathah. mezeg. 


suta—fo eat. 


Chinese.- — ch'ih. lioh. sok. k^ a.\\=^mouth. pali=^o^. 


Assyrian. — pu= Mouth. 


ka ; kiizzz mo nth. 


„ kap ; hiah=i'o swallow, tsiu^ijuor. 


Amharic. — shamak= 


daka ; shu = 


Indo-Chinese. — kwet. sok. kenn. thou. 


mouth. 


mouth. 


Caucasian. — sua. Mongol. — oo. osson. Eerher. — sou. 




iho^tcafer. 


Ugro-Altaic. — asokh. sunat. z\id=:milk. 




wke^u-ater. 


,, siib ; arke ; fiii^water. ko^moufh. 




ako ; kaka=::^o<. 


Dravidian. — ehurukku^fe*;-. panam. a\a.^thtrst. 

,, suppidu ; -pnsi-^to eat. 
Papuan. — asega^beer. Thibetan. — skoni=</i(V's^. 
Malay. — hisaq^fo suck. 

(See also, mouth; beer; water; pot.) 




suta. dza. 


Egyptian. — sha=/oorf. kha ; ro^mouth. kek. qq. 


Hebrew. — khek = 


di. do. 


,, dei^z^toiiffue, taste. x'^V^- amam=^o swallow. 


palate. 


ko ; kii^zmoufh. 


Accadian. — kur. gar. ku. ka^mouth. mu-mu? 


,, akal. 


shu=wo«<A. 


Chinese. — phih. kap; hiah^^o swallow, kcix^mouth. 


Amharic. — shamak =: 


kaka=^w#. 


„ ma; mi; suh^riVe. bak:=^o bake, hap^to swallow. 


mouth. 


i\aka=iMouth. 


Ugro-Altaic. — kii ; ko^mouth. nar^foocl. 


„ tasta. 


■mokomo^=mouih. 


„ mann=:zef;ff . mookc=^OM;-. 




auiA^moufli. 


,, koo?.h'tt=haff. sogo. dysliian. beitak^/o cool: 




kau ; jjak^ tooth. 


E. Tartar and Mongol. — idaku. idee, dcheme. amlam. 

,, kha ; ama=^mouth. 
Berber. — eteh. Caucasian. — ja. Assyi-ian. — akalu. 
Dravidian. — tinnu. cavekka. un. sappidu. pusi. 
Indo-Chinese. — cha. an. tsah-the. oo=«///. kh-du^tecth. 
Thibet. — szar. zu-ba. Malay. — makau. 
Aino. — ebo. Japanese. — kuti=woK^/(. kha=^oo^/i. 
Papuan. — tainum. 






Polynesian. — TRanga.:=>iiouth. 




togo:=shirt. 


Thibetan. — skuni'ka. krig-pa. btag. 


Hebrew. — tau=:w(«;-Z: ; 


tsaka ; zia =: 


Egyptian. — tek. t'a; t'etwa^rfo//(tfs. pc(jit^/»;r«. 


cross. 


shirt. 


,, sext. ubex=c/oi'/'M. sex. tata:=^o beat. 


Assyi-ian. — riksu =:: 


sawa^cotfon. 


Chinese. — tak. zok. ku. zik=cloth. k\m=cross. 


twisted, cord. 


cVnu^to bold. 


,, kiu^/o bind. 


ctiku=c/-oss? 


i\ka::z.crookcd. 


Accadian. — aka. zug. tuk=f/o/7(. kur=^o cross; tie. 
Tartar. — tik-mak = fe seu\ tika^f/anueiit. 
Ugro-Altaic. — mika^hook. charmikh. nid;ka=:s^'('». 

,, zin. jogcr; ikkc; an^h^fo i/ohc. 
Lap. — shwaka^/o t/ol-e. 
Japanese. — jujugarz/o tic; yoke. 






Polynesian. — tat-too. taka. nika. tappu = f/o^A<;«. 


(See, Clothes and 




Berber. — zeth. Indo-Chincse.^ — kiiau. 


Crooked, To tic, 




Malay. — tikrir=mat. 


Weave.) 




Dravidian. — kMu-=to tie. datu ; kadakka=:«-o««. 






,, taikkiratliu=/o sew. chikku=;;-cs<. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



104 



Aryan. 


A51EIirC.<N. 
NOUTU. C'E.NTKAL.t SoUTII.* 


To DlUNK, ETC. 

English . — water, cup. dish, mouth? .souse, suck, lick? 

,, so;ik. tipsy? sup. swig. sip. drench, thirst? swallow. 
Sanskrit. — pa. sura. chin. ma=:to mcmtire. 

„ niukha:=»iOM</i. \v\aka.-=.ivater. 

,, mada=w;frtrf. c\mA\^to such. (Soma)? 
Greek. — -rrlvw. fw'Quo^to suckle. 

„ f:t\[ra=ziJiirst. vcu-i>^water. ttotoi', 
Latin. — bibo. cibuni= /oor/. suj;(n'e=:/o such. 

,, haurire. sorbere. fii\M=Lthirst. aqua=!r«<c;-. 
Slavonic. — pit. French. — l)oirc. 
Gothic. — dris'kan. Nor.se. — supa. 
German. — schlund=:/o sivallow. durst:= thirst. 
Celtic. — sugh. ol. deoch. eiiach:=ei(^. 

,, bir ; dysr ; orh^iratcr. 
Hindi.— peena. Persian. — nosh. 


chia.* too-a. th\^mouth. 
pria:=/o ilrinh. ^lazzzwater. 
makosha. acca* =.hecr. 
tzsy ; dzu^ttYf^er. na'ka. 
so ; so\m:=nwiith. aks. 
k(i]ia.=.pof. ak=:tvater. 
shura:=?«oM<A. sane=^7noitth. 
tana. kOkoa. 


To Eat, etc. 

English. — mouth, food, pot? bake ? gnaw, taste, swallow. 

,, chew, palate ? munch, bite ? 
Sanskrit. — jaksh. ad. a^ ? 

,, kiirul. mukha=»iOi(^/;.. 
Hinili, etc. — muiih = ;«o(j!'A. khana. x'li''^- 

Greek. — eiT0ieii>. ecio. 7r€ii'a=:ihuii(/er. fTTiifin^Vlollth. (I'nnic. 
Latin. — lmcca=cheeh. edere. ])alatum. mauducare. 
Celtic— man. ceg=imoi(th. ith. alp. caith. 
German. — essen. schhmd—SiViinow. mima=7nouth. 
Scandinavian. — eta. 
Persian. — chorden. 
Zend. — chore. 


stsi.* tzi. atsi.* qua.f 

hiba'an. qoh. manni. 

mikuni. maukana.* 

chi ; ka ; kai^mouth. hamap. 

so ; iiohn:=mouth. ta. ik. 

vripasha. pali. etien. 

muti*=io;7c(^ maize. Bara=. maize. 

gara*=fo/(T(7. 

manka* ; maah=:/oof?. 

itsii^=tooth. 


To Weave, etc. 

English. — cross, anchor? hank. tic. net. knit, stitch, twist. 

,, tat? web. kink, suek. hook? cloth, bind. yoke. 
Sanskrit. — tar^cross kuc'. anka:= 7(oo^- ? 

,, ak^^o hifc. yuga=^i/ohe. yaj=ijoined. 
Persian. — tushakn=cfl';;^e<. Hindi. — chatai=»!fl<. 
Sclave. — tikat. German. — miker^aiiclwr. 
Latin. — texere ; toctiim. toga=:(lress. jugum. wncus^hooh. 
Greek. — iaro^^^Ioom. aTavi>6si^cross. ftK-vov^nct. 

,, T7-\eKeiv=zto twist. I'mKO'i^clothes. ^cv^jo^^l/ohe. 

,, KpoKt/'^WOof. a^iK7'i>a^^(l}lcJtoy. 

Armenian. — khach=(7-o.ss. 'kiMv=rluth. 

Scandinavian. — ok ; uak:=?/o/-«. Danish. — juk=!/oZ'«. 

French. — tapisserie (Old Eng. tapet) ; tapis^or;;^^^. tisser. 

Aryan. — swastika^AoofetZ cross ? 

Celtic. — cnagh=:/:«o<. 


taki =croM. 
mirkani*=fo tie, join. 
ehakani*=fo cross, iquiti.* 
pacha; mixna.'ka^'=clot/ies; cloth, 
joki^ til read, chicoj ^ticisted. 
iinkiv'^^shirt. togai^'^chthes. 



14 



105 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 




A IMIILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



106 



Aryan. 


American. 

NOIITU. CKNTUiVL.t SoCTIl.* 


To Takh, KtC. 
Englisli. — seize. Imnd. ciiptun^ (tai-ry. fatcli. p-cilj. took. trap. 

,, nab. steal, lug. get. keep. drag. hold. 
Sanskrit. — l)liar=/o bc/ir, carry. vali=)'o rarrij. viij ; nat;. 

„ karkata=(7'ffi. dhri^to hold. labh. kiin^takcn. 

,, bavarai. mi; sten=stoZ. 
Hindi. — le. dlio=fo carry. kckra=:crfl'J. i-\ior:=fJiicf. 
Greek. — Kunrt^. Kvw^fo carry \ to hold. Xtitijini'iv, uy/ii!. 

,, e<lx_o/nai^io take. ■xc(i>^iand. arf/ieic KXeTTTew^fo steal. 

,, uKO's-'=ihau'Ji. 
Latin. — capere. captiis. cai-po. ducere. raptus — matched. 
Persian. — dashtan. Axw^to have. Zend. — zar. tayu. i\\\=.steal. 
Celtic. — gabli. gbab. glac. hvnxziLhand. 

Teutonic. — fabren. dbii. niman. nim. nebmen. baben=7(«w. 
Gotbic. — tiuban. Lettisb. — nemt. 


ka.f chab. tacani.* pa. ha. 
apa;* ■d\)m\i*=ito carry, kat. 
daha ; tachli;* kon ; ikw^iand. 
kupuui.* hurkuni.f bacbik.* 
chue. kut.f katch. huika.''' 
da^io give. j>iu-o*^iand. 
tee-g ? (Esq.). cab. f =//««(?. chal),f 
shou-shey=:/(a?}rf. tao ; nuk==<« steal. 


To Stop. 
English. — fix. stay. rest, stand, hinder, remain, back ? 
Latin. — stare, tenere. maneo. 
Celtic. — bac. stad. Hindi. — chuk. rok. rabna. 
Greek. — I'aTrjfuz^to stand, fieveiv. 


mae-kaek. za-mi.f chay.* tzicoa.f 
quetz titacj-=<o sta7id. tati.* 
nite.f saksa.*' 
harhani.* sit=/bo<. muni^to remain. 


To Open (gape; mouth? door?). 
Latin. — aperire. jtortn^door. 
Greek. — x"''"'^"'=^f'<' '/"P^- 
Sanskrit. — kupa— Aofe. Persian. — Axir—door. 


xohqui.f has.*pirari. •■"apa*=: 

to carry. 
tlapoliiu.l 


To E.USE TJP, ETC. 

English. — mount, lift up. toss, carry. 

Greek. — ai'/ieii'. ainjKic^to ascend, oxe'io^to carry. 

Latin. — crigcre. Zend. — ir^to rise. Celtic. — tog. 

Sanskrit. — ri=zto go. bbar=^ carry. 


acocni.f conano.f patzi.f 
ri*=i!o go. cehua.* 


To Fall Down (throw down, lie down). 
Latin. — cadere. sterncre^/rt// down. French. — tomber. 
Sanskrit. — (root) s>ia,v=day down. pat. Hindi. — patkan. 
Greek. — Trrwfia. TrcTneiv. Celtic. — tuiteam. 


huetzen. tcmo ^^to descend. 

nag; a'qis^^o lie down. pahikj-=/fl77. 


To Bend, etc. 
English. — crooked, hook. knee, revolve ? how. arc. twist. 

,, tortuous, arch, round, curved, elbow, foot? hock? old? 
Sanskrit. — kue. bhuj. vakra=croo^-c(;?. 
Greek. — x'^w^niee. KvicXof^circle. kvXij^iccI. o-/ko^. 

,, KotXofz^hollow. u^Kun'^elbow. T/)oxos=^wheel. To^ot'^low. 
Latin. — uncus, curvare. flcxura. areus=:JoM'. volvere^^o rerohe. 
Celtic. — cpuca — hook, torque — armlet. Swedish. — croc — arm. 
French. — bec=Jra/j. (coude^p/iow.) avc^=bow. 
German. — haken^/«)oZ-. hu^^elbow. 

,, hohl=/»V('c. bicgen. 
Slavonic. — Ink ; lok=iow. klic=7;oo7r. alak=r7»y. 

,, kruglecn^/'oi/wf/ffZ. klecheti. tekat=:^o weave. 
Sanskrit. — koraz^Joinf. chakra=(v>-c'?e ; wheel. 
Hindi. — hulka=c/r(7(>. kona ; tnk'nii=ianyle. 
Armenian. — kawnh=c»T/(;. qaor=crooh'cl ? 
Persian. — kureh^fwr7«. 
Greek. — opxo^^=enclosure. Kvimu. xop^'i^^"''"- lidWai'^to hurl. 


kucbuch^«o.S(?. kochu *^elbow. 

ko jo]i=:lcg. noeat=«/-«j. kuc. 

echote ^':^bow. caki*=ihand. 

hiichu=HO.'.y. 

koukor*=7-«fc. ech.ote*=^bow. 

Inuichi.-''=i6i«'. 

taki=fros.s; tie. iqiim\:^io weave. 

ciieloa=)'o bend; curve. 

chicoj^tortuous. 

N.B. — (See crooked ; old, etc.). 



107 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Sundry. 


Semitic. 


AccatUan. — ga. khar. aka. ma. slia. dii. ig^zhecfet. 
Tm-anian. — (root) bar^^o make ; hegct ; live. 
Etruscan. — lemarke=wi«r('/e ? 

Egyiitian. — an. ra. a. hex^O'ffen'Jer- sket. tcru^^o do. 
Cliinese. — tok, da (old), ko. ka. ch'nt^to produce, tsok. 
DravidiaiL. — kurna, siddhi^cZ/rf. ira^«M. 
Libyan. — c-kmi. 
African. — ki:=:/o i/o. 


Hebrew. — bara=:<o create ; hegot. 
Coptic. — aa. er. iii. o. 
Assyrian. — banu. 

,, shakanu. pataku. 
Amharic. — sara^^o do. 
Arabic. — bana=/o huild. 

,, ibn (bin)=.so». 


Chinese. — kung ; pfnka=Jo;t'. ilalay. — paiia=ioic. 
Egyptian. — ben — bend ; arc. kutct .'' bo;y;cn — to cut. 
Accadian. — gam. han^iow. 
African. — tuudu=:i'o stand; stretch out. 


Hebrew. — kafaf^fo iend. 
Assyrian. — kamasu:=to hend. 

(See Bend.) 


Egyi)tian. — nnii? tas. tes. licti. serf, eter—to lie down. 

„ t'et; ch'ct=to stay {=^8it). 

„ bed; utbes^.sc«)!. qcr; ti^fo ;ts/. haxv^stop. 
Cbinesc. — tso. da. za (old). sihi=fo rest. 
Accadian. — du. za. tusk. ku=fo stand. 
Polynesian. — noa. Aii'ican. — dsoko. sie. stsa. su. 


Arabic. — kaad. 
Hebrew. — yashab. 


Draridian. — nittirai. E. Himalaic. — pai. 
Accadian. — na. kush. nu. gish. nada. 
Egyptian. — ncn-r^repose. Unrest, xnemem. 

,, x"'"^- iiiiu=^o sit. African. — zu. lol. 
Chinese. — shni. mi. ka-p^^slecpi/. sih^rt's^. 


Hebrew. — nam. 
Arabic. — nauam. 


Chinese. — ngo=/. yu. ti. cbi. shi=it is. 

Malay. — aku^/. ada=:fo Jiave ; he. 

Mongol. — buhu. bu. baina. Dravidian. — ira. tanga. 

BuiTuese. — shee-the:=ff»j ; is. 

ITgro-Altaic. — uan ; un ; le (Lap.)=j'< is. vau. on. 

Accadian. — shi^«'«. ngae=/ffw. sha. du. 

,, gin. men. tiig^fo have. tuk. an=tjod. 
Egyptian. — un_^o exist, an. pu. x'-'Vcr—to exist. 

,, kcr^o hare. anuk=:/. riukh=///tf. 


Hebrew. — jesh=ithere is. 

,, hawwah^Eve (life) ? 

„ haja^to he, breathe? 
Assyrian. — bashu. ishu. 
Coptic— (al) ? 
Aramaic. — hawa. 


Chinese. — kill. da. pa. sik. pad. da {old)^iaiid. kip (old). 

Accadian. — gar. ba. mar. gad^//rt«f/. 

Egyptian. — kcr^to have; take. nui. tutu. Ua^-mn-ffod. 

„ x"t- t'-t; tah^tand. ;\'ep=/w/>. uui. du. lu. 
Mongol. — ka. da. gar ; kal=/ir«(rf. 

Ugro-Altaic. — ta-ct. tuka. maon. 'knr=:hand. verniek. ^\•ai. 
East Tartar. — gene. Libyan. — ikl'a=:/H' i/ave. 
Dravidian. — kai ; karem=/(««f7. t;l. idu. 
African. — ir.\^to ffive. kcba; kaka^/(flW(/. 


Hebrew. — nathan. 

„ yad=/i««rf. 
Assyrian. — idu. katu=/M«rf. 

„ nadanu. sharaku. 

„ kashu. 
Cojitic. — ta. 
Amharic. — sata. 
Arabic. — 'ata'. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



108 



AnvAx. 


Ajieeican. 

NOKTH. C'E.N-TUAL.t SoLTH.* 


To Make. 

Euglisli. — do. bear. act. create, proilwcc. 
Sanskrit. — (root) kar. bbar=:fo carry. 

,, ma. {sn=ito procreate). jaii=to bcffct. 
Hindi, etc. — kar'ua. akku^crcator. kiya=r/('rf. 
Greek. — yevi'aio::=to hef/et ; engender. ruKrd'.-^made. 

,, Tcvx'^-. Latin. — annv^^fo pluu///i. factum. 
Celtic. — cuma. crutb. beri; bar^f'o cause, create, ixr^plough. 

,, cumadh. dean. gcni==fo beget. macc=«(»». 
Fiuuic. — kai ?^io do. Gotbic. — kuui^^rrtce. Zend. — kar. 


ko. gba. ba=io;-». hapana.* 

kar*^/o go. ca.n^ bring. 

cam = fo be. chab. ku. 

daiin=///o. achibua.f apa*^fo carry. 

cbibuaf=fo bring forth. 

du=^ hure. 


To Stretch. 
Englisb. — extend, bend. tbin. 0. H. German. — dunaf. 
Sanskrit. — tan. arj. Hinili. — kona^=a>igle. hnnd^li/iid. 
Latin. — pandere. extcndere. Greek. — Teu/w. EKen'^to draw. 


k-iia.m*=to go. tantani*'=:/o unite. 


To Sit. 
English. — rest, repose, stay, quiet ? 
Celtic. — ruit. Hindi.— kursi=t'7(f«';-. 
German. — sitzen. 
Latin. — sto. scdere. 
Slavonic. — sidyet. 


'imvtzen^^^to fall, huctzitza.f 
ghytzi. sit=/oo^. ludi. 
cutel.f Aa.t:=stand. mot. 
aput=//f sits. 


To Sleep. 
English. — nap. rest. 

Sanskrit. — svap. nidra. nam^fo hicline. 
Hindi. — nidra. sona. naind. 
Slavonic. — spat. Greek. — mvoi. 


nupp. uipu. e'tut. ta. quera.* 


To Be. 
English. — have, possess, exist, am. is. grow ? I am. live ? 
Sanskrit. — bhii. (root=««). asmi^/«H«. 

,, j'w^ive. an^hreath. anTka^/r?e«. 
Latin. — habere, esse. ego=/. Zend. — bu. jiv=fo live. 
GeiTiian. — haben. Gotbic. — bauan=fo dwell. 
Hindi. — hai^/s. hona^if. kija^-did. 
Celtic. — ghab. bi. piai. biaun. bin. 
Slavonic. — biit. byti. Anglo-Saxon. — bium. 
Greek. — e'xi^'^to Jiave; possess, umt. ijw^^I. el/ni. 

,, 0u(u. ^u))j=dife. ^aw^life. 


achihuaf =;<o make, to do. kay. 

du. iau ; eani ; can-mi^/ aw. 

habi. aw:=2}eople. oncaf=^oJe; lam. 

tak.shif =/(?;». du=:to have. 

ca. as.* root^^o be. mani. 

noka*=/. 


To Give. 
English. — hand. gift. Armenian. — door. dam. 
Sanskrit. — (root=da). dadati. kava=hand. ra. 
Latin. — do. dat. dare, dtmi^gift. mam\s=Jiaiid. 
Greek. — c/cwfu. l;wpov:^gift. x'^lii^hand. 
Slavonic. — dami. diit. French! — dormer. 
Celtic— dyro. dan. German. — geben. ]iabn\=have. 
Zend. — da. Hindi. — dena. 
[Teutonic. — tat. dat. deed. tun. tuon (Canon Cook).] 


da.f koni.* ta. ko.f ccimi.* 
nekan. kot.* chu.* ku.* ara. 
daba=/;n'«r?. ka=//rt«f7; give. 
nap. djet-te. ch'a.f 



109 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Stjitdet. 



Chiiieso. — tai. chi. gang = to ffo. 

Accadian — giima. turn, tur =to come in. ga. 

Dravidian. — clier. Ta. 

Egyptian. — na. hunhuii = /« return. 

„ ai. ee. shem. abu. i\k = to enter in. 

Aiiican. — wa. ba. teme. ra. de. 



Semitic. 



Hebrew. — bo. 

Coptic. — ncu. 

Asspian. — bsVu. cteku=^o go. 

, , karabu = approach ? 

,, dichu. alakii. 
Arabic. — ja' ? 



Japanese. — tatta. 

Chinese. — pat. t'ap. diik^trecid. cba ; kud ; t\\ = to stop. 

UgTO-Altaic. — kiu'=^ stand. Basque. — set. 

Accadian. — du; gub =/oo<; rest. sig. gisb. 

Egyjjtian. — aba. urt. = .S'^/! i\ = rest. pct=/ooi!. tas = rest. 

,, ba. ii'k. = tread. tes. cbot = fo staij. sati=%? 
African. — i\\\vh\ = to stand ; straight, peta; pase=_/bo<. 

,, pata=fo move. kanda=stf«f?. 



Berber. — eqzcm. Dravidian. — kutt. yettu. ki'rru. 

Burmese. — pyut-tbe. 

Accadian. — kud. kba. sbeg ; si; taq; digb=s<ow«. 

,, akak = to beat. tim. tar. 'kn=weapon. 
Chinese. — kot. kat. ku. p'ik = i'o tear. t'ik. 

,, su. tao ; ^' iiik = hi if e ; cut. 

XJgro-Altaic. — taka=«.r«. kesmeek. socba ; eke; kopt = 
plough. karti=^'?i(/tf. 

„ aksjo (Lap.); sebai-p ; user; suka = (?.r#. 

Egyptian. — beseq. texbes. ■xcx = ^f>''^^f- sau. ;y'riku. 

„ shat. sahu. textn = stone. hesq. nek = fo bore. 

,, sex; bksu = ^i'.cc. kcrk = ^o s/)/(Y. ska=jj/o!(y7;. dam? 

African. — uka; sukari = Z7///t'. e]s.et = arrow. obe ; sio = knife. 

„ 5kuta ; kot; acbu ; taku =4/oHf. ket. gho. kiu. 

„ tenda. qkau. 



Hebrew. — 'amad. 

Arabic. — kam. dam^^o endure. 

Amharic. — mata. na. 



Coptic. — koY]n = 7inife. shot = cut. 
Hebrew. — sak'kin= knife. hcreh=sword. 

,, 'kiiYat\i = to cut. 
Arabic. — d'k'km= knife, nagda, takkai. 

„ kata'. nakar. 
Assyrian. — nakasu. 

„ parasu. kiitu. bakamu. 

Amharic. — katara. nakasa=^o bite. 



Accadian. — gab. kur. tag. gha. kha. akak. du. tar. 

,, dum=^ strike, beat. kud=«<<. 
Ugro-Altaic. — 'hit. 
Burmese. — kowk-the. 
Chinese. — tok. bit. p'ik. mat. kat. 
Thibetan. — 7C0g-pa. 
Dravidian. — kuttu. 
Egyptian. — benx = ^o cut? mashn = spear. tenno? scq = ^o rt<b. 

„ nex. sex- shfit = M«<. peg. fug V naxt=/o;Te. 

„ nak. sesh. beb. ken=i'o beat, whip. 

,, icki\\ = stone, kata. tata. kck. hor. 

African. — tura. beta = to beat. gira. dse. 



Hebrew. — nakah=fo beat. 
Coptic. — majh. kash. 
Asspian. — mach:isu= to strike. 

,, daku = )'o smite. 

,, Yiark\su = to break. 
Amharic.' — katara = cut, tear. 
Arabic. — kasar? . 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



no 



Akyan. 


American. 
North. CENTRAL.t South.* 


To CojiE. 
English. — to go ? return ? upproacli. near ? 
Bengali. — as. SimU. — ach. Hindi. — ana. 
Sanskrit. — fi-gam. cmi. Zend. — gam=yo. 
Celtic. — tapp. tigh. thig. i; iti=ffo. cam=yo. 
Greek. — a^^c^cotne I ep^o^ifu. vdo^int. 
Gothic. — koman. German. — kommcn. 
Latin. — venio. eo, ire; imus=(70. 


hamuni.* aiha. tah. veren. 

chayani.* kakke. ham ? 

yuan = <o send, kou-lou. 

kar; pa; aiha; hamu=fo yo. ch'ok.f 


To Stand. 
English. — tread, foot. go. stop. stay, stick. 
Sanskrit. — pad. gii=toffo. stha. handh. 
Celtic. — stad. ghab. 
Armenian. — otn=foot. g'nal. 

Slavonic. — stoyat. Greek. — i'ajtjfti. Persian. — istad. 
Hindi, etc. — jana=foyo. dhut !=.s;'«^j ! 
Latin. — m.anere=to stai/. French. — vLTt\=stop? ffo? 


dat. gua ; f cab ; j" pat =foot. 
pa. tah = to come. 
patzif = <o lift up. 
mani.* aput=7ie sits. 


To Cut, etc. 
English. — stone tear, scythe ? knife, sa^v. prick, slash. 

,, chopt. stnick. knock, maim. hack. nick. scar. 

,, stick, bisect, dig. shear, plough, sharp, acute. 
Sanskrit. — karkata = ('rrti. a(;i = sword. lu. tikah^sharp. 

,, chid. krit. 
Greek. — kotttcii'. kcuo, ■ira\)jKVi = axe. TCfii'tv. 

,j upii7pov=2^lough. TreKiv^to comb, kottij. 

„ aixfiy=sfniTp. K€ipeiv= spear. Tci'xo^ — d ivcdpon. 

,, SaKi/eii/^to bite. 
Latin. — ccedcre. ccEsum. secare. sectum. 

„ scindo. Clk = apart. 

,, saxum=stone, rock. arare=fo plough. 
Celtic. — gutaeh. (dach = s^OHf) toki. tuagh = ('o wound. 

,, scaithan. Armenian. — (iar = stone. 
Slavonic. — tnimk=H-ound. Zend. — tasha= i4'0««f^. 
Hindi. — katna.=biie. French. — couteau. 


cuta.* cata.* kaka. llachani.* 
paki.* caa.f chuk=.s;/><'«r. iki.* 
taque; te ; sah ; seh = *to«e. 
%-ikA=strike. shekt = knife. 
chok-ri-ni = / wound ; strike. 
so we (Esq.). 


To Break; Beat, etc. 
English. — fracture, tear. rub. batter, thud? peg? tat? 

,, hang, strike, hit. to nag. rap. tap. hew. hack. 

,, crack, struck, break, smack, attack, knock. 

,, split, kick. lick. hash, smash, llog. attack? 
Sanskrit. — dri. torati. karkata=«'aJ. ruj. j'adh = toJiffhf. 

,, tn&e=Istrike. tup. badh=to beat, strike. 

„ hiaa^to strilce ; hurt. 
Celtic. — rogan. sorac. crao. bris. tori. cnoc=stone. 

,, cnag. cnap. tapas. 'beia= stick, briwi. 
Latin. — fractus. ruptus. hatuere. ccedcre. tunderc. 

,, tcro= to rub; tear. idus. micare. 
German. — brochen. schlagen = fo ivound. klopfen. 

,, \-\iQ\\ci\ = to push. sivc\c\i.=strike. 
French — f rapper = fo beat, ecraser. 
Greek. — jvinw. K€i7ru}=to cut? cf/vvfat. p)^KTo^=broke. 

,, 7rvKTi]i- = boxer. 7r\);7(y = « blow. caKveiv^to bite. 
Per.sian. — zadan. Zend. — gan. 
Hindi. — bhanjna. pitna. kakna = ^i«Vc; ctit. 

,, tor. thokar=fo knock. 


pakkini.* rutiuii.* tup.* rutu. 

ik. taka; hiuca* = fo strike, pittini.* 

chok-ri-ni * = / wo und. ziconan f = / break. 

sakmani;* tau-oo-it = to strike. 

hayta=i'o /j(Y. \a!e.= torub. 

ka; chey=to Jcrt)!. -^^\ = to tear, cut. 

hinkani'*— to strike ; kill. 

now-ik-poke (Esq.). 



Ill 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUNDET. 


Sejiitic. 


Chinese. — lianc;' — to measure, mei — to tliinh. uim. 

,, mm=OTf«. nan=?;(ff». siang. 
TJgro-Altaic— mana^wff« (Lap.) 
Acoadian. — giii ; niu ; vnw^man. me ; n\i=.to thinlc. 
Dravidian. — mvm^a^moiihi'ij . enmi. iuanam=wi«rZ. 

„ menasb^/o think. mauuslian=«/^;H.. 
Egyptian. — menh=:yoi(Hy man. Mencs=ls^ ^i»[l of Egypt. 

,, mena=;'!t/t';\ meii't:=a measure cup. m(.'ne:=zsoldier. 
Aii'ican. — manoz^mati. 


Hebrew. — adam. man ? 

(See elsewhere, measure, etc.) 


Chinese. — mon. ngai. zo'k=fire. miii. mo. sa^Jire. 

Accadian. — mu. gug. zag==/?;Y. ngad. sim ? 

Egyptian. — mer. ami^fire. ^cmt ? matati=^/'«. 

ITgro-Altaic. — seY-mek^to love. rakk. saan. 

Dra-\-idian. nc'sam. sneham. muttam. 

Burmese. — mee. 

African. — motu. mct=:^;T. 


Hebrew. — ham. 


Caucasian. — kiuaa=^o sat/. Burmese. — s'gah^toord. 
Chinese. — chui. kao. pa. pat. ka. kok (old), ngen (old). 

,, k'a.\i^mouth. shu. 

,, wo-da ? -wei^icord, speecJ/. shii^hook. 
Ugro-Altaic. — san. surni=M-o/-(/.s. nnm^»ame. alshagar. 
Accadian. — ma. mii. gu-gu. shw^booJc. dug. ka. 

,, nam. kir. kaga. pa. sar^^o write, scratch. 
Egy|3tian. — ta=zioo7c. hx^crij. ka^call. sha-t^ook. 

,, ateb=:to)if/ue. t'ot^^o speak, tattle. 

,, s-y;a — to write, p^-eru. navrfo zvrite. 
African. — fa. la. lim ; halla:^tonffue. 

,, ko ; kxi^^moufh. ncnc^tonr/ue. 


Assyrian. — nabu. 'ku[n=zvoice. 

,, zakiu•u=;^ speak. 

,, shasu ; kalu=^o speak. 
Amharic. — tshookat=:f;'y. 


Chinese. — pat (old), choh. pai. 
Egy]rtian. — tu. x^a. uah. pet=/bo<. 
Accadian. — du. tar. 
Dravidian. — idu. 


Amharic. — anora. 
Coptic. — uoh. 


Chinese.— gang. ki. na. te. pa'o. pae. chih. kouei. 

,, kok=:/oot. dik=.s/<'jO. 
Mongol — iiTene. Thibet. — ko=foot. 
Accadian. — ga. lag. gin. dun. ra. ri. ir. 
Egyptian. — na. masha^i'o march, sham. hu. na. cheb, 

,, x™'^- hei-^j-offrf ? Y>ot=foot. xebt. kcn-ken=f/OTif(;. 

,, ])ab ; iiiu]=toJee; fy. ak=cnter. 
Libyan. — ek=^o thou. 

Ugro-Altaic. — kar. kat. gitmcck. tiik. pagl (Lap.)=!<7';(rf. 
Dravidian. — kat. annga. p6. nada. cgu. 
African. — ba ; vcnz=to come, kata ; ki ; ka=fo go. 

„ ka; dfio-=:to dance. 

,, gan— /(.o)'. pata=fo tnore. itiu. da. (a. 

„ kaii(la=.to send. kuVa ; kaka; pula^^o n(». 


Hebrew. — halak. ho^to come. 

,, p;ithah=;^o open. 

„ yasa=::^ come out. 
Assyrian. — aliikxi. eteku. asia. 

,, ba'u=('o come. 
Coptic. — bok. i. she. hoi. 
Amliaric. — heada. rota=;<o run. 
Arabic. — niada'. masha'. 

,, ja==to come. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



112 



A 11 Y AN. 


Amemc.^n. 
North. C'ENTKAL.f South.* 


T.I Tfiixk. 
English. — man ? measure V iiiiud. kno\y. 
Sanskrit. — ma^fo measure; think. raimi\s^=.mind ; fhhilc. 

,, manuslui;=?Hrf». (Polynesian. — mana.) 
Greek. — '•/I'to/iti^eiv. ft<:T/ioi/=.measure. OTi/i6',-^soul. 

,, ^lei'O'.-^mmd. Celtic— maon=»?«». 
Hindi. — mauush^»(«». Persian. — mard=.male. 

,, map=:'WfffSHrc. mnnz=mi)id. 
Slavonic. — doomat. (I't's'i- — manus:=?rt«M.) 


mani ; niena=mr/«. manes^l«< Peruvian 
man. 

[According to "Lopez" there is a pro- 
bable Quichuu root ma=to measure ; 
mind. li 

tamma:=?/w». nao*:=^ know ; measure. 


To Love. 
English. — fire. burn. 

Sanskrit — smar. kruna=: Cujjid, love. mrid. 
Latin. — amare^i/o love, (amat.) 

Celtic. — gradli. miann. Hindi. — prem. mastl. 
German. — liel)e. Lithuanian. — myliu. 

Greek. — efleipw. eiriOvfiin^hlsf. 


muuani*; mayf^-^ '"''''• mahote. 
mad ; mep=///Y'. kemakh. sg'an. 
naquem. kamani. madif=;fo love. 


To SPE.iK. 

English. — voice, shout, word. say. write ? name. call. cry. 

,, shriek, talk. lip. hail, to chatter, tell, tattle. 

,, chatter, quack? lisp, cackle. 
Sanskrit. — ru. gat. gir. vac. vad. ni ? lap. bhash. kath '? 

„ na=f «(>(?. kar? khakkh^^o fo«y/(. na?=so«^. 

„ nTunixnz=na)ne, 
Hintli. — hankna ; pukarna^/o cri/. 
Celtic. — ghutd ["i^giitturnl .wHiida). innis=)'o say. 

,, eigh;=fo call. Ymh^foiiffne. (English lip.) 
Latin. — dicere. loquor. vocarc 
Greek. — <yTjpv'i. XaXeci'^^^to fal/C. lay^iv. Xe^en^, fptvve7i\ 

II ^i/>n(pwz=fo write. A.-«Xe«>. 
Hindi. — nah = ^o,^6iw. kahna. mim^?/an/e. 
German. — .sprechen. sagen. Gothic. — haitan=fff7/. 
Per.sian. — nam. shachun=:«i'o;YZ. 


huakia. ni. amsi. tlatoa*=<o talk. 
llapa;* llapi=.vo»y. rima. inqTii. 
lakka ; chi ; okk ; \\&:^tongue. re.f 
nu. na. teen, hnaca.* wawa. 
nini*=rfo speak, hu.* rimani.* 
huak*=:ro/f«. ophof^fo write. 
wah:=^ cnj. yn^moiith. axma^name. 
wakia*^/"!? call. ach*=('o cri/. 
hi-ye. ku-\ma.*=^la)if/uaf/c (=Quinchuca.) 
tzihj^word. nao=:<o know, quere.f 


To Put. 
English. — place, lay upon, secure, fix. carry ? 
Sanskrit. — dha. (root). vah=^o cnrri/. 
Slavonic- — hiit^to be ; hare. Hindi. — rakh'na. 
Greek. — t"xai:=^flfe ? Celtic. — aurim. 


puch-pi. churo. hue. caucha. 
apa*=fo carry, rutu. 
huicaf^to hear. 


To Go. 
English. — come, tread, walk, wander, err. step ? move. 

„ advance, run. gang, fly? get? canter, patter. 

,, march, hop. 
Sanski-it. — patlia=i« jyath. g'ltu— r/o/;?//. 

,, car. pad. ri. mi cti. nu=^ wander. 

„ ga gam. pay. va. (ya. sarp.) 
Greek. — licic^to come, lei'cu. jiaii'io. irtno<i^ica)J. 

,, \iw^^to jtow. TTaTetu. 
Celtic — pfidh. cam. cimi. . Zend. — ga. gam. 
Teutonic. — gain, ginin. gchen. Slavonic. — ittee. pati. 
Latin. — ire. vado. ago. andare. scqwor^I fullow? 

,, fugere=i'o^y ; escape. 
Hindi. — jana. niili=tofow. bhagna ; daunia:=fo ;•((». 


ko. katani.* ri.*" hamu.* liar.* ka. 
kat.* pa. kannak ; guaf— /oo^ ri. 
daan. glui^i'o make, do. puri.* 
harauni*^^o come, ko sec-qiuih. t'co. 
aiha. tah=:?'o come, o-yah. dao. 
pa ; pat=^ stand, tread, yauh. 
huica^i'o carry. kch=/«o)'. 
yuau=^o send. \>c\zz^road. 



15 



113 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUNDKT. 


Semitic. 


UgTO-Altaic. — mina. ma. en. ben. ai. ja. mio. mon. 

yks; akt; cgj—No. 1. 
Chinese. — ngan. ngo. i=iVo. 1. ■vro; tsa; ni:=«t'«. 
MongoL — ncge=i\'o. 1. bi. mone=^«^;^tf. si. 
Accadian. — men. min. ni. mu=:w»/. Tm^our. 

,, ngae. mae. 
Egyjjtian. — aniik. iiu — 3«. 1. imti — iiniii. 
Dra vidian. — nan. 
African. — na. me. mi. ngi^/; we. de=it'«. 

„ nye. [Berber. — nek.] 


Hebrew. — ni. anoki. anu — we. 
Assyrian. — anuku. yati. 
Arabic. — ana. anta. 
Coptic. — anok. 
Amharic. — ame. egnea. 

,, manu=^if'/(o»«. 

,, egniya^M'«. 


E. Tartar.— si. ta. 

TJgro-AItaie. — sen. su. tan. te. ta. sitz. sic. an. 

„ kyk ; ket=iVo. 2. 
Egyptian. — tu. sen^iV'o. 1. ntn=yo«'? h'u ; i\nti^?nan. 
DravicUan. — ni. 

Chinese. — ju. ii. so. da. ui=/; tiro. tai. 
Malay.- — dua^tivo. 
Accadian. — tu. zu. zac. dam. da. ni. 
African. — ku. ngo. 


Hebrew. — atthar. ka. 
Assyrian. — atta. kummu=</«/?(e. 

,, k;tti=</(0«<. 
Coptic. — ntok. 
Amharic . — anta. 


TJgro-Altaic. — bi. he. ty. sa. han(Fin.). o-oL tio. amg. 

Egyptian. — sen-=f/iei/. ntf. 

Chinese. — t'a. pi. i. tsi; chi=/(m. 

Burmese. — thu. 

Accadian. — ni. bi. ki. na. mi. gi. 

Ugro-Altaic— muh=/< ; Jtim. bi. sa. 

Caucasian. — is. Etruscan. — si. 

Afiican.— u. ngu. ka. ki— //. 


Hebrew. — hu. hi. 
Assyrian. — shu. shi. 
Coptic. — ntof. ntos. 


Mongol. — tere. ene. 

Chinese. — tsi=cha. shui. ki. tou. 

„ slii. ni. na. 
Accadian. — nin. an. gal. na. ni. bi. nig. 
Egyptian. — ter. nti ? ma^icJio. ax=«*'/'y? pai; pu=:^/(;'«. 
Ugro-Altaic. — kan. ni. az. tuo (Fin.), kauda. 

,, koclian. tana. dan. 
Dravidian. — av. athu. 
African. — hen. heje. one. terc. 


Hebrew. — ml — wlio ? ma — what. 

,, asher:=;t'7;o. 
Arabic. — al^^Ae. man=!r/iO. 
Amharic. — ya ? yeeh. 
Ethiopic. — manu=M7(o. 


Egyptian. — nnuh=rt cord. 

Dravidian. — rms:am=zi/nke ; tie. kann^zhiot. 

Chinese — kwan^fo iccavc. 

(N. sound.) 

(Sec elsewhere.) 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



114 



Aryan. 


AMEIirCAN. 
NOKTII. CliNTUAL.t SoUTII.* 


Peonoitns (Pekson^vi,). 

Eiiglisli. — I. mc. wc. mint!, my. (N"o. 1.) fingur. man. 

Sanskrit. — eka=jVb. I. aliam=/. 

Gothic. — aki. ik. 

Anglo-Saxon. — mec (ace.) Persian.— man. yak=iVo. 1. 

Latin. — mihi. ego. 

Scandinavian.— ek. Armenian. — es. 

Celtic. — innai mi. ncomz=^we. 

French. — un^iN'o. 1. Hindi. — main. 

Slavonic. — yah. mil. Greek. — /t/a ; ei'^JVo. 1. 


me ;* neka=wwK. kaki.f di.f 
noo ; nnou ; ma ; naun=«Y'. iku. 
onca ; ceau=/ am. noka.* ni. nin. 
su. ano. nech ; nugaf=M«. yin. 
ek=JVb. 1. me. nah. qat. te-cns. 
xka.f=zive. 


English. — thou. thee, you (No. 2). 

Sanskrit, tuam. d^^— TVo. 2. Hindi.— do— /Vo. 2. 

Persian. — tu. Zend. — te. 

Latin. — tu. te. (duo=iYo. 2). 

German. — ihr. du. Hindi. — ap. tii. 

Greek. — rrv. 

Celtic. — thu. tu. chwi=yp. da=(wo. 

Slavonic. — vii. dva=:i\'b. 2. 

Armenian. — du. Lithuanian. — doo^/«'o. 


zu. kir. ta. qam.* uh. kee. ne. 
ti.f (hui=iVb. 3. in Othomi) ki. 
kilou^ye. kam. sot. k'qs5. 
woe. nue. at f 


English.— he. she. it. (him. her.) No. 3 ? 

Sanskrit. — i. sa. ta. ha {sii=man ?). tri=three. 

Latin. — ea^s/j«. Hindi. — woh. 

Celtic. — e. se. neach. pee. 

French. — lui:=7^m. German. — dici^fhree. 

Greek. — 6. »). to. 

Slavonic. — tree^iVo. 3. on. i\m\^she. 

German. — er. Armenian. — na. da. sa. 


hau. ta.f i. hee. e. hupa.* ni.* 
uh. pay. ea — she. ount — it ; him. 
hGte. 


(DEJIONSIRATrVE, ETC.) 

English. — who. the. what? that, man? 
Sanskrit. — kutah. ka. (kah. kam.) 

,, ya. tya. sya. kim. (tad; sa) ? 
Zend. — in. an. 

Celtic. — nach ? a cia=fi!w. eiod ? noc. tu. an. 
Greek. — to. t/. ei'::=^one. o?. oinos;. 
Latin. — hfec. quid. quo. quis. qui. quam. 
Hindi. — yih. jo. kaun ? ky'a. wuh. 


cala. huin. quin.f 
ko ? at. ti. tu. kai. ar. ca. 
ac. na. it. go. cho. 
ta-ka=!r/(o. quen. kim.* 
naka*^«». kana.* each, 
to-as. hu ;* h.ua*^the. 
kena=ec/io? oo-na (Esq.). 


To Tie. (also see "Weave ; Cross.) 

English. — knot, hank ? (Canon Cook.) 

Sanskrit. — nah. 

Greek. — rcV', in'/Ow^^^itrare ; spm. 

Latin. — nectere. nodiK=^hiot. ner\MSz=}i.(rve. 

German. — n;ihen=<o sew. 

Celtic. — nas=« tie ; band. 

French. — noeud. Teutonic. — midala.=:7ieedle. 

Hindi.— ganth. 

(See elsewhere.) 





115 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUNDET. 


Semitic. 


Accaclian. — ki. bi. nin. inn. ta. 
Draviclian. — il. aga. se. al. kittina. 
Egyptian. — su — over, upon. ma. an. -xcr. 
East Tartar. — di. ese. dor. ende. la. 
Chinese. — su. ye. kii. si. ta. 

,, (to. tau. ti. jin. clii) ? 
Ugro-Altaic. — kih. da. dan. li. list. den. 

,, sa; ka; te=('«. 


Assyrian. — sa. ana. itti. kl. 

,, ina. ma.ti:=when. 
Amharic. — ba. la. ka. sila. 
Arabic. — bi. li. &. 

,, min. wa. fu. 


Egyptian. — iai ? ka ? xu — good. 
TJgro-Altaie. — o. si. da. nii (Lap.). 
Chinese. — yu=/< is ! ku ; jn^ffood. 
Dravidian. — am. arc. 
African. — ye. jm. eh. ewe. agh. kai. ze. 


Assyrian. — ki'am. 
Amharic. — awen. 


Egyptian. — bu. 

Dravidian. — alia. 

Accaclian. — na-mi. nu. ban. sa. mu. 

Chinese.— ti. mok. mu. mi. mei. puh. 

Bunnese. — ma. 

Ugro-Altaic. — joq. ukh. akenn. aham. men. byn. p6. inde. 

African. — ka. nga. a — not. qa. negei. 


Assyrian. — l;i ; ul ; a'i^not. 
Ai-abic. — la. ma. lam. 


TJgro-Altaic. — kaht. hat. 

Chinese. — lok. lu. 

Accadian. — ash. ashsha. 

Egyptian. — sas. 

Afiican. — esa. sida. senni. zdu. 


Hebrew. — shesh. 
Assp-ian. — shishshu. 
Amharic. — sadest. 
Arabic. — sitt. sittah. 
Coptic. — zoon. 


TJgi'o-Altaic. — seitsa. sat. tziette. sheigbe. 
Chinese. — tsit. sat. sei. 
Accadian. — shisinna. 
Egyptian. — secM ? nix- 
African. — cdse. oesa. samba. 


Hebrew. — sheba'. 
Amharic. — sabat. 

Coptic. — shasp. 
Arabic. — sab', sab'ah. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



IIG 



Aktan. 



Adverbs. Peepositions. Conjunctions. 

English. — at. to. by. in. from, etc., etc. 
Sanskrit. — ati. api. a. cha. 
Hindi. — men. pas. ka. ula. tak. se. 
German. — zu. bei. uber. an. in. nach. 
Latin. — sub. ab. in. nee. pro. que. dis. 

,, sun. super, kata. super, ad. per. 
Slavonic. — iss. na. ot. szo. ka. za. ot. 
Greek. — re. avv. ava. otg. hia, ck. viro. Km. 

,, til'i. eTTt. ex^** 

Celtic. — ar. 
Erenoli. — sur. a. par. ici^iere. 



English. — yes ! so. yea. good ? 

Slavonic. — da. 

Hindi, etc. — lian. 

German. — ya. French. — oui. 

Gothic. — ik. 

Greek. — lv-=good. 

Lithuanian. — teip=:!< is. 

Italian . — si^ycs. 



English. — no ! not. nay ! 
Sanskrit. — na. no. ma. 
Celtic. — na. cha'n. 
Greek. — ^dj. ovk. 
Gorman.— nicht. 
Zend. — ma. 
Hindi. — na. 
Latin. — nou. 



NlTMBEE 6. 

Greek.— (T- 

Latin. — sex. Italian. — sei. 

Sanskrit. — shash. shat. 

Celtic— huikh. huih. 

Sundry Aryan. — chut. se. 

,, chestz. stzem. sechs. 
Slavonic. — chestz. Hindi — chha. 



NoKTH. 



AiiEnrcAN. 

Cn.NTKAL.f 



South.* 



ti. nak. ac. aba. pi. man.* 
ca. to. pa. nikan. kay. pac. 
at. tab. sid.* ha. tin. 
{z*^iere. gar. zo. man. chi.f 
intli. muque. pu f=rtH(/. 



yau. aha. ja. haue. 
ha.f iku. ap. a. o. 6. 
la; ai= good. 



no. na. go. ama.* ma.f 

la. nak.* hani.f na-o (Esq.). 



sei. yei. sih. so. taki. 
hue.f zocta.* socta.* chisa. 
[huisca^Xo. 7.] 



NUMBEK 7. 

Sanskrit. — sapta. 

Hindi. — sat. 

Latin. — septem. Italian. — sette. 

Greek. — tjrra. 

Celtic. — saith. se. seiz. seith. 

,, chek. [hnikh=Xo. 6.] 

Slavonic. — scitze. seidem (^6 + 1)- stzem. 
Lithuanian. — septyni. 
German. — seben. Persian. — heft. 



siete. vezes.f tutsheos. 

,, bisicka. paghu. 
sei — vusani (=1+G). 
haft.* hasht.* ts'auks. 
huisca.f 



117 



ARYAN INTERCHANGE OF LETTERS. 



According to Frcdcrioa CTiinllanda (Philosophy of Words), the Labials are P, B, 51 ; Lahio- 
Dentals, F, V ; Dentals, T, D, Th, N, L, R, S, Z ; Guttural, K (= G hard) ; Palatals, Ch, J ; Hard 
Consonants, P, T, C ; Soft Consonants, B, D, G ; Aspirates, H, Ph, Th ; Continuous Consonants, 
H, S, Z, 8h, J (= G soft), and Th, L, R, F, V. 

Explosive Consonants, M, N (through the mouth) ; and B, P, T, D, K (= C hard). 

M. Gardlanda (p. 70) takes the English word A S H to serve as a convenient Memoria Tecknica 
for Grimm's Law ; e.g. English G =^ Latin H, etc. 



Sanski-it, Greek, Latin. 


Low German, Gothic, 
Ang.-Sax. Eug. 


Old-High German. 


A (aspirate ^ 


s 


H 


S (soft = 


H 


A 


H (hard — 


A 


S 



ANALOGIES OR EQUIVALENTS. 



English. 


Chdjese. 


English. 


Chinese. 


much (mucklo) 


mok ; mak = great 


to bake 


bak 


chief, captain 


kap 


fire, hot 


fo. ho 


many, big 


mang= great 


lamp (Gr.) 


lam=to shine (Accad. laji) 


strong, long 


ch\\-ang ; tong (dong. ch'ang) 


to sing 


sung=to chant. 


father, papa 


fu. pa. puh = man 


to say ; (words) 


sie. su (wu, wud ? mat) 


mother, mama 


mu. mo. ma 


cane 


kan = bamboo, tree 


son 


su. tzu. siao = sun 


ring 


ling = collar. rung=to coil. 


small, wee 


wei. mi (mie = crumb, Fr.) 


cough (retch ?) 


k'o. k'ok. (keche, German) 


sister, sissy ? 


tsi'e. tsi 


back 


pok. (bar) 


girl, young, new 


nu. yu ; nu = young ; child 


face. mien, look 


mien 


man. men 


nin. nan min = people 


ear 


e'hr. ir 


king 


kung. kiin 


paw pad. patter 


pao=to go. dat=to tread 


hound; cm- 


kiucn. ku. hiin 


cap. head 


kap = cover; head? 


pig (swine, sow) 


pa (shih. si) 


house, hut 


hu. ku (old) 


ewe (sheep) 


yung 


inn. field 


han 


thou. you. we 


ui. zii. wo = we 


boat, canoe 


bat (kan=log; tree) 


he. they 


i. t'a (mu=I ; me) 


pot. pan. cup 


p'an. kap=to swallow, pei 


mortuary (mortis) 


mut=dcad; to die 


seed, grain 


sa. sat. shut=millet 


ache ; sick ; black 


ak; kek = bad (sik=to sigh) 


milk 


[mih-lik ?= honey ?] ma. mo 


capture, keep, take 
to saw. cut. hack 


kap. kiap. tak 
siau ; kat. dak. tak 


sip. suck. soak. 


sok. soh. kap = swallow. 
shu = cup 


to shoot 


sut. shet = arrow. 


sot (drunkard) 


sot ; tsut= tipsy 


to turn 


tun (Ian) 


sun (shine) 


sah. shu = bright, shen. shing 


seek, see 


sik ? si', sze. ti 


sky. high? 


shi. cu. t'ien 


eye. ken. see 


kien. shell, siun. k'an 


day. dawn 


tok. tan = dawn (Gcr. tag) 


beat. tap. bang 


bat. til. tang, pang 


dew. lake 


lu = dew. zu = rain. dak = lake 


pric^k. pike 1 


p'ik = to cut. tao. pik 


mer (Fr.) sea 


mao = water 


pick, break, tear > 


chiok. tao 


shoe 


su. shu?=hand 


bite. hack, cut ) 


bit. kat. Wnxk — hufe. 


to put ; place 


pat. p'ai. bat. 


kick, hock I 


kok ; kak=foot. 


to give (gcben) 


kip. da (old) = hand 


(foot) 1 


dik = stcp 


to go, gang 


bo. yang (ging) 


( to die 


dicn = dcad. 


crooked 


kuk 


chip, chop 


chiok (choh) 


No. 7 (Sept. Fr.) 


sit 


gander 


gan = wild goose 


hut (shed) 


hu. shod 


to bum 


bun (fan). p'au = melt 


inn. house 


han 



TABLE or SOME CTHNESE AND OTOMI (C.A.) ACCOEDANCES. 118 



CniNESE. 


Otomi. 


En(;lisii. 


Chinese. 


Otii.mi. 


che=ta (ohl) 


to 


the. that 


pa. ta. kia 


da. kia 


nih = sickness 


n-y 


a wound; pain 


tsun 


nsu 


t'au. (lu 


gu. mu 


head 


tso 


tsa. 


siu. siao. suh 


SUl 


night 


hu (=ku) 


hum 


hoh = Kray. yoh 


yo 


white; shining 


na 


lUl 


kill, (kit) 


hi (ji) 


happiness 


han. he ? 


he 


ton. kii 


du 


death 


kao. liwa 


hia 


yau. (don't) ! 


yo 


no ! 


gua ? 


gui 


ting, nan 


ta 


man 


ni. nu 


nuy 


siao 


sa 


to mock 


hao 


nho 


sao. nil 


nsu 


female 


kua 


kuh 


tsi-tu 


tsi. ti 


son 


ta. (da) 


da 


kw'an 


khuani 


true 


li. teh 


ti 


pa 


pa 


to leave 


ho 


to 


mu. mo 


me 


mother 






nil 


nsu 


daughter 


tsoi 


tsa 


mien 


mi 


figure ; face 


ta. te? 


tsa 


na 


na 


that 


ngai ? 


ukku. i 


ko. ku (yung) 


yo 


lamh. ewe ? 


hian ; kien ; hia 


kian. kia 


konui. 


khoua 


demon 


Ilia, kao 


hia 


so 


SI 


colour 


siao. tsi. sie 


sie 


ku 


ko 


ancient ; old 


pa 


pa 


i ; nih 


1 


doctor; sick 


mai 


ma 


shi. tsih 


stsi 


to eat 


ki. yu. kin 


kukin 


ti 


ti 


to 


shan 


xan 





b^ 


English. 






a 






to give ; confer 




honour 




to jierfect 




lord ; sire 


"«' 


that 




cold 




W(ird j 


< 


1 am ( 


ta 






thou 


T? 


good 


§ 


high; great 


P 

a 

o 


great 


gam 


who 








to perfect 


'^2 



ken 



power 

to love 
to see ; 
words ; voice 
little 
to take 
to buy 
bird ; wings 
mountain 



u 

S a 



.so 
§ a 



TABLE OF SOME CHINESE AND AMEKICAN ACCORDANCES. 



Chinese. 



ti. k'i. du. t'u 

su. du. git 

kak. kok 

tzuh 

shon. chao ( = 

dawn) 
kap; pa=to take 

shcn = shine. ) 
siit; siicli = snow) 
ku = door ; hole 
toi. sliih 

ch'ih. to\h.=toeat 
k'ih. sok. hoh 
kak. ch'i. ya. ga 
hia. hu. kii 
han. ch'u. kia 
k'i. kan 

kck. ku. kiu. tiu. 

yuk. uk=hut 
hu = king? du 



American. 



ti. ki. bu 
gue. si. ku 
kaki 
tshe 
shou-shey. ka 



English. 



land 



cab ; 



pa 



shotto. sh-eh 

hu= mouth 
tzi. stsi 
chia 
too-a 

yooh. gue. tsi 
hi. hoh. ku 
g-ua. hau 
hi. can. kagg 

kaac. oca 

ku 



earth ; 

head 

foot 

ditto 

hand 



paw ; gral) ; 

take 
snow. salt. 

white 
mouth; hole 
to eat 
to drink \ 
ditto \ 
horn ; tooth 
house ; hut 
door ; shed 
cane ; tree ; 

branch 
mountain 

head, chief 



Chinese. 



da. yuk 
kai. k'iin 
hao. kok. hau 
nan. hia. su. yii 
kau ; k6 = liigh 
kwei. ki. hau = 

good 
kuu ; kon. hu | 
king ; kwau ) 

kao = high 

sa=fire ) 

tsao= bright ) 
nao. nit. jen. 
yueh. hu=fire ) 
chou=hot ) 

tsao = bright 
sing. jTing 

yen = shine 
ho. k'au 



American. 



ukka. da. hu 
kiai. kuna 
hu ; huk. nho 
na. hi -ye. so 
ku = God. hu 
hue. huot. ku( 
hunab. ku J 

hun;hue=God 

kuan= great 
kon = sun 
sa. tabs 



neia. naa 
kon. kin 
uh. chic, ua 

= bright 
tabs 
yun. yu = 

shining 
siru=eye 
hoe. koh 



eye 



English. 



great 

all, many 

good 

word, speech 

great, high 

God 

king; 

ruler, etc. 

j sun, etc. 

bright, shine 1 

moon, etc. ) 

star, etc. 

ditto 

ditto 
fire, etc. 



60 

O 



119 



TABLE OF SOME CHINESE AND AMERICAN ACCORDANCES. 

















&■ 


Chinese. 




American. 


English. 


Chinese. 


Ameeican. 


English. 


-«: 


sliak=briglit 
tok=day 


i 


sacas=hot 


fire, etc. 


ni. ngi. tun 
maik. mai 


iuaka.nau.hen 
mays 


ear 
maize, etc. 




sak = melt 
sao = scorcli 


I 


taika=kak 


ditto 


sat. tsi 
sake (Japan) 


saxi. siji 
acca 


seed ; grain 
beer 




Lak 




tak = day 


ditto 


zig. ch'ik 


kik 


blood ; red 




shen. sLu 




sua; sali = sun 


to shine 


mut. ku 


mutu. du 


death ; die 




seh = colour 
sieh = snow 




si = colour 


day; (light) 


kek. ya. ak 
pak. p'ek. pai 


kaka. ya. za 
paiak. pacak* 


bad ; black 
No.lOO.many? 




su = white 




siru = eye 


to see 


yu = it is 


yau 


yes ! 




kan ; k'ien= 
heaven 


! 


sua. caan 


= sky 


yau=do not ) 
mu. mo I 


you. mao 


no ! not 




king = light 
tien. t'l'n 


! 


tani. tina 


light, sun 


mu. ngai 
sik. k'u. k'iak 


may. nku 
cuta. kaka 


to love 

to cut; tear | 
knife ) 




jeh = sun. yit 




j in = heavens 


heavens 


ket.tok. shih.kak 


tuk. kah. itz 




si. tsi. (tsim pi.) 
muk. kien 


tsie sesc 
nik. kian 


eye. (see) \ 
„ (seek) 1 


ti. wei. tso j 


ko. wa. ku. ) 
he. ti ) 


to make ; do 




yen. tza 
t'u 


( 


naa. yein 


„ ken. 1 


koh. clii. toieh 


chay. tzicoa 


to stop ; stay 




I 


zu. sik? 
taou 


hare 


choh. ch'ih. '( 
k'ih. ho j 


chia. too-a 


to drink 


be 

o 


li'ik. yung. 




yuk 


deer; goat 


che. tak. chap 


pace, chue 


to take ; keep i 


C5 


chai = wolf 




cher 


dog; cur 


kap. ku. pa 


chab. kut. pa 


grab J 




kiuen 




itz-kuiu-tl 


dog 


tak. chik. chat 


thuti. taki j 


weave ; tie ; 


Ph 


ku=bull. ugii 




kha 


buffalo ; cow 




cross 


p4 


ehu 




kuehi 


pi? 


pat, dat=ch'ai 


dat. pa 


to stand; tread 




tu. yu. pi. tsui 




pa. hue. pichu 


bird ) 
fly; wing ] 


pu. ki. p'ao 


pa. ko. ka 


to go 




hiu? hue=to lly 


tshui. hue 


pa. kih 


da. kie. chu 


to give 




yii. gu 




yee. kay 


fish 


nin 


nnin 


man 




ho. man 
mi-za (Jap.) 
hu. mao. shui 


) 


kho. hu 


water 1 


niang ; na 


nana 

me j 


gu-1 ; sister 
mother ; 






maya. dzu 


ditto ) 


mu. ma. me 


woman 




uk. yu. kii 
chu. kii. kiu 




coca. uca. joca 
ku. u. 


house ; hut 
ditto 


tsie. tzu 


tzinzu 


sister ; 
daughter 




tao. eh'uk 


i 


kao. kajak 
kagg=tree 


boat ) 


nin. nii 


nantU. naa. ) 
anu ) 


woman 






( 










kan. chu 




kan. quauh 


tree ) 


nan. yin 


nani. noo 


man 




pei. put 




potum 


cup; pot 


uung. nin 


uiua. inik. ta 


chtto 




pang, kung 




pauka 


bow \ 
arrow f 


tzi. sie. ki 


tsi. ti. sie 


son, little 




shih. tsicn 




siia. ah-so = 


t\=youngcr \ 


ti 


ditto 




su = to cut 


J 


axe 


shoot, etc. i 


brother. ( 




sut = to shoot 


za=bow. 


) 


it. yit. j-ik. \\\\ 


ita. link.*' quih 


No. 1 




tak 




tuk 


spear; axe 


sze 


zi. zez 


No. 4 




sak. sha. sii 




shuka. sta 


hair 


ts'it. ch'it 


siete 


No. 7 




pi. tu 




pah. ti 


nose 


luk. 


lats. sih 


No. 6 





120 



SIMILAR BASaUE AND GAELIC WORDS. 

Supposed by Mr. II. MacLean to liave tlieir root-origin in an older Turanian dialect, or Turano- 
Iberian cpoeb. The Gaelic words may be called prc-Aryan. — Journal of Anthropological Inst., 
Nor. 1890, p. 159. 



English. 


Gaklic. 


Basquh. 


English. 


Gaelic. 


Basque. 


night 


ce 


gai 


cattle 


eid 


idi {ox) 


horn 


adharc 


a dar 


stag 


arr 


orcn 


spectre, image 


arracb 


aran 


calf 


aigliir (/.) 


orax (»«.) 


ox, cow 


aithre 


arthaldc {flock) 


bam 


sabhal 


sabai 


nse 


eirich 


eraik {rainc) 


rest 


tamh 


thai 


roe-deer 


earba 


crbi (hare) 


sloe 


airne 


arban {plume) 


kidney 


airne 


crran 


boat 


arthrach 


arran {our) 


no ; not 


eas 


ez 


mist, snake 


coo 


kbe 


milk 


as 


esne 


loan 


iasad 


jesan {borrow) 


loss 


call 


gal {hue) 


death 


cil 


hil 


warmth 


garadh 


gar {flame ) 


stone ; crag 


carraig 


harroca 


entrail of goose 


fgiblion, 
lEng. giblet? 


gibel {liver) 


steep ; high 


corrach 


gora 



ANCIENT MEXICAN AND ARYAN ACCORDANCES. 
" Osservazione suU' antica Lingua Azteca ed Nabuatl " (Bernardini Biondelli), Milano, 18G9. 



Mexican. 


Aetaj^- Meanisg. 


Mexican. 


Aeyan Meaning. 


atl. a (aca) 


Latin = aqua 


nata 


(Lat. natus=born; son) = 


auk 


Lat. = autem. Germ. auch= 




father. 




also 


maco. mantl 


Lat. manus=hand. 


anqui 


Span. =aneho=large 




Armenian niatu. 


ba 


Eng =born, to bear 


mnsa (0th.) 


Sanskrit mrisa = moon. 


caotli 


Lat. ealeeus=shoe, sandal 


metzli 


Lat. mensis = month. 


calli 


Eng. aula. Span, calli = 


moluhua 


Lat. multum = much. 




street. Celtic peil. 


pachiuhfxui 


It. pasciuto=fed. 




Norse =skali 




Lat. pastus. 


can 


Italian canto = side, part, 


i papalotl 


Lat. papilio= butterfly. 




place. 


, patzmiqui 


It. spasima = spasm ; pain. 


camano 


Lat. permanco ; mano 


i patyotl 


It. patto = price, contract. 


ceminac 


Lat. semper=always 


pcnatia ? 


Lat. poena ; punio (punish). 


chichic (cici) 


N. Italian eincio = anger ; 


pitzac 


It. pcsta=path; track. 




juice 


teonochilia 


Lat. nocco=iiijure ; hurt. 


citalli 


Lat. stellar = star. 


too ; teotl 


Greek 06os. It. dio. 


cochi 


French couche = (bed, sleep). 




Lat. deus. Teutonic tie. 


cocotl 


Ital. coUo. (Eng. = hill-top) 


tlantli 


Lat. dens, dentis= tooth. 


cuitahuya 


Lat. euro; Span. cuito=to 


thalli 


Lat. tcllus = earth; land. 




take care of 


too-calli 


temple = god's house. 


cuxiti 


It. cuoco. Lat. coc[uus = 
cook 


yechia 


Italian. vecchio = o/fZ man. 


ehua ! 


Lat. eja ! 






elehuya 


Lat. eligo. It. eleggo 






ixua 


Lat : exeo. (exit) 




N.B. — ]\[any other accord- 


iztal 


Greek im-tov. (T«Xos=sea 




ances of American words 


manra 


Lat. magis (Eng. many) 




generally may be noticed. 


mani 


Lat. manere=to remain. 







(For other analogies see Vocabulary, Part II.) 



16 



121 

SOilE AETAX AND EGT^TIA^^ EQUIYALEXTS. 

Chiefly fi'oin Villiers Stuart's "Funeral Tent of an Egyptian Queen.' 



English. 



to give 

to suckle (teat) 

to measure 

divided, middle 

breathe ; to sniff 

to na^ngate ; ■wind 

cloud 

cut. knife ) 

cut stone j 

axe. hack ) 

acute, sharp ) 

to lick. 

to see 

to stir 

to emit ; vomit 

to make (art) 

to reckon (count) 

night ( = no light) 

prominence, nose 

beUy (back?) 

net 

water 

the sea 

Hades 

libicUuous ; love 

name 

remain 

head ; top 

foot 

reindeer 

the, they 

separate ; hedge 

together; same 

young ; new 

injury; hurt 

mother 

in 

master 

arm 

prince ; chief 

lion 

dead 

no ! 

net 

over; upon 

ebony 

six 

one 

being 

hand; take 



Egypiiajx. 



tu 

tet 

mesmes 

meter ? 

senif 

nefl 

nef 

tern 

aar 

aksu. akhon ? 

hak 

Uok 

sau 

rer 

emet 

ar 

rcch 

acht= light 

ness 

buch 

rete 

uatur=sf« 

mer 

Hates? 

Ub? 

nem 

men 

tep 

pet 

ren 

te. se 

Sep 

sam 

nofer 

ati 

mat 

em 

her 

ennen 

mur 

labou 

mat 

nen 

rote 

su 

eben 

sas 

ua 

oun 

XCT= seize 



GEBSIiN, ETC. 



messen 
mitte 



axt 

hachken 

Iccken 

sehen 

riihren 



rechnen 

nacht 

nase 

baueh 

retz 

wasser 

meer 



lieho 
nahmcn 



kopf 



rennthier 
die. sic 



zusammen 
neu 



mutter 
in 

herr 
arm 



lowe 

mat 

nein 

retz 

iiber 

ebenholz 

scchs 

ein 

sein 



Latix. 



do 



emerc 
ars 



rete 



mare 
Hades 
libido 
nomen 



pes ; pedis 



separatus 



mater 
in 



Gkeek. 



acus= needle 



ve(po9 



cwp 



a6)ys 



oi'Ofta 



(arma=arms) 



leo 
mortis 



retis 
super 



unus 

Ins 



arij 
lie-, IP 
tV 



VTrcfi 



ev 



SUNDEY. 



fierpnv ' It. mcza. Fr. metre 
mesurer. to mete out 



nan = ship Sansk. 



ar (root = to plough) Sansk, 
hiiche Fr. 



Fr. mer. Sansk. mira 



Fr. tete 



Fr. renne= cattle 



Celtic sept = clan 



Fr. neue 
Celtic an 
Celtic mor 



Sec also Part II., as well as Prof. C. Abel, of IJerlin, 
the Indo-European languages. 



on the connexion bi'tweeu Eg}-ptian and 



122 



ANCIENT EGYPTIAN. 

From Prof. Carl Abel's Linguistic Essays, "Origin of Language," Triibner & Co. 1882, p. 227 :— 
The -svord ' to cuf is expressed in Egyptian by iise^, im, ten, tent, etc., tern, etc., mtes, sa, sat, seta, 
set, nesp, peht, pcx, bexn, bchi, sau. us, usli, ust, tes, x^it, xcb, x^^^^i X^t, hebt, hent, hcsb, sek, sex, 
USX, asck, seha, kasa, etc., etc., and so on witli the Egyptian words for 'to atll,' xcn, scmil, sen, etc. 
For 'hocd^ or 'ship,'' karo, bari, kaka, uii, top, hau, etc. For 'tiifjht' uxa, x^u, etc. For 'strong,^ 
'great,' tar, ncx', teur, etc. Similarly there arc also many examples of one word or sound expressing 
many ideas. 

In fact ancient Egyptian is largely a language of homonyms. The word x^r in Egyptian and 
Coptic means to overturn, strike, beat down, pleasant, sacrificial ox, myrrh, burial, etc. These are 
examples of synonyms, as Prof. Abel calls them (p. 232). 



Example of a similar sound {jni, ha, etc.), or word, ha^'ing a number of difFcrent meanings, 
some of which however are more or loss similar or cognate. Acoadian and Chinese by the Eev. C. 
J. Ball. Egyjitian taken from Pierrot. 



Acoadian. 


CniN'ESE. 


1 
Egyptian. 


Bar ; ba. pa. etc. 


pao. pa'o, etc. 


pa. ba. etc. 


(English.) Hyasna. 


Leopard ; deer. 




Bird ; robes ; weave. 


robes ; bustard (bird) 


fly ; bird. (pai, bahu). 


Side ; fence ; wall ; castle. 


citadel ; wall ; to protect. 


town ; house ; ditch ; frontier. 


Family ; clan ; brother ; lady. 


noble ; precious ; family. ) 
tree ; shoot ; uterine-brother. ) 


ancestor ; (old) (pa). 


To fly ; run ; let go ; fall. 


to throw down ; leave ; run. 


to steal. (pfii)- 


Fire ; sparkle. 


to roast ; heat ; to sun (pao) 


heal. (pa). 


Body ; belly ; house {jm). 


crop in birds ; bladder. 




To collect ; hurt ; bad. "1 
To sin against. j 


violent ; strike ; grasp. 




strike ; beat. 


to dig. Qca.)- 


A 3 cup measure. 


calabash ; pot (p'ao). 


well. (bar). 


To think, pa-pa = to give birth. 


to feel. 




Top (height?) 


to extol ; noble. 




( To divide ; split (bar). 


throw the shiittle. 


knife, stone; quany. 


1 axe (ba-1) — stone (bar). 


to split, kat (old). 


iron. (baa). 




tree. 


tree ; wood. soul, 
typhon. (baba). 


In front of (em-bak ?) 


before (bah?). 


phallus. (m-bak). 


To run ; let go. 


to go (p'ao). 


to steal (pai). tba=finger. 
bread ; plenty, (ba). 


To give birth to. (papa). 


uterine brother. 


to issue ; give birth (papa). 



In my own general vocabularies may be found the following, representing the same or similar 
meanings for the pa and la sound — viz. : 

Tillage; house, tree. hole, son ; father; goat; sheep, drink ; water. Parrot (bird ?). Foot ; hand ; 
skin ; to go ; fly ; stand, take. 

The allied root-sound, m/l (me, mi, mti), may moan in Egyptian,— land ; date-tree; wing; water; 
eye; fire. In Accadian, — brick; earth; land; tree; house; to see; man; I; brother. In Chinese, — 
mother (no) ; eye ; tree ; goat ; rice ; house. One of its most universal meanings (independently of 
mother) is, perhaps, earth, land; hence the appropriateness of the more modern expression, mother-earth. 



123 



EGTPTIAISr ANKH=LIFE; EAR. 

Showing its probaLlc general as "well as allied meanings. 



Old World. 
Egyptian. 

^ J) 
Chinese. 

E. Tartar. 
Accadiau. 

)) 
TJgro-Altaic. 



Dra-vddian. 
Indo-Chinese. 
Caucasian. 
Japanese, etc. 
Basque. Libyan. 
Polynesia, etc. 

JIalay. 
Papuan, etc. 
Australia. 
African. 



Semitic. 

)) 
Aryan. 



K'ew World. 



AXKK=life; ear. eink.=to embrace? 'ka.=hrcath ; soul. iu\ = to be. 

[Coptic. — anok=/.] anx'i=ffoat. anuk = /. 

ngai = to lire. wa.\=2>fople. ngan=«ye. ung= iciml ; hreath. 

img=!n'r/h? nan — »inn. ngo, ngan = /. an=s/i7/. 

amga = «(o;(^7(. 'kha=mouth. 

an = hiffh. iuigo=Jfesh. ann=sJc!/ ; ffod ? ngae = /aw. en = »i«». 

ka. = iiioufh; to eat ; food ; life. nga= fo do. ng]iu=breath? 

auga=i/ioufJi. ongata ; ang=«o.sr. ag'na = crt/\ ang=/ie. an = w(fl'«. 

im = fo be. han=/. \]ia.=iiiouth. ngem=/. uan=!Y is. anka.^ father. 

h-imga^Jiand. aiike.=mother. ]aiik = 7iarel. anka=JiooIc. oiika = sheep. 

an = male. nan=/. manchai = j«rt«. Tigaia=i/oke, union. nanguram=«»e/ior. 

ansaka=HiOi(rt. uga=7. akkai=Iiaiid. 

kang=wosc. agn = )nan. \vak = iiose. 

ankha=-sf«. anata=/. Ainos. — enkn=nose. 

anka=/bo< (? ancle). Libyan. — nek=/. 

manga=»»o»i7(. hunguc = ?(OS(!. tong ; ri]iga = 7uind. 

hanik = frt'/-. ngai = /; JVo. 1. kamanga = iA'(). 10. 

enga=nose. tanga=foot. langit=s/'y. an; ana=///'p. ja.nka.= anchor. iikn=ei/e. 

kauik ; anka=/;io«^/i. kang-A=Iiand. tang = tooth; fane/. 

szanko ; ankh=cy(;. angham ; anghan = /. cecngi=?jo««. kanaka =ww». 

anka = 7(0 (Wfi ; rillage. iXDkana,=moiher. hangi = wose. mik\=ivaier. 

waku^cye. banka=7/««f?. nga=father. nye=i\'o. 1. ■p\inga=tcind. 

ka= a7iimal? anah = wwM. anaku ; na ; ki ; ngi=/. 

anaku ; anoki ; ana=/. anak =».ecL ajn=ei/e. a&aka=nose. 

enu = pye ; IoiyI? shamak = Hio?<rt. 

(Sansk.) anka=/(oo/i: ; to tie. janaka=faf7icr. amka=face? an=brcaih; air. 

(Arm.) ka=life? alanchk; ounku = ra;\ 

(Lith.) ranka=7w«f^. (Slav.) tanka=Junid. noga==life. 

(Hindi). aiikhi = <';/tf. ang=bodi/. muigwr =ancJwr. hona = fo he. 

(Latin). uncus=7;oo^-. aucora=OT«c/'or. jungcre = toyu»(. concha =«7irf/. 

anmia=breath; soul; wind. ego = /. 
(Greek). tnn^j>=man. e^jw=I. d^jKTipa = nnclior. 
(English, etc.) ankle, anchor, hank; kink = /(V ; knot. conk = c«r. 
nago ; ank=/oo^ ; liuuse. canka = h'g. henka ; tankhta, kinaga = wo««. 
avLka = eagle. aug\\ = bhjod. ka; kauik = «/oi</7(. onca=liand ; lam. eno ; 
nakon = ryf. cnika ; emka ; manco ; ncnco = w(«7;. nak ; noka; nan = /. 
naki = J\'(). 1. manka = /bor/. ano ; anili = s7'(/. manaka=e?oWtfs. i\kxi = to love. 
auak ; aimkka = /'«///(■;•. eenck = so«. konika = 7j/MY'. \iaca=life. 
man<iana = to eat. makkani = i'o yo/«. anii = mot/icr. angakok =sorceror. 



Laxguage. 

Egyptian. 
African. 
Libyan, etc. 
Coptic. 
Hebrew, etc. 

)) 
Amharic. 
Assyrian. 
Araliic. 
J3as(jue. 
Caucasian. 

>) 
Etruscan. 
E. Tartar, etc. 



HORSE. ASS. MARE. 

heter. sems. ses? kennu ? (si ; as:=s«'//i!). Ass — aa. (shat^r/oy. mai^ion). 

esi. so. Bo-sa=zmare. {kxLra=:do(/). kadara. 

ais. agmah. ass-is. tagniart:=w(ff;'tf. Ass — azad. 

[bahsi=co(<'. eslio^y^V/.] 

sus. parasli. susah. hamor. [Aramaean — hniira.] 

slie-ass ; 'athon. 'arod ; i^iri^^wild ass. (Latin. — sus=:soic.) 

fcras. [wosha^r/o^^/]. 

sisu. a(n)ksu? shuru=:o.r. 

khonsan. htmar. ass; a'i'r. 'ayr. [bisc:=J»f7'] ? 

zaklia. Ass — astoa. 

tshu. zeheni. la. gaur. schu. kotii. asche. 

Ass — esh ; gar; guri. {aM-ia^wrse. Circ.) 

damnus. 

kirsu. kirsni. tserlik. morin. kgn ; gnu^^mare. f-an=.clej)Iiant, 



124 



SUNDRY.— HOliSE. ASS. UAKE.—confimtecl. 



E. Tartar, etc. 

Xoriaii and Corcan. 

Japanese. 

Chinese. 

Indo-Chinese. 

Mahiy. 

Thibftan. 

Di'avidian. 

jj 

Uarro-Altaic. 



Aceaclian. 

Arj-an 

Hindi, etc. 

Lithuanian. 

Zend, Persian, etc. 

C'cltio. 

Scanilinavian. 

I-atin. 

(rrcek. 

Old Saxon. 

German. 

SUivonic. 

French, etc. 

American. 



\v.mg^wild mn-like home of Turkistan. (kara — gorcsu=ie«r.) 

gama. [C. zio ; shio ; niao=:o.f. kuma^S««r]. 

kama. lima. Ass — saru. 

ma. er. kii. kl. 'ku-^^cnlt. Aas — lu. 

invin. kora. niyiii-inah=w*«r«. Ass — mych. \im\.^elf2)hfint^. 

kuda. 

rta. morta=:?«f«-». Ass — rkan ; bon-l)n. [scn=</V/er]. 

kara. kuthirai. kndnro. asuvain. pari. matliuvan=>««/-c. 

Ass — kattc. [O.c— kiiti; kcina. Elcphmit — jeshta.] 

at (hence, Ottoman=//ors('wffM). ismo. juna. khush. guss. Iniscli. 

kiihisli. tamma. he-n-oiset (Ein.). lu. lo. log. schundo. kundc. 

murin. hebone. kopta. iw^xa.-=^wilA horse. [Kosh::=cow Fin.] 

mur. kur. kis. ur. ansii=j«as<? ^ss=kas — kas. {gm-:=hair\ fur.) 

anen l^the animal. 

Sanskrit — agva ; (a(5=s«<'//i!)=r(iiksan=o.!-. kukura ; (;van=r%). akoasa=/(6/'S«. 

ghora. ushuru. madVan^«ir?r«. giidha^ff.ss. {■sin=z(joat. ffxxvc^hison.) 

aszava=:w«re. 

Zend. — aspo. Persian. — kliar ; ashj). Armenian. — tzi. czn^o.r. 

eac. capiiU. lair=wflre. Ass — asal. 

drosal. 

equus. accr?^iquick. Ass — asinus. (ursus=}c«r). (siis=.Wio) ? 

ITTTTOS. Ass Ol'OV. 

ehu. 

pferd. ross. miihre ; stiite=OT«r<!. Ass — escl. Spanish. — yegua=rtss. 

kon. loshad. (kosel=^o«^.) 

chcval. jiimcnt:=w(r/T. Ass — ane. Italian. — cavalln. 

no-kuse. kuss-uan. phancf sus ; mahto=i6'rt/'. kuraf=j»«wff. clier=rf6i^ ; cur. 



GREEK AND LATIN ACCORDANCES WITH CHINESE AND MONGOL.— Edkixs. 

The special resemblance of Greek and Latin to Chinese and Mongol may be judged of by the 
following examples : — 

oiVo'?, "he," "same," "Mmself," Mongol adeli, I ego, "I," Chinese, tiffo. 

"same," Latin idem. \ homo, "man," Mongol humun, Chinese tiin. 

oIkoi, "house," Latin vicus, "vUlage," Chinese 4V(A/;<.s, "people," Greek o'xXov, Mongol o/o.s. 

olc, uh, "bouse." , veins, "old," Mongol otolji, "old." 

«/)rao, " see," Mongol harahu, " see 

steadily." 
OuXaaaa, " sca," Mongol dalai, "sea." 
ijradfo^;, "lie," Chinese pid, "not," Latin fulsus, 

English false, 
ai; "thou," Latin tu, Mongol chi, Mandarin si, 

Doric Ti'r. 
ovK, "not," Mongol iiffei, "there is none." 
ca'oi'r^iu, "to open," Mongol ncheku, "to open." 
TToXiv, "city," German htirg, Mongol halyasim, 

"fortified place," "city." 
iijijtt)v, "male," Mongol ere, "male," Latin vir. 
Olio, "to sacrifice," Mongol tehihu, "to sacrifice." 
Ki'<ivo<i, "dark blue," Chinese hiucn, gun, "dark." 
m'frjpof, "iron," Chinese t'it, Mongol tumur. 
Kvicv, "dog," Latin canis, Chinese Ic^iuen, English 

/(OK«(fckimd. 
'^h'X'h "soul," "life," Chinese ^>'«/-, "animal soul." 
(ifXnu'o's-, "black," Mongol hara, Chinese Icek. 
vevOui, "grief," Chinese ^ej, j)«Y, "grieved." 
77, "earth," Mongol ^«/")>, "earth." 



" "look at «yeo, "to be in -^vant," Mongol «//(■/, "there is none." 
! OS, ossis, "bone," Greek uajcoi', Mongol y««. 
aurum, "gold," Mongol aJfe, "gold." 
puto, " think," Mongol Aof/rt/io, "think," "compute." 
odi, "hate," Mongol usiliu, "hate." 
pauci, "few," haga, "small," English /««-•. 
emo, " buy," Chinese mai, English bug. 
alter, alius, "other," Mongol ore, GeiTuan oder, 

Greek «'\Xo9. 
oppidum, " town," Chinese ip, "city." Compare 

urhs. 
jus, Justus, "just," Mongol yoso, "right." 
qumro, "seek," qumso, "pray," Mongol goyoho, 

"pray," Cliinesc gu, "seek," "pray." 
ambtilo, "walk," Mongol gabahu. 
altus, "high," Mongol undur. 
mille, "thousand," Mongol minggen. 
decet, "it is becoming," 'Mongol johistai, Chinese 

long, toh, " ought." 
peto, "seek," Mongol badaraho, "seek." 
caput, "head," Chinese kap. 



125 



ADDENDA AXD COEEIGEXDA TO PAETS I. AXD II. 



Page 1. — Egyptian: add si'it— stone. 

Page 2. — Accadian : add aJcak^to cut (stone). 

Page 3. — Egy[)tian : read mm instead of nai=:"wind ; qtia instead of qnu^zrauc'h ; add w^'a^strcngtli. 

,, Assyrian : for «s«^tree, read isu; and omit daru. niu. (jiyu. 

Page 4. — American: ion: ivatcr-lwme, read ■water-house ; and for fOf(7 = /(0.sc, read house. 

,, Chinese: (Great), add /I'r/ja^chief. 

Page 5. — Greek : read o's instead of la. Asspian : read sarhti for samku=ichor. 

„ Egy|)tian : add x«^=heart (Blood) ; also Coptic, /io< ; maf=z\AooA.. 

Page 6. — Chinese: ix([Ci hivai ; «o/.;i=swift (wind). 

Page 7. — Assyrian : drop 7idhi (Death) ; and add Greek : I'EK-po'i. (Assyrian : fW'«=smite). 
Page 9. — Greek : (Dog), for Kvir^/ read Kvwf. Dog, add her. 

,, Egyptian: add x''i'''''==to exist. (Beetle) for kheper read ;\;cper. 

Page 10. — Accadian: (Fish), drop /■rt/*^iand ; tng^scize; also Chinese, Aff;^;^take. 
Page ll.^Greek : read ('x«7' instead of ix''°f'', -^'W (pn^/en'^to eat. 

,, Egyptian : add r//,«^eup (Drink) ; and //(y/'^hunger (Eat) ; (=eager. Eng.) ? 

Page 13. — Assyrian: drop nalai (Sacrifice). 
Page 14. — Chinese : drop //»«/-^house. 

Page 1.5. — Egy])tian : add wifsijr^skin. Greek: read «(f for oif:=goat. 

Page 17. — Egyi)tiau: (Salt), add /(/««<. /;(?s«ieM=:natron ; ashen^honcy (Sweet). Hindi: add/oo^=old. 
Page 19. — Basque: add cwT/(7=:stone. 

Page 20. — Egyjitian : for d(7r=stone, read uar ; drop karnat^=\\orn. Accadian : drop ffur^to return. 
Page 21. — Greek : for ?7-«';y;(9;=hack, read /)ax"i foi' V''"? read tpho?. Latin : iorj/ectare xcaAflectere. 

,, Assyrian: add r//:s((=twistcd cord. 

Page 22. — Accadian : (top lino), for hud read had. 
Page 23. — Arahic : for s«wa read sff?«oM=:morning. Assyrian: for ^i'sM read ^i'sM='white. 

,, Hehrew : drop ewMW (Sky). Assyrian: for «7i=god, read !7!<. 

Page 25. — Hebrew : for mo. mi. im. read )wrtyu«=water. Greek : for oiwp read viicp; (Pot), add vcpia. 

,, Arabic: for !«7c?7=river, read ravine. Assyrian: ioi .ikaniru rc-ad sh(in'iru=&rc. 

,, Egyptian: add f«i« = firo. 

Page 27. — Assyrian : for ?(rt««rt=:fire, read nannaru ; for .shawah read shame ; for /7«(rrt'sM:=gold, read 

,, kJ/nrasu. Greek: for Io = moon-goddess, read Iw. Egyptian: for x«^to shine, read x". 

Page 29. — Assyrian: for pita; kii, read (Y««<«=small ; for /.s«=:tree, read isu; for cM'iruz=iman, read 

,, khii'ini. Egyptian: (Son), add whittle; Jien=.hoj ; «r«M=eldest son; for («M)==th, read 

,, they. Greek: ior nijTijp read fiijTijp. 

Page 30. — Chinese: add ^■«=;male (Man). Assyi-ian : ior 2>itd ; A«^child, read /.';»/«=rsmall ; for isu 

,, read «s«(=6re. Accadian: add ^y( ?^mate. 

Page 31. — Assyrian: for (?/»(^brother, read aha; drop y/-w '?^woman. Egyptian: add srt'/=daughter 

,, (Sister); ymJ=girl ; kenau; 'Wfi^woman, lady ; «/(7( ?:=youth (Boy) ; ncxcn; mm ?:=ehild ; 

,, drop nerau (Man). Greek: for 760? read viui: Assyrian: for saclini read salc/irti (Son); 

,, for inn read isutu^nmall. 

Page 33. — Latin: (Tongue), add ^^(f/rt('«;«=palate. Assyrian: iov limru,rcaAlisa)m. Himza: (India?) 

,, as=:»;y heart. 

,, Polynesian : (Ear), add hnnih. 

,, Eg^^itian : add rf(7;=:tougue ; x'i^^=li^'art. Arabic : for s//i'(/=to see, read shafi=.<ije. 

Page 34 . — Cliincsc : add (!/<;H=:molar-tooth. 
Page 35. — Hebrew: iovchel;, read Z7(eZ-=mouth. Egyptian: (Hand), add x^A^f oot ; hahu; ermen-=iO.Txa. 

,, (I'oot), add nart^io run. (Head), for her, read hra. (Hair), add, Hcr=.\yoo\; 

,, (^loutli), (/«f!':=stomach. Greek : add on<ri/v=::haiiy (Hair). 

Page 37. — (Weave;), Assyrian : for rishi, read rihu. Indian : add 6'(«'fl'.$//ZY(=hooked-cross. 

,, Accadian : drop, ^«fccloth, add, Egyptian : .s(«<=papyrus (Speech). 

Page 39. — Greek: for ^//yx"*! ^'^'^^ /"/X"' ! '^Iso add /«'T/)«;'^measure. 

,, Ugro-Altaic : add w(«»=I. African: txdd mana; also ?«rt«(;(;=:man. 

,, Andiaric : add admu'^^mwn., also matiuhi-=r\\\\om.. 



126 

ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA TO PARTS I. AND 11. 

Pago 41. — Assyiian : for machdsu read malcMsu. 

,, Greek: ior uiee.i/, read lu/ieti'; for Fxeri', read t'^rn' (Raise). American: add ce-hiti/a. 

„ Greek: (Sleep), add Uttvo^; for TiOf/fn, i'(!ad 7iOij/ii. 

„ African: (Sit), addi'::/; ziyho; kita; /curst; ««*(;=seat, sit. 

Page 43. — Greek : (to Come), drop kiu. Assyrian : drop anli. Thibetan : for rhim-pa (to Go) rc^ad 
,, ItHj-pa. Egyptian: add, <c7i.Y7(=;to enter in ; 5'«wrt««=to create (Make). African: i\dd mo, md. 

,, Polynesian : (Foot), add pude. 

Page 44. — Chinese: (to Make), drop nga (old); (to Go), drop pdo. 
Page 4.5. — Assyrian : (To Give), for nada-nu read nadanu. African : add addi//-=:y(jf, ! 
,, E. Tartar : add da ja. X'«=to give. 

,, itiv J^drunean YciidEtruncan. Egyptian: (to Adverbs and Prepositions), add *« ; cr;en'i em. 

,, Egyptian: (Stop), add ;»«(=remains ; /ff=trcad. 

-Chinese : (Adverbs and Propositions), add i«/!=b('liind ; phallus '? (Thou), add »i'^No. 2. 
-(bottom line), add Accadian : //Mi=hand ; Cliinosc : leap. Acoadiau : add ku ; /^-rt^rmouth ; 
eat ; Chinese : ka ; ku. 
-Bnrmese : (House), add /i:ctf^M=stonc. Dravidian : kathi=.to build. 
Egyptian: add x«?=stroet ; town. Dravidian: (Stone), add ^w;-:=rock. 
-French : for caille read caillou. 
-Phoenician : for <///-tf=rock, read tsor. 

-Egyptian : for mad, read «(«/=air. Ugro-Altaic : (Wind), add aiHaz^npirif, and drop kaiza 
=zsun. Assyrian : (God), di'op, digirii. 

-Assyrian: (Son), add ;'fc((<«^small. Latin: (Wind), for ritis (Life), read vita. 
-(Death), Greek: for A:a/j=soldior, read ki)i; also add Orijaiceiv. 
-Assp'ian : (Salt), for alkkhu, read malkhu. 
-Sky ; day. Egyptian : add her=^to sec. 
-Egy|3tian : add /«7-=dog. 
:. — for (^Quinchuca) read (^Quicliua). 



Page 


40.- 


Page 


52.- 


Page 


55.- 


Page 


50.- 


Page 


01.- 


Page 


03.- 


Page 


64.- 


Page 


68.- 


Page 
Page 


71.- 
73.- 


Page 


82.- 


Page 


112, 



Page 


1, 


Page 


3, 


Pago 


5 


Page 


7, 


Page 


9 


Page 


11, 


Page 


13, 


Pago 


15, 


Pago 


25, 


Page 


37 


Page 


58. 


Page 


00. 


Page 


02. 


Pago 


68. 


Page 


72. 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA TO SANSKRIT (PART I.). 

-(Stone), drop kor. (Honso), for khad^to cover, read chhad. 

-(Boat), drop ketoa. (Great), for sak read ^ak. 

-(Bow, etc.), for hanak?=zaYrow, read bc'uta, and add asfra^dart. 

-(Black), drop tutt=^to hide. (Death), drop mah. 

-(Snake), for sira read ^ira. (Bird), drop pica. 

-(Food), for sasya read qastja. (Eat), for ak; kam, add or read, a(;; ad; 

khi'id ; Ihaksh ; ffJias. 
-(Skin), for k/iad read chhdd. (Bad), for nadi read ««cte=night. 
-(Goat), for hucca read aja ; chlga. 
-(Water), for Cq) read a}). 
-(To Cut), drop ak ; and for shara read rara=^shoot ; add ar (root)=:to plough ; ear. 

(EgyiJtian, orfr^stone). 
-(Enclosure) ; (Latin), add, c/rrMw/^field. 
-(Axe), add ar (root)=to plough '? 
-(Great), add, qac^iir/. 

-Add (Death) mar (root)^to destroy ; crush. 
-Add, c/iNj (Fermented Lic[uors). 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE 



ACCORDANCES. 

(PART III.) 

TUEANIAN, Etc. 



129 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 








English. 


(Modern.) 


ACCADIA>'. 


E(iYrTi.\j«". 


SxrsBiiY. 


rrincipal and Cognate 
Terms. 


taku. kakau. aclui. 


khar^rock. 


sat. pabt. 


Latin. — silex. 


Stone. 


okuta. kct ; qkau^ 


sbig. taq. 


tet. tu. aar. 


Etruscan.- — topee ? tular. 




to Old. 


digh. za. 


]Lixtr=zhonse. 


Celtic. — caer. 


Earth, land ? 


dak. data. kala. 


du. si. bar. 


Sckb=:fM/. 


Libyan. — arri. ekedi. 


round ? house ? 


\.u\.\-=zpealc ; rock. 


silig=«^roH^. 


ska=/;/o«(//j. 


Ambaric. — dak. 


hard. rock. 


kau. 


gar=^bric/c. 


hiit^iard. 


Sanskrit. — (jila. 


taw. to cut. hack. 


kou. itu. to. kak. 


kii=/(Ci«4r. 


bksu^ff.'v. 


„ kuta^jieali. ; rock. 




sia. ka. libukii. 


tar:=<o cut. 


bexen. tcxtu. 


,, ar^to jjlouyh. 




oko. eta. ta. ko^ 


dill. bar. 


anr. 


Basque. — aitz. arria. 




hnife. 


ha^cnife. 


ta^earth. 


,, iztoa=:B/TOK'. 




daka^/(0!M(!. tari. 


'k\il=ztcsticle ; 
seed. 


tck; avk^Iall. 


E. Himalaic. — ana^fo ploiir/Ji. 
Chinese. — ti. khi. sha. sbik. 




liclle^f//7ff(/(! 


gar=lin'ck ; 


kii. aat. pa. 


Latin. — scutiim^shield. 


House. 


(Arabic). 


wall. 


katr^iv7/rty«. 


,, cutis=t«^7'w. 




ulu. ilii. lira. bo. 


kiku. du. kii. 


qcr^cfrcle. 


Scandinavian. — skali. 


Hut. cot. nest. 


tan. tu. bu. op'u. 


kar; gal= 


aar=.s^OT*c 


Erenoh. — carre^sj iitirc. 


hall. tent. 


ti ; to ; ilt'C^cilldf/c. 


town. 


as^;"oo)«. 


Celtic. — bal. Hindi. — ger. 


home. ham. wall. 


gcr. da. b'wala. 


kur. ma. ea. 


ta.=pl«i)r,l(i)id. 


Polynesian. — hale. falc. 


stone. hiU? tree? 


ham. aro. aar. 


ki=hnd. 


tu=^stone. 


Ainos. — kotan. Mongol. — gar. 


brick, dwelling. 


ama=ficld ; en- 


dar^enclosure. 


haka^boat. 


Malay. — halle^t77fo^#. 


inn. enclosure. 


closure. 


ga dill ^to 


ut ; aat. 


Persian. — khana. 


town. -N-illage. 


daka. 'kaxi^stone. 


cover. 


bu =2)lace ; land. 


Hebrew. — gal=zheap of stones. 


court, shed. 


pere. deba. 


bar. 


han—ho-v. 
a.Tii=tent. 
■^era^ii closure. 
■}^nh=zstreot. 


Etruscan. — cocre ; vol ?^town. 

,, ez. "B." tular=s<o?i^. 
Libyan. — ghcr. Burmese. — teh. 
Armenian. — kar^stone. 
Basque. — im=^villaffe. 

,, torrea=i'o(tw. 
Greek. — avXij^iall. 
Slavonic. — gora=hill. 
Chinese. — ^kii. hu. kia. 

,, hau^/«.». kek^«/i-/». 
French. — caillou=j;(?JA/o. 


cover, skin. 


giro ; kira =ifarm. 


da; ]L[—land. 


kar. kai. 


Etruscan. — ma ; man=:tf«r^7(. 


Enclosure. 


da ; A&\ix=^lwuse. 


ga. ma. mu. 


ta ; VQ.-Ah-:=land. 


,, mc-an=carth-ffoddess. 




kail ; ka=.5fo?«6'. 


kii ; kur=: 


mcvu=table 


agci— field. 


Field, land. 


\)iiW^z::garden. varo. 


house. 


land. 


Celtic. — macs. caeu. eaii-n ? 


garden, wall. 


moozc. 


Varc^wall. 


aar; tu^=sione. 


,, acliadh. hul^town. 


state, country. 


ama^vtlluffe. 


kha. du. go. 


s^cm. scr. 


Arabic. — zar:=form . 


circle, farm. 


garc::^coimtri/. 


er-ki^fo«.'«. 


katr=7(o«<-se. 


Berber. — asgar. 


area, arable land. 


oko; kulo; igbo= 


gan—(jarden. 


(lQr=.circle. 


Phoenician. — carfha^citi/. 


fort, house. 


form. 


amar. dar. 


xnit=f/ardcn. 


Slavonic. — gQra=:hill. 


tower, stone ? 


dega. dcha=!ioiise. 


tag^.f^o?*^. 




Greek. — rrriicKov^^baf/. 


city. town. acre. 




mal^/(o;M«. 




Latin.— ager. 


earth, yard. 




sa:^j!cld. 




Sanskrit. — cakra=circ;?#. 

„ kn=.laHd. 
Coptic. — kar. alit. 
Caucasian. — daba. 
Chinese. — t\\\i-:=sto»e. kan. hen. 

,, kai. mn^>ou?idari/. 

,, du ; dat=M;7A ; land. 
[See elsewhere.] 


garth, scjuare. 
boundary ? 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



130 



TJgeo-Altaic. 


Ea.st Tartak. 


Amebican. 


(Siberian. Turkish. Ostiac. Lap. Fin, etc.) 


Mongol. Mantslm. Tungus. 
Yenessei. Kalmuk. 


NOUTH. CENTKAL.f SoUTU.* 


koch. pnc. pa. pu. acli. 


vcke. tzuka=ff2^c. 


tuka<i:=harpoon-2mnt (Esq.). anda. 


ta. tiis. tu. du. ker. shish. 


kata ; katu:=//«/YZ. 


tak.* toto.* itz* taque.* te. bik. 


zelu. dsholo. kcu. kao. 


tsaknr. tala^/ZeW. 


tot. tetl. tot. kotui. tsai. 


kiisi. kiwi (Pin.), tang, nckhc. 


aaki^lo cut. 


thai ; backi ; ki=;e«r<A. 


kit. kalle. klics. ko. karo. 


tzolo (ilong.). 


caa.f cata.* kak. chahk. kah. 


'fi^nrcr —rock, kedkc (Lap.). 


hada^rofZ; ; Jtard. 


silla.-^' tlialton ; * o\dw^=eariIi. 


kher^carih. po. ro. 


gagir=mr/A. zcloua. 


sell. kuli. tsa. paki.* assin. 


sil^zto pierce; cut. taz. tasli. 


etka=/ cut. 


kodja; oca; tcepce=/io»wc. 


cys. kuruk. kai'=^)/ow/// ; to cut. 




kakswa. tsbaier.* ctita*=<o cut. 


sahso. sell, tscliac. oV^piUar. 




tqt ; k'tla ; t'he ; okotoki. 


kartaga^/(r«Y?. scliim. 




kcakum:=('rtr<A. 


adra=fo ])lou(ih (Lap.), tycsli. 






^-&vxx\=^pUlar . \.\\(A-=deHticle (Lap.). 






liukut. khal. liaz. falu. hn. 


tura. gcrr. gere. 


cal.f calli.f u.f bob. ko. 


kyla (Fin.), ion. kholla. huus. 


uja=?ifS7!. gar. 


tupok ; karpa^teiit. teepee. 


ui. muat. kar. bar. kc'u'i. 


(Ainos=kotan.). 


bocban.f huasi.* uta.* ku. 


men. kyney. yu. khus. kudo. 


kota; tosu ; ■M\^=foicn. 


wasi.* ama. kosen. kukb.* in. 


kota. kod. turuk. hat. kat. 




itak. kat ; tak ; kuh^^stone. 


tnr. liarcd. hu. koto. mat. 




ngu.f he. tab. tee. koh. cari.f 


ta ; ku=s^o«c. kartu. husrli. 




uca.* nisht. qui. hi. kitsh. 


tura^^o;<'M ; liounc. kar ; kora^.sZ:/);. 




guc. era.* era.* kodja. bia. 


kosha ; kcd ; kurich^i//«. 




ghoti.f mohl^r//%/6'. 


goattc ; -wieso (Lap.). uca^^sJicIfer. 




mah^aiid. bit ; gok ; sotl^wuse. 


huome. aiilu. aoul. 




dega. moy\ti^.s/cin-lod//e. 


al ; ula ; ola ; gii\a.:=fe)it. 






kote (Fin.), yourt ? kolet=fo«w(. 






ordu ; mat — tent. 






socli ; kuora ; kar=s/«». 






olaga:=tent. tals:^farms. 






kyra^ifehl. sirr=;/rt«f/. 


tala. 


caratu;* kubrrs/oHP. 


giri^ploKffh. tarla. su. 


iro^^plonr/Iied land. 


ata; toe; hoh=lwuse. 


da. di. akjer. om. 


karr^r////, toicii. 


muye. gar.f gir.f garc * 


kar. kor. kyr. kurt. kiirt. 


'keritvt^^tuicn. 


zaea;f muya ; cancha^^ffarden. 


koto (Fin.) ; kia; kat=/(y»se. 




tolke*— earth ; kmd. mab. 


aker (Lap ). mczo. mor. mu. 




bu ; asa;* amah; amet=?««(?. 


tu ; ko ; mod a ; tiu:=ef/ rf/>. 




mobl=r//fo(/e. sccbe=««rtt. 


om; 'kar:=state. daradu. 




calli ; calf ■:=hoi<se. dega. 


man; mn ; ma^diid ; earth. 




kat ; te^sfone. kah^/(OJWe. 


s^iimr^^boundnri/. mn^/anil. 




aca*:=Iai>d ? dcba=:f;7/«^«. 


mat^wuse, or laud. mo<\a.:^eart/) ; huid. 




uluf^tte earth, fum'kc^n-airie. 


hat; huza^wme. 






kher; ja ; jer; thir=ra;'/7« ; land. 






tura; albeit i/. myg^earth. 


N.B. — ker is an old 




ta ; ku=.5^0M«. 


Turanian root, sig- 




adra^/o plom/h (Lap.). 


nifying ' Stone ' or 




meisa=^pW (Esth.). 


'Field.' r=l. 




tals=/rtr?«s (possibly ^rt=laud+/ round). 







131 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCOEDAXCES. 



African. 


ACCADIAN. 


EGrrxiAN. 


StrarDEX. 


English. 


eya. kokua. -wato. 


mak. ma. 


kaka. kari. 


German. — kabn. nacbcn. 


Boat. 


"igi- 


kiin^ztree. da. 


kebui. seket? 


Basque . — laucba. 




ogbo. oko. 


kika—Jwuse. 


kid^house. 


Scandina-iian. — snetja. 


Sbip. water- 


kanoua. 


gha=;?«/i. 


kanen ^plant, 


,, kuorr. skuta. 




mokoro. sanduh. 


m\i=^tree. 


tree. 


Guancbe. — guijon (=kykon) ? 


bouse, canoe. 


go ; ki ; koui= 




t'aku=«foo(^. 


Celtic. — currock. 




tree. 




baka. maxen. 


Sanskrit. — udaka^ water. 


dug-out. tree ? 


kiiku. bivata. 




bexet=:6'e«. 


nau. 




achu. 






Cbineso. — cb'uk-tu. pac'. 


fisb ? ark. raft. 


egbe^^ree. 






Slavonic. — karawi. 




egbe. tu. ati. ese. 


gisb. gi. gin. 


axem:=Jrfl«(;/i. 


Sanskrit. — gaccba. 


Tkee. 


ekii. akari. oki. 


aka=:/(;y/j. 


ba. xe. x^t- 


Greek. — 7rei'K)i=fir tree. 




\akvi^tree. osa. 


mu. kan. 


xi; ax^=high. 


,, (jiij'jdi-^^hrech. 


'Wood, oak ? 


khiti. te. su. M. 


sbar:=to sJioot. 


Si i ''-" 


Celtic. — giiar. Ambaric. — zaf. 


great ? taU ? 


mauti. tab. igi. 


dagb=<o (/roif 


Norse. — askb=«.s7i. 


reed, cane. post. 


aka=:6'^/(7i:. 


va-^root. 


uat^reed. 


Gotbic. — bokka=: JfffcA. 


bigb. son ? 


kesgar. 




kanen. sbab. 


Persian. — buk = heech. 


life? sboot? 


koyc. ti. mi. buo. 




sa.=so7i. 


Cbinese. — pao. mu. wu. sbu. muk. 




ni'paho. mosi. 






Dravidian. — kan. 




miir. 






Latin. — qiierous=o«^-. 




kura, baka = 


sbang-du. 


ax; axa = 


Hittite. — tur ; tareba^cAee/. 


MoiUfTArN. 


great. 


khar. kara. 


high. 


,, kviv =imoimtain. 






g-u; sbag= 


aar=^rock. 


Latin. — coUis. Gr. — irdyo^. 


Hill. tree. high. 


kara. boro. ora. 


head. 


t\\=^rocl\ 


Celtic. — toiT=^hill ; chief. 


great, mound. 




ta ; magb=; 


ur=zgreat. 


Hebrew. — bor. liarr. 


stone, rock. 


'koXw^great. oke. 


great. 


te'p^zhead. 


Etruscan. — iav^chief; high one. 


bouse ? peak. 




agga. da. 


mer. x^^^X^- 


,, fate, tepaj. 


top. bead, neck ? 


kurmar. ikunda. 


kala ; aka=: 


tes. set. 


Ambaric. — pallali tarara. 


back, top ? shap. 




high. 


ka ; axa ; kai 


Cbinese. — du ; t'au=/«"rtrf. gok. 


fell, strong? 


'ki^ztree. 


gwv^ieap. 


=Lhigh. 


,, kau. tui. 


sboulder ? 




ghar. tu. 


mn-^shoulder. 


Nepaul — bour. bbar. 


born. 




mar=:(/r«a< ; 




Sanskrit. — kakud. kuta. aga. gii'i. 






much. 




Berber. — urar. Greek. — ok/xs. 






kur. gu. 




Slavonic. — gora. T:os=horn. 










Basque. — a.cu=strong. a.v=.many. 




baka. oduku. 


kir ; kur= 


ax. axa. ur. 


Etruscan. — mari^chief man " B." 


Great. 




strong. 


ka; y\—high. 


,, kohiiii=i great. 




kui'i. kiilu. cku. 


aka. kala^ 


ncxi^strong. 


Berber. — mek. koob. 


High. much. 




high. 


kna:=«(»(7t. 


Cbinese. — ka. mok. mo. ta. bak. 


strong, mountain. 


\\^tree. 


gii. gur. gliar. 


h-M\=^l;ing. 


kok. kui. kau. koo. du.^head. 


height ? good. 




magh. da. 




Basque. — acn^stroiig. ixr^many. 


tree? bill? 


6kc:=mountam. 


kaka=zrHler. 




Sanskrit. — ag;ii=:woiiiitain. 


chief, god ? 




uku^hing. 




,, ucca. (;n(/^.itro»g. 


huge. big. many. 




mar. gal. 




German. — hoch^high. 






lig. dug. ui. 




„ starkc'=:s7ro«y. 






nu^=.high. 




Celtic. — hir=^ high. erg. 






kal=/(/(//j. 




Greek. — fid'/a^. tcd/nof. Kvpioi. 






gur-us. 




Slavonic. — kras ; blagi=:yoo(/. 
,, kbor6shi=^oofZ. kvLb=^j)le}itg. 





A I'lIILOLOOICAL TABLE Oh" ACCORDANCES. 



132 







AjIEIlICiVN. 


Ugro- Altaic 


East Tautak. 


NOKTII. CuNTUAL.t SoUTU* 


kando (Fm.)=fruiik of free. 


jalia. ongosu. 


cahak (=tvater also) kaiak (Esq.) 


kaic. kayik. ano. 




wah-lec baydar. cajak. 


clia=^;-e«. Airek-i^pole ; hu/. 


(skya=4rt/7. Tliibct.) 


l)iraga.* k'nn — lrce. ya'uk. 


hajo. diap. kap. 




l)alsa*=/Y(/i! ; gaa. kakahoroo. 


akiiag-; kiiiia ; kyiia (Pin.) = ?;w. 




quennua.* huacjuera.* agara. 


tig=/(Vf. filiki. tekne. 




pali-a. ka-o-wa 


jaha? jaLudai. tyg. kerop. 




tappa.* akwedc'U. ihuira= /;•<;«. 
atipis. kuineitl. neqiiitl. kau=//.s7(. 
akiosut.sis. 


uca ; chv.:=hirch tree. ak. ok. 


nao. tulli. 


mc-tig. muira;* agara*=Joa<. 


sa. aya—fir tree, aghag. 




na.f nai.'" ili.* kau. soocis. sTa. 


oksa. dirck^pole. yii. 


modo. moo. posu. 


hu-yah. kah.* sahac. aa.* shaak. 


pa. fa. mcza=forest. konii. 




piehu ; akotn=_^;- tree, iuara.* 


metza=: (6'oorf. ae. aga. maz 




sacha.* haca.* kagg. kargar. 


oks; ag ; 'ku.g=^iranch. jfur=zroot. 




kec-Ya=:wood. tsa. piku.*' kats. 


agasli. aijlie. kando=.s^fWj (Fiu.) 




oma.=^cane. gazo.* hue.* quauh.* 


lunoe. kha. myr. tukc. 




khoka.* molli.* shaak. skiit. 


\ijna^=IwNow tree (Fin.) 




haccha*=^;rrt!!. acatlf=frt««, reed. 


pu ; piin (Fin), skua {Y\.n.)^hrancli. 




k'ats. chejz^ztrees. mistcis. 


tope. tupa. dobo. rep. tor. 


tsoto ; clieu ; ike = 7i ig/i . 


quanhtlaf [=quor=kor=hor ?] 


panda, wuori. kar, dagh. 




ahlii.* tepetlf ^;-0f/:. tepe eia. 


kai. k'Tiruk. kgy. syr. sa. 


oola. dscholto=ro('/'. 


hacoha y' pacha ;f da^great. 


ta. tau. tax. tu. ke. ki. tag. 




toak.f kaax.f zM-nj=foH-er. 


agha^?o/-rf ; great, pil. ouclia. 


gola. kha^great. 


nti.* khollo.''= ox.^-=hill. nikye. 


chai. ker. di. kirg. pal. mar. 




orcii.* pata.* too-wak. iti. 


Wio^roclc. tci^^Jiead. gurcr. 


ura = Iiorn ; mountain. 


ku ; te ; tse=s<o«e ; roch. 


Tpaca^ffreat. balkan (Turkish). 




machi ; manaho=</r(;a<. 


gur ; to=/((;rtfZ. hegy. -ware. 


mattas. 


hu-yah. ukku*=:/«>/A. takat. 


kyuh. kiirgan. -ware (Lap.) 






m'agas (Fin.); a\lok=^ Iiir/h (Lap.) 


mar. ■magaa^high. 




khopp. k6gar=iffc/.-. kor-ok. kcr-cs. 






korogc =:/(////* (Estli.) 


tarehaan=c^««/. alin. 




(Primary root ; kor.) 


aeliur; utii^i igJi. 




allok (Lap.) ; kijrgo (Fin.) ; magas^ 




ogimau=f/»>/'. da.f noh.f k'eq. 


Jiif/h. 


den. ten. chen. jiki. 


kuh-tseh. pacha.* tenah.* 


ki. paea. arko. lu. agge. 




ukku.* muck, manaho.f k'toq. 


iiiksck=:/«V/A; hill. ulug. 


acu^strong. ike. yeke. 


machi. ogha.=^god. gaua[\^greatness. 


h.egy=zhilL agha^^lord. 




k\i\^su2)reme god. kaitch. 


kwa^chief. kywa=(7oo(Z (Fin.) 


kha ? agutsehe=^(/ofZ. 


kuan. haceha.* kotch. nima.f 


k'uruk ; kar=iiwimtam. 




orcn^^^moioifaiH. haca.*^tree. 


ko ; ko ; tcn^hiffh. cna. ket. 


khakhanz^tJie great ', 


hitka. toh ; khuta ; k(itso=zgood. 


sun. hixr=zstroii(/. sharei. 


khan. 


ia ; ai ; la=good. q'ue't. hanak=/«^A. 


yo ; jo ; hi^zi/ood. 




rax;f chucaf=s('ro«i7. omakimi. 


ar:=»ia!ii/. how'i^good (Fin.) 


cyai^ord. 




b'irkha. pasclia. cliccm. uigaz^hiffJi. 


kuschi. 





133 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCOEDANCES. 



African. 


ACCADIAN. 


EGTPTI.iJf. 


SiTXDET. 


English. 


takn^stone. 


taq; z&^stone. 


(sekb. sau. x^iu- 


Latin. — sceuris=ff.r(;. 


Axe (to cut). 


cleka ; aka=axe. 


iskxi^urni;/. 


t sabu^r?*/!. 


„ sccare=)'o c((^. 


Stone, knife. 


m'bago. uka. \ 


kud; tar= 


Xctcm^scissors. 


Basque. — aiiz=sione. 


to cut. hack. 


auclian. f 


to cut. 


hc\'eii^7(//t'. 


,, aitzkora^fl.cc. 


saw. death? 


sukare. sukin. l 


sliu; zida^ 


sat=«^«e. 


Chinese. — sah^«^o««. 


sharp, acute. 


thipa=i/7((76'. J 


hand. 


sek^(?.r«; (7ra?/(. 


,, sail; tak^s^«ar. 


bisect ? 


sio^sirord. 


b-al. 


sbut. fcq. hat. 


,, shik=«^««. 




zegsum^fo cut. 


;y-as=fo cut. 


bcxen; toktu= 

stone. bksu=:«,re. 
sckz^death. 


,, p'ik ; chiok=:fo cut. 
Sanskrit. — ak=i'o cut. 




oiita ; baka ; 


ban=io«'. 


sun. set. 1 


Chinese. — shih — arrow. 


Bow. Arrow. 


bota=/(oa£'. 


sita=:r«T. 


ss\ir=arrotv. ) 


„ sut:=/o shoot, shet^arroio 




sar. tscb. sappi. \ 


shu; zida:= 


pet=Jo«;. 


,, sah^sfone; sjjcar. 


Arc. hand? 


sara. kibbia. sa. | 


hand. 


sut=s^o«e. 


,, tsiao=i;>f7. shur=fo Jcill. 


bird? 


mta. sc. songa. i 
miketu=(rr;-ott'. ) 


zin; din= 


tit^shoot. 


,, iwn'^^oic. jik=^arrow. 


to shoot. 


arrow. 


sex^cut. 


Etruscan. — curis=«ji;cfl/-. 


spear, kill ? 


okoii; oga; esi^ 




sesu=:J?V(^. 


Latin. — sagitta=«rro w. 


(arrow=iow- 


spear. 




ben=:?«'«(7; wr. 


Greek. — ma-ro^^arrow. \_roic. 


stone). 


sin; c^ii^^llrd. 




scssa==e»^>«y. 


Basque. — iztoa. gezia. saycta=rt/-- 




nta=bou\ 




shu-ti. 


Sanskrit. — gara ; shatate^(77TO!<J. 
Celtic. — saeth=fHvoi». 
Teutonic. — Scyths^«/wo/fr« ? 




ku. kwa. kue. 


mu; me^«w. 


mcr. mt. 


Latin. — tuo. telum=:rtY(7^;o». 


Death. 


'ko^war. 


miid=:Woorf. 


mnt. mates. 


Greek. — Ovw^to sacrifice. 




kukwa. lele. 


arallu=: 


ak=i'ow;S. 


„ finx'i^udtle. 


Miu-der. todic. 


maku. 


Hades. 


tek;smar=/o/^77/. 


Etruscan. — svalca^r/Zcf?. 


dead, corpse. 


m-mut. mayi. 


giil^destroy. 


;ya^fo;7;.'{C. 


„ cul. "B." lupucc=:ffe?. 


dark ? to kiU. 


dake. 


mutu. dug-. 


niai^/owJ. 


„ xo.n=:destruciioii. " B." 


tomb, night ? 


koka ; kulu=:oW. 


kiikki^tlacl-. 


m_-k\^dar///er. 


,, naper; sutlii=to«J. 


war. sacrifice. 


moku. sbulo. 


til ; gbul=iff(?. 


mat ; tu^iar?. 


,, manes^iZ'rtr/s.s. 




vi'ko^nif/ht. 


s'i^todfe. mid. 


mates=/L:///. 


Chinese. — shat. In^fo hill. 
,, kut=('o die. mut. 




(Arabic. — mat.) 






,, kvk^:nif/hf. mik^lack. 
Lithuanian . — merti. 










Slavonic. 


Hebrew. — kal^i'w hill. Basque. — il. 








(root) kon = to 


Celtic. — oil. Berber. — mouts. 








end; die. 


Sanskrit. — mri=;'o die. maka. 








max=« Mow. 


„ mar^fo «•«.«/( ; destroy. 










Dravidian. — maranam. 




ti. ncti. ) 


kukki=Jaf?; 


n^a. kek. 


Etruscan. — nat=slaur/hfer " B." 


Night. 


okun. isi. > 


dark. 


krh. 


„ kiarthi ? thapir=i/«c/'. 




duAi=h/tick. ) 


ghul. kail. 


tek=/o Jcill. 


Chinese- — yik ; kvk=:iii(/hf , dark. 


Bad. black. 


Ti'ko^nii//if. 


gulla=f7c;*(ow. 


xa ; tu^ftv7. 


,, am. hiieu. mik. s-i:w^sick. 


dark. ugly. 


tuku. 


tag. ge. gar. 


scssar=rf!(«^-. 


Basque. — balcha ; gau^niffht. 


devil? crooked 


hnnc^^had. 


sa. sig. bar? 


iik=^iomb. 


,, ehar=i(7fl'. 


sick, death? 


aka ; kiri= 


\ikkn^2)oiso}i. 


noki=.daffffer. 


Hebrew.- — r»'j::=l>ad. 


hide, shade. 


crooked. 


ntwiz^dcmon. 




Sanskrit. — nakta. kala=W«fi. 


sorcery ? 




{\'\k(_:-:=dr(ld. 




Slavonir. 


Assyrian. — a]i\\^wickcd. 


dirty? 


yikn-^dcvil.' 




li'rlii=!(7'(;^rr/. 
6blako=f'oi<fZ. 
blagi=i«<?. 
vrag=f»«»(y. 
Xiiiara=('o darken. 


Coptic. — raka ? wicked. 
Hindi. — keech=rf/V<. 

,, tir'cha=f/'ooZ-(!fZ. 
Dravidian. — ketta^iffrf. 
Greek. — rcKpot^death. ci'f. 








mi-ae-iiiy=:f/fl')-A-. 


,, rTKOTiic=idark. Kfih-o9=:had. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



134 



TJgeo-Axtaic. 


East Taktae. 


Americak. 

NonXH. CENTKAL.f SoUTH.* 


suka ; taka ; haltii:=fi.rc. 

cliUL'ki ; bccfliak^ /,•«//«. 

kit ; sails ; tschac^sfewe. 

ak§jo (La'p.)=iaxe. user. 

ta; ]io=:.ifo>ie. kirwcsli (Fin.). 

kopt; swha=(o plout/h. stharp. 

ta. tonzzzbti/e. kas ; kiz-c=^/c)ii/e. 

(Frequently =s=sli in TJgro- Altaic). 


suka^f««. actks:=; 

I cut. 
cbar ; utaga=/;«i/e. 
tsliuka=/.v»y(;; axe. 
tsakiir=sfo«e. 
i-iiki=ztocut. selcme= 

■iivord. 
ctka^I cut. saki=: 

to cut. 


a ; sah=«/o«<!. 

uata. kiai.* zaclil]'. ) , ... 

scliekt. itz.f slatiidi. | ~'^^"J«- 

atokoa. as-kwa-sa. ) 

1 ,, I ^a.ve. 
cac-sa-(iue. sk kum. ) 

cuta=to cut. 

tqta; lii'siyek=rtxtf. akyck=Z:«</'«. 

sku5'tclicn=/i:»(/e. 


jocot; seoger; kyot; xyt^^""'- 
ock ; sirdan ; saitc (Lap.)=ff;7'0i('. 
zaa^bow. sogam:=zarrotv. 
chii^^iow. tcm=wro(f. 
chana. 


nuiiiu ; nomu ; kyet:= 

bow. 
sawa ; ay ; ssumo= 

arroiv. 
schidu^-sjorar. 
at^^ shout ; arrow. 


sck.s. tikct. \ 

za.* pekta.* tzeika.* > :=bow. 

munmtc.* sua.* nama. ) 

oolatL* quit. kaht. 

salipe. tyuli. abses. z=arrow. 

tick, skill, apsi. 

oks=fo hill. 


kullum (l=:k) ? hunnis. lielak. 
kuol=/o die (Fin.), kul. surm. 
Ilium. kurmo= ■«'»/•. oncha. 
mana:=ffod of death, teulo^foii/l. 
'knl=:dcvil. mara=fo /.;///. 
kalonia. knolema. hcla. kubc. 
kusong^^rff);*. mevt. 
margli. halni. cilii. ecliti. 
matam=:oW. 'kiilm^coM (Fin.). 
tu=^ attack. bat-maq=i!o sleep. 


uunre. ala.^/vV/. 
idhwi^iveupon ukul. 
kcebor=i'6iH(i. 
tcliiliu=)'o sacrifice. 
■d\x\\yo.^iilled. 


wanu.* eketali. naketa.* zuk. 
huanuy.* umanu.* mulu.f 
mouli^i«r('a^. ongul. dii. 
matu. kaclie ; kaak=»///A<. 
kloma; nakkani;* mcca; mara^fo fo7^. 
memil. mii-dal. tiia. mou. 
malki f ^ m urn my . kak a^ bad. 
iniquif =;^ die. tlel. kiii. 
tc'aqan^^'o hill. xmiinc=i'o»ii. 
ravik—buri/; corer. cuiu. tocaj=tobury. 
coco; mata=^blach. 


gi=(Fin.). ye. tiin. yo (Fin.) at. 
puqquctte ; bakkeka= W(f f^-. 
fekcte ; kara=:i«rf; Hack. 

palia. bueno. bozuk. uh-yok , , 

liaika (Fin.), etc. 
yrto ; ghin\:=dirfi/. Lolaga. 
tara ; cs. sagar. tsage. 
h.ehi]i.=death. joljc^sjiade. 
kceiitu. tin. schlig. sai. pii. 
tnma=black. gige (Turkish). 


ckel. simi. suno ? 
kcuteotc^Jfi'c?. 
kara^WrtcZ.-. Lara. 
kekor=^r«;Y'. xara. 
kyryn=:«/««(?02<'. 
.saclirin. suni. io. 


tuta. yami.* za.* ukku.* 
tcta;* akakka;f ocaf=J/fffi. 
kaak ; taxi^^night. nekli. 
yano.* kacbc. nat. 
kaka=:W/; dirt, akaka.* 
liecatf=-s/«c(r?e. chamaka.f 
k'ai; ticq ; iakh=/;arf. nek^«(V^-. 
siksinam^i/rtfZ,-. kokiiyi. 
angakok^.so?r«-«' (Esq.). 
ukkii*=:i<'(V/itff?. 



135 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 


AcCADIAjr. 


Egyptian. 


SUNDET. 


English. 


kliut. eka. era. 


glia. xli^- 


utu. 


Etruscan.— xal. "B." 


Fkh. 


zemi. edsa. ekue. 


kiu. 


annu. 


Draridian. — sal. 


snake ? 


]sJidi=zsn(ike. 


nun. -\;aua. 


uhal? 


Chinese. — gu. Greek. — IxOvi. 


canoe ? 


qiiienne. 


ku. 




Basque. — arrai. 




kanowa ; kaku= 






Hebrew. — dag? nun. 




canoe. 






Arabic. — samak. 




nyoka. sa. 


zir. 


shna. 


Dravidian.- — naga. sarpam. 


S.XAKE. 


samoka. 


sbir. 


Sep. 


Sanskrit. — qesha. sarpa. 


dragon. 


nya. edso. 


mash. 


\'esbctu. 


Chinese. — ze. Hebrew. — nukhash. 


sciiient. 


siweba. nyo. nu. 




sebauk. msbu 


Etruscan. — nust-hieh ? 


asp. fish? 






— alligator. 


Berber. — azrem. 

Polynesian. — neke. soioi=:gufs. 


navel? guts? 


kale, n'cha. kai. 


liki. 


fu. 


Chinese. — kiuen. ling? ku. 


Dog. 


kei'B. karre. 


lig. 


(f=k ?). 


Buiinese. — kwav. 


cur. hound. 


apia. m'bua. 


ku? 


ulier. 


Basque. — era. zukur. 


f03 ? wolf ? 


kura. afu. nlu. 




au. 


Kamschatka. — 'ka-!n\uz=wolf. 


jackal. 


'ka^animal? life? 




ka — deer. 


Sanskrit. — kukkm-a. (^vau. 
Assyrian. — kalb. Greek. — Kifwu. 
Celtic. — ky. madaidh. 
Etruscan. — cutu. "B." 




kono. susu. 


tu. zu. mu. 


tutu. pai. 


Polynesian. — moa. ]yMi\=^pigeon. 


BlED. 


kakii^cliich7i. 


gliu. kbu. 


sesu. 


Sanskrit. — vaka. pakslui=«7«y. 


to fly. fowl. 


n'koko=f/o. 


har^toj/i/. 


usli. 


,, kaka^f roit'. \)ai^=.tofly. 


wing, feather. 


mo. pcse= fowl. 


pak=fo catch 


sh\\=^ feather. 


Etruscan. — arakos^7/rt«-Z,-. 


cock ? pigeon 


pig. pidi. papa = 


h'rds. 




ku; cus. "B." 


to shoot ? 


tofy. 


tu = icing ; 




SlaTonic— ptak. 


wind? 




wind. 




Chinese. — ki. tsui. tu. mo. 


to rush ? 




tin? 


ah. 


Assyrian. — parrisliuz=^_^y. 




gos. nakai=o.r. 


lu. 


Cauc asian. — auroch . 


Cow. 


la. ikuma. m'kali. 


■xnr^ox. 


abt? 


Basque. — beya. oroch=i/so«. 


ox. bull. 


In. bati'ar. 


ga. 


kauit. 


,, akcr=.(70«<. 


caU. 


oko; tura=i»//. 


gud. 


ubcr^f^n^. 
ka=4«?/. 


Celtic. — vioch ; bugh=(?Oit'. 
Latin. — taurus=ii(/7. 
Dravidian. — pagu. dana. 




ogoro. 


sbagb. 


shaau. 


Latin. — porcus. 


Pig. 




pish. 


IT. 


Persian.- — chuk. 
Assyrian. — V\vAx^ntll. 
Hindi. — ba'nib. 


hog. sow. 




-adn:=laini. 


uher=rfoy. 


Thibet.— io. Chine.se.— t'u. 


Hake. 


aku. ba. 


sikka. 


kaari. 


Hindi. — buk'ra. Celtic. — pocau. 


GOAT^ 


pon. oru. 


dara=deei: 


ka^f/cfr. 


Sanskrit. — Y)a(;\\=icaMe. chaga. 


buck. deer. 


m'gombi. memo. 


zur? 


kaka? 


Etruscan. — cuthi'. Xcpaul. — gara. 




esi. so. 


arsu-kuiTa= 


heter. 


Chinese. — ma. Koriac. — gama. 


HOESE. 


goa^eow. 


least of the 


scs. 


Indo-Chinese. — myin. 


mare. 




woimtain ? 


kennu. 


Accadian. — kur. (See elsewhere.) 


Sheep. 


lcmcno=lanib. 


\id\x=lainb. 


kamaar = 


Greek: — ot"?. a^ii'6^=^lamb. 


gone. koro. 


lu? 


[camel. 


Dravidian. — kurc. 


camel, ram. 




ur-niakli=: 




Accadian. — ku=;-ffw). 


ewe. lamb. 






Kam,schatka. — kunia. 


Beai{. 




great beast. 




Greek. — upKTov. Latin. — ur.sa. 
Chinese. — hiung. Thibet. — dom. 
Malay. — mac\mn=tiger. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



136 



ITgeo-Altaic. 


East Taktar. 


American. 
North. CiiNTiiAL.t South.* 


kal. ki)la. kalat. knt. 
balak. kon. kan. gite. 
kaL tig. mimacha. tsckari. 
qudc! (Lap.), kalla ; luil (l"'in.). 
isse. kata. x^t- 


kbcle. 

dagsbu. 

kal. 


bai.* pali. pala. trbi;. kaiui.* 

kay.* bcrau. cballbiia.*". 

cueliut. kanu. ican. ke-go. 

gat ; hail ; mo'rit=.v(7//«o».. niam'mi. 

cay.f nucbin.f miu.* kaiyunk. 

mab-mik. pague. ekkaloo (Esq.). 


nanza. tlolan. 
cslidissa. ajaznc. 
isso:=/(.s7t. shimarenda. 


lo. 
mogai. 


so-lab. macbaco.* x'^okc. 
nan-gar. kob. osbeista. a-to-sis. 
si'tleui. naqoit. cumatz.f 
cban.f pitseksiiia. 


kaik. tabaha. kanang. 
zanak. ainpt. koy. scliy. 
kynokai. kynpck. iied. iit. 
kilty a. meda. yandu. 
poll. amp. pa?aii. koira (Fill.). 
roka; loka=/o.i-. tip. alschip. 
khiit^ivolf. lei=/o.i;. 


nokai. betka. tip ? 
kadang. kandgai^ 

^reindeer. 
ky. kou. nynakin. 
kuropen. nood. ku. 
nooboy. koll^/o.r. 
kaloo=:J(;raYr. 


alco.* cbiki.f tayo. kok.s.f 
kc. pek.f pii-ku.* pay. ga. 
kyetl. uots. imita. 

uiecteb. keikuc. cannii. otatuye^/oj.'. 
sboulia. keikutsbi. cbcr. kyebG:=!A'o^'. 
yabuara.*. piro.* kakka. .sbui. 
yo.f itz^-?«'«tli. keiiiet (Esq.). 
cooocbi. dyid. atok=/b.f. .skaga. 


kukoi=/(«j(Fiii.). sliile. kiii'iar:=<o^y. 
kam; kiit ; syrwarp=i'o///. 
kusli. iy\j-=fcathcr. kukoi=/ie».. 
kan. kooscli. 'karak^eagle. 
ckorum ; tvi\\\=:te<(ther. surum. 
kuna ; kanad:=!i!(M^; feather. 
kaehmak=:<o_^//. t\\.^=fowl. kakas. 
tn=^fentlier. tuhak=/(«». 


kbaton. gaska. 
sibecbu. inobun. 
iidu ; diguT^winff. 
garsbu =z feather. 
tukia. 


kukai.f vaku.f kuku. buctzotl.f 
qiiaiibtl.f piksi. ahwi^fiather. 
pat-pa=?6v'«y. \\\i\v^i\.^ feather. 
]lo%X\^z feather. i\wm.]^owl. 
mon. ra.ska.*=!rM?y. line.* baoanu. 
tsek. totli. 


kiir-g. hapta. okiir. uddu. buka. 
karmcs. kos (Lap.), mosh. sor. kar. 
karau=^i«//. dana=cal/. bua. 
buck=o.j;. charii; barcha; lebmii (Fin ). 
okaescbi ; sa-rw^c//: (Lap.), 
bargga (Lap.)=:reiiideer. 


uber. mar. 
zaar. korei. 
onker=o.2;. 
vaai^cattle. 


eniwa; kha.^^hiff'alo, coip. 

cca.v.Ta=:sheep. 

aiiclia*^ fiipir. paca*^^o«<. 

tariikka'^''=:rf('e/'; sheep. 

llama. ^'=^ sheep. 


schorma. zuzga. 

vctek=«o(<i. porsas. 

kayik;=.9^ffy. 

poros. siga (Fin.), tiia. porsb. 


gacai. gacbi. 

khaga. [tot; Corean.] 


knob.* ynk=/ioy. ak.f 
aucba*=^rtjy//'. 


ujoa. 


taoulai. taoulac. 


tavu. TO. tocbtLf ta-uta-end. citli.f 


babra. gura. podo. 

kiittu ; kauris (Fin.). ucki^r/o«<. 

kayik=sfe^. ■pouTa=zremdeer (Fin.). 


toke. tiki, 
gama. kom. 
gacbi=j!^?y. 


tarukka*=r?c«-. g'at^deer. 
cochena^hoff. jtuclii^^sai-affe animal. 
tsisk=^elJc. jak^zhoff. ■pa.ca*^sheep ? 


miirin. isme. guss. at. 

lu. bcwoiset (Fin.), kopta. lo. 

'kos^cozo (Fin.). 


morin; giui=H(flri". 
kirsin. tzerlik. 


kuss-nan. cbicb.f 
pbane. jo^dof/. 


kar ; oaeh^sJieep. 
ulat. 'koi^timb. 


temo (gama=(/o«^). 


llama.* ccama*^sheejj. paca.*" 
icbamef^«/(tff/. 


karbu. maina. 
medve. 


morin ^/iowe. 


mabto. mooan. mccrapc. 
yono. miick-wa. ukii-mari. 
nan. kiaiyo. 



18 



137 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



AFKICAJf. 


AcCADIAJf. 


Egyptian. 


SUNDET. 


English. 


ako. kaka. aka. 


dug. karu? 


aku. kabli. 


Sanskrit. — kalasa. udaka^M^a^«r. 


Pot. 


kango. cIoko:=/» 


gar=htiked 


akana. 


Chinese. — p'au. bak=J«/i-«. k'i. 


calabash, cup. 


drink. 


ware. 


tc';^=^o drink. 


Hebrew. — ka'd. Greek. — Kt'ipv^. 


kettle, ewer. 


kukudu. ko. 


gii; iiag=!'o 


bc>xen=cffri*/i ? 


Ai'abic. — tarab. kas. 


can. to bake ? 




drink. 


uka=;c«^(7'. 


Burmese. — kwet. Corean. — sbat. 
Latin. — &q\\ii-=zwater . 


baked-earth? 
drink, beaker. 


(loco — Arink. 


vign^^^vater. 


ba(|t. tar^t. 


Hindi. — arak. durukbt. 


Beee. 


aka=:7;of. 


ka-life. 


XU. sa. 


Basque. — uharka::=»'«<cr. 


spirits, wine. 




nag=^dri>ik. 


avp^tvine. 


Polynesian. — asega. 


diink, etc. 




'kai-dn^imne. 


uka — icater. 


Slavonic . — vodka. Latin. — nectar. 
Sanskrit. — vAak&^water. 
(See elsewhere.) 


liquor, sack. 


maza=wrt/:«. kawa. 


tich=^wheat. 


sba. snu. 


Polynesian. — TmxR\\=ze<jq . maa. 


Food. 


UTo. mamma, mata. 


sliug=ffo. 


Sep. 


Greek. — ^da. aiip^^J/csh. ai-o?. 


grain, seed. 


soso^beaiis. ikwo. 


shen. ku. 


sbam. 


Berber. — zerkom=:ofl<«. 


seseme. maize. 


ekuir=H;«;';:(;. sliu. 


sucu. mu-mu. 


sub. sii. 


Basque. — marmi^read. 


milk, flesh. 


zara. san. si. sc. 


seum^^o eat. 


t'a. 


„ a.stoa=^bread. 


mead. egg. 


tsi. moka=;7'('(". 


she=^ffrain. 


maku. 


Burmese. — atsa. Sanskrit. — anna. 


cake, mouth? 


ziwaka. sauve. 


aaml^fruit. 


scru. 


Chinese.- — md=wheat ? 


to eat ? rice. 


osese ; m'hi^i^ flesh. 


sereh^seed. 


suht. 


,, mi; tsi^maize. 


meal, bread. 


numa ; nvama==/«sA. 


zi; zid^meal. 


maaa:=s«?<. 


,, z\i=:maize; rice. 


fruit, grass? 


asi; eki=c^(7. 


uzu=;7«s7(. 




,, sbu:=»j;7Z,- ; nai. 


wheat. 


mazi^hotiei/. 


sham^ffreens. 




„ shih:=<o eat. sa.^seed. 


sorghum ? 


mi^milk. taasu= 






Assyrian. — zhw^seed. mat. 




flesh. 






Hebrew. — man. sheber. 
(See elsewhere.) 




etsa. esa. is. 


zal^sim. 


%\i\\=^lright. 


Berb. — tesint. Accad. — siu=zichi(e. 


Salt. 


lyo. ussu. 


a.zag=I)riffht. 


liesmen r= 


Kurile. — shippu. Basque. — gatz. 


white. 


nsalo. 


si-\ag^do. 


natron, maaa. 


Chinese.- — soo=:M'hite. 


shining. 






asikcn^ioney 'i 


Japanese. — siwo. shiroi^tvh itc. 


snow ? 






'hmai—salt. 


Libyan. — azal^«M». Corean. — sho. 




mazi^wiui/. 


sa.gh=^toshi)ie. 


shn^hri//Jit. 


Chinese. — s'it — white, siit — snoto. 


Sfgae. 


kara? 


sheg=zsnoio. 


ashen^hoHcg. 


,, .shen^/o shine, sha'tang. 


sweet, shining. 


esa=s«?<. 






Japanese. — sato. Hindi. — shakkar. 
German. — s\iszz=stveet. 


snow? salt, 
white, honey. 


ussu ; etsa.-:=salf. 


sheg. sagh. 


bs — coJd. 


Persian. — jiicb. Corean. — nun. 


Sjfow. 




sin; lag = 


s]m=zbrinht. 


Libyan. — azal=:«!m. 


ice. glass? 




white. 




Sanski-it. — skan. qnci^=glistening. 


salt y white. 




shen^fo shine. 




JajDanese. — shimo. Juki. kori. 


shilling, cold. 




AZ&g— bright. 




Chinese. — siieh. siit. shen=;!!o shine. 

Etruscan.— so. "B." 

Caucasian. — shard=foW. aik=(>«. 




bir. beri. 


sbiirm. 


toh.cr=zred. 


Polynesian. — tsera. Sansk . — asan . 


Bmod. 


CSl. 


khar. v(us). 


sciii=-to kill. 


Slavonic. — \ras:=red. 


heart, rod. 


sadaka; ebo= 


f\nzz:life. 




Chinese. — Wck=ired. sum— heart. 


gore, life? 


sacrifice. 


A\i-=red. 




Hunza. — as — mi/ heart. 


kill ? man. 




!i\\a.g=^heart. 




Caucasian. — arki^/(('«/'^. 

Berber. — fici]\ir=red. 

Estruscan. — vari^rcd. susu=!'«/« ? 


sacrifice ? 








Thibet. — snyin. Latin. — sanguis. 





A riilLOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



138 



Uuko-Altaic. 


East Taiitak. 


1 
Am Kit re AX. 
XoKTU. CiiNTUAL.t South.* 


kub. bai-dak. 
kauini (Fin.), 
nmkku (Fin,). 
paik=/oorf (Lap.). 
bcitak==<o cook. 


tabao. kaissim. 
dabouko. 
gar(bi; gaku. 
kacur^^o biike. 


kaka. taconatl.f tzy. koto.* 
ak\ii\i=kettle. manka.* 
potum ? llakhnay. i%ksia=.kcttle. 
a(;-ka-hua.* kankaka^cw^. 
tlkap ; kaetia ; auii^cettle. 


arak. rakf. syra. 
ruh. arpa. 
bii'a. !xvka=^irafcr. 
siikz^Jfowinff liquid. 


ariki=.yj('/v7.«. 
8chegra=A«>r. 
ts\it=^tipsi/ {sot). 


nccn^^^maize beer. 

liuarapu:=fo drink, oa. 

aks ; yaku^wrt^w. nrika=^ drink. 


sar. niiidda (Fin.), saggai. 
paik (Lap.), rauua (Fin.). 
schlab=//rra(?. ros=/7/c. 
sunu^/(o;((7/. znchiiray. 
mooka=//o(w. mog^(Y/(/. 
lunit ; znd ; manu=fr/(/. 
sarnu ; scliulei=^,c/(/. 
mamel; serum; maida=w(///i:. 
gosb ; is ; zie ; oseh=//c.vA. 
shiiit; surut; zud=;w(//Z:. 
laska^^/i'c.sA (Fin.), schulei^^v/y. 
mnogo==/i'es7j. 
melke — milk (Lap.). 


sii. !ia:=milk. bada. 
schyno ; machaor=/i'«s7f. 
tara:=eo/7J. atcsu:=o«!'s. 
sarn — mouth, shanii — 
oats. 


ta-moo-a (Esq.). zaxi*=OT;'». 
mnti^^^boiled maize. ikwo*=»ifl;/ze. 
sara;* cara;* mays f :=«(«««. 
mahiz ; morra:=»i«72('. 
mamao \^.iugar-caHe. 
manig=:(Y/// (Esq ). 
mobu*^^r«(M. sauau^/«rt/3C. 
sti=;fo cat. atsi=/o eat. 
ash-ki-mai==/i'('.s7j. 
siii:=w(rt/;('. saplio ^^^liarvcst. 
chiehtya=:«i/tt. 


tonz. tootz. zelan. soak. 

soq. saL slio. ser. sak. 

saksi. tu.s. sir. solu. salte (Lap.). 

shoty. sbat. iuole (Fin.). 

slie. tnsh. 


izat. dabashu. 
tzazzo=««ow. 
shayan^(r7«'i!^. 
soo=^ivhite ? 


istal.f ixtao. sachi.* 6&ii&c^=ivhite. 
skuhosh. shen-eh. ah-wish. 
zak;f sasacf=«'7((Yc. oh-zet=?c«. 


shaker, sukker. 
sima:=/;o»^7/ (Fin.) 
sokeri (Fin.). 
soak^salt. 


sikis. chik'oro. 
shikis. 


suduk ; mizquif — street, skh'ilk — tee. 
mamak^^saffar-caiie. 
sasac ; snteii=^white. 
skukosh=.s(7?^ sachi*'^.srt7^ 


ja; jeg=(>e. bus. si. bet. 
jalg. jonk. jagiia (Lap.), 
tik. tosh. tyg. sira. ho. 
shaget. bootz. kaisse (Lap.). 
puss=:/ro.s^. karr. soghuk:=fo/rf. 
jae (Fin.), lym. 


tzazzo. chasa. 
sussu. zhasu. 
shayan=:if7(;Ye. 
izat=srt/^. musu. 
silic'^f/lass. son^zichife ? 


jah. yah. yas. zahs. ti. kwi's. 
shotto. sik'koo. kais. quecce. 
t'ek ; speu=/ce. stuyG:=co?(^. 
yohi. toosha. oh-zel^ce. aq. 
rassu* kharsa^('cc. skiihosh=sff//. 
es-tassa. yoode. ajah. kfm'skwii. 
zura; sasac f^j<-7((Y«. sheh-eh=.sff?#. 
shimaa:=co7rf. itztac f =('oW. yude. 


sziwu ; sydau ; aaix^irdrf. 
syda (Fin.). ur-Tcres:=re(^. kan. 
kem. weri ; wcrs (Fin.), var. 
ki. kaun. weer. kyscL 
yveros^iiHiii. schim=//Mj'<. 
shiiwen;=7(M;'< (Fin.), tihcm^hcarf. 


jah. tschu. 
sengin. kan. 
zaidii=red-ha ircd. 


siquci ; shah=;Yr7. hu. seh. 
qhi f kik.f uah. uh. ti— life. 
ki-no. cs-tah. su=///«. 
sih. tek ; selkh ; 'kiix^ieart. 
moskitsipap. 



139 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeicak. 


ACCADIAN". 


Egyptian. 


StTNDEr. 


English. 


bata. kulu. hu. 


du. dub. 


pet. 


Greek. — ("x''"'- '^o''*- Latin. — pedis. 


Fooi. 


uluk. akkau. 


A\\s, = knee. 


xet. x-a. 


Basque. — anka. oma. 


paw. leg. pad. 


peta. keka. laku. 


gal =»■««. 


fi^s= fu run. 


Celtic. — cik; ped ; uk. 


ankle. 


banko. eka. 


A&<^=ley. 


kep=.s<f/>. 


Chinese. — kak ; keh ; pii'e. 


shank, hock. 


peka = /(«>(rf. 


hax'i = to go. 


^^c\)t=fodanee. 


Amharic. — igger. kurah. 


knee? crooked. 


(ika = he!it. 


arik. 


hap = ^o run. 


Selave. — noga. 


to go. tread. 


lo; ta; ka=!'o ffo. 






Sanskrit. — pada. (See elsewhere). 


dance. 

kick, patter? 

run. hop ? 


loho. hukko. 


gad. qat. 


kat. 


Greek. — x^'P' ^aK7v\v^=Jinger. 


Hand. 


pri = !'o i/i've. 


t'ig. ti. id. 


ker=fo tahe. 


Berber. — achcrai. Mongol. — gar. 


paw. pad. 


ukah. kako. koa. 


ek. ill, zida. 


'k(;j)t=palm. 


Chinese. — chao = fingers, shou. 


finger, fist. 


koi. nakoa. alo. 


tu. da. 


shep. 


Dravidian. — kriru = /r^. kai. 


palm. No. .5. 


pcka. ekkaki. karu. 


(lib. du(g). 


kep. 


Caucasian. — kiti = finger, kukh. 


elbow ? 


eke=i\''o. 1 ; hand. 


sig=i'o give. 




Latin. — mamis. digitus. 


arm. No. 1. 


\\.a. = finger. 






Sanskrit. — kara. 'knk=elbow. 


to give ; take. 


(Ai-abic— eaa.) 






Etruscan.— 0y. "B." 
Italian.— diti =finger. 
Amharic. — id. Hebrew. — yad. 


palm, catch. 


chans^a. nu. 


pei = f« breathe. 


an-y. 


Greek. — frivoi. ^aui=to breathe. 


Nose. 


hangi. hongo. 


ni. pi. 


nai=ff;'/'. 


Amharic. — aflnka. 


smell, car? 


isue. mmp;. kiiiflsa. 


zxi= ivind. 




Chinese. — pei=«ose; >ihell. tan. 


breathe. 


pepa=<o Mow. 


siirL= to breathe. 




Sanski'it. — ghraua. 
Latin. — concha =67(c^'. 
Caucasian.- — ^hauka. 


prominence, 
tongue ? 
nostril. 


kutu. dsi. 


s}ng= fo hear. 


anx. 


Polynesian. — pci=r'(7/- ; ■'iheU. 


Ear. 


okua. 


pi. gi. tan. 


stm= to hear. 


Celtic. — tiid. Amharic. — izue. 


to hear, conk ? 




gishtug = i!o 


mestohcr. 


Slavonic. — ^tchutv=^o hear. 


lug. shell. 




hear. 




„ pola = /m/'. Vnxozrzdeaf. 


tongue ? 




miistiig. 




Chinese. — ngi. er. pei = 67;('/^. din. 

Latin. — concha = nhell. 

Greek. — ov<i. 

Sanskrit. — karna. ghosha. 


navel ? 


tele. clc. dake. 


erne. 


nem. 


Greek. — x'^^^"^— ^W- 


Tongue. 


halla. telam. 


I'mi. 


sct=tat'l. 


,, ejjvWov ; 7r<ii(iKov =^leaj , 


leaf, nose ? 


lime, milalo. 


'k\m = fail. 




Latin. — lingua. folium= leaf. 


palate. 


telan. 'ka\m=lcaf. 


dub = /('«/. 




Etruscan.— evi ? " B." 

Berber. — ills ; elis. 

Eussian . — golos = head. 

Amharic. — melas. Celtic. — liab. 

Chinese. — tieh = ^()j. t'im. t'ien. 

Latin.— palatum. 


speak ? 
phallus ? 
tail? lip? 


suku. sen. 


sa. so. 


setert? 


Sanskrit. — keqa. giras =/!«(?«?. 


Hair. 


sak. suk. zau. 


sag= head. 


s'nu. 


Berber. — char, zaden. 


beard. 


asi. zuru. 


zig. tug. sik. 


zab=beard. 


Slalay. — skra. spu. 


whiskers. 


sitsi. eru. 


ka=/rtc«. 


sail . 


Amharic. — tsequr. shar. 


wool. fui'. 




su. gush. 


hinsti. 


Chinese. — sha. sak. 


head? thatch? 




z\ig=icool. 


Ishaau =/(««!(?. 


Basque. — adaz. bizarra. 


tress, shock? 




SVL=8lcm. 




Greek. — Oi>i^. Kui<i=a fleece. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



140 



Ugeo-Altaic. 


East Tartar. 


Amkuicax. 

NoUTIt. CuNTUAL.t SoUTII.* 


kok. kol. kur. kuoha. kassa. 

lat. lab. ikuk. lioi. 6. 

kcu\c = l('f/. ajak. 

pud. but. pyid. ajak. jaL 

pulang. laggyl. kassa. 

lri])a, juolka (Lap.), kaymick (Fill.). 

jalka (Fin.). tubuk = ^7(c-c; hoit. 

likke = i\'o. 10. no; fia ; nc. 


kliol. kul. 
bctka. bodal. 
kocbar. guala. 

tacba = .s/i06'«. 
iskubl = /Z7V^'. 
ka= to dance. 


klioliia. kolo. tolo. k'os. 
kuki. ugbd. cbaka*=i/7V/(/«. 
piii. pats, po.* pata.* 
keli. cbanka.* looga. taku.* 
goca.* caki.* tsiko. oocb. 
kitok. uoc.f gua.f kilh=«n«. 
sk'acj^t. goixc= thumb. 


kar. kiisi (Fin.), kcd. ket (Lap.). 

togan. ki. kul. koL kuz. kasi. 

tok=fin(jcr. lio'i. lieiiar = r«v«. 

sylto. bocg. eh kat. 

loi; 16k; min ; mmi=Jinger. 

kega=j?V'o. 5. 

kocliu = cMo!f. lokbe = i\7;. 10. 

yks. ehkCtscL (Lap.). 

surt; pasnii =^«r7«-. 

akto ; buea=iVu. 1. ujl. 


gar. aUaga. 
gara. ngal. 
a\e=:thuiii!). 
kuro=Jii/)/ci-. 


gora.* ikii. ak. paco. ka.* 

ca.=fingcr. cab.f kain. pi. 

da. akalii=i\7;. 1. gliica=^A'». 10. 

motfis. 

puku =i\"o. 1. katchicou. cuu.f 

ara=to f/iee. kenin = rt;'m. caki.* 

lab. lloke.* pana.* kalikh.f 

kilb = fl:r«i. ko'kue. tVt}k=Ji)iffer. 


ang. pascliy. sumsa. 
posa. pyr. pia. olgcn. 
neuii (Fin.), iial. nyr. pija. 
■^ci = w)nil. njuonc (Lap.). 


kamar. 
ongata. 


cana.* cenka."* gn.f pab. 
kinaga. zam.f pasu. paksbn=7(f«f?. 
bucbu; cam = ear. qhane\ = to>i(/ae. 
uk. spsaks tunblita. 


kulak, ku. ko. kiima. 

kuo. pel. pil. 

korwa (Fin.), poljo (Lap ). 


sbui. cik. zcn. ko. 
tzika. sbikkc. 


sbe-nia. to-wrig. oco. 

guk. gyii. kolan. 

huchii.* ceuka=nose. 

khallio; &c\*=tongue. \\k=nose. 

ekb; 6kvi=itongue. kun. 


til. tel. dil. alup. 

kalogan = (!(?>■. kamto. 

keel; keli (Fin.). k(}i&\\=phallus. 

'k-a\\\=pluillus. 

lewel = /tY(/'. nyelu. scka. 

kin=^«i7. 

lywat; legti (Fin. ) = /('«/. 

lopa=/ra/. lipet. 


kale, kelle. 

del. ilga. a\e = f7mmh. 

illenga. kelen. 

nga.l=Jia>td. 


tutrla. tcnilla.* bal. 
atlapuUif = /(■<//■. kboUu.* 

tatia. 

ekli. aku. del. nine, 
tene. toun ? nafel. tl'ot. 


bukka. ata. jorsi. teuge. 

tac. zau. az. discli. 

parda (Fin.); tosch; skantja (Lap.) = 

bcanl. 
saz. thash. shag. sas. 
satch. .sboka. haz = Jicad. 
tukku; iused; cer (Fin.). soi-maq=«i-m. 


ushu. 
nosbu. 
k\\tii\\= necJc. 


chucca.* socco.* taesb. cutz. 
setz.f tusu.f soz.f osbu. 
si.f sliuka. szoga. suga. 
tatsb ; posb = /i(;rtf/. 
iska,=head. sa'ia. ga'us. 



141 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



AFMCAIf. 


ACCABIAN. 


Egtttian. 


SUITDET. 


English. 


bob. ko. boppe. 


zug. dug. 


tcp. Ishaau. 


Basque. — burua. 


Head. 


mo. mil. miitu. 


gu. ta. tig. 


ta =;_/«(■(!. ap. 


Latin.— collis^/( ill. caput. 




kibogo. klogo. 


ige ; ka=/rt('(!. 


■xi^roof. 


Assyrian.— zuktu=/o/;. 


forehead, face. 


kohho. to. 


mu. du. 


^et=z}iccJc. 


Celtic. — pen. baic. torr. 


neck, skull. 


isi. 


zak. 


a'nii^hair. 


Persian. — koh=/' ill. 


mountain. 


zika. gika. 


sa<^=for('/icad. 




Arabic. — ras. Hebrew. — rosh. 
Etruscan. — zia:^face. "B." 

porix=<Yv;? "B." 
Malay. — mata. Chinese. — tau. du. 


top. hair, 
high? 


tini. kau. 


si. sig. 


tes. 


Basque. — esur=Jo/;^. 


Tooth. 


time. son. 


kak^/(orM. 


lienti. 


Sanskrit. — danta. ak^fo cut. 




kalu. pak; 


gar^to cat. 


kaniiit=7(or«. 


Latin. — cornu. os. dens. 


horn. tusk. 


sosoen. 


su. 


kes:^Jowf. 


,, imguis^;;«//. 


fang tine. 






teste=Mfft7. 


Celtic. — daut. 

Berber. — senn. Malay. — tulang. 

Amharic. — ters. sin. 

Polish. — orosh=/;o/-«. 

Polynesian. — tang. 

Chinese. — kak. tien. ch'i. si. kuh. 


nails, beak, 
bone, ivory. 
hard, cut ? 
tear ? chew ? 
saw? eat? 


kana. da. ku. 


gu. ku. ka. 


dapu=w;o«//(.. 


Slavonic. — sak-j'ti^/o sj>eak. 


Monn. 


dsi. oda. uchi. 


ku^/o cat. 


khciiz^ inside. 


Caucasian. — 'kua:=i-allei/. 




kauna. dikanu. 


kh-ar^^ JioUow. 


kcnaxi^ivomh . 


Chinese. — k'au. 'k''m^/iole. ku. 


hole, throat. 


kapu=:»ff(-'f/. 


ka ; gal=;f/oor. 


]iar^i>iferior. 


Dravidian. — kappu = )iai-el. kuli = 


round ? lips. 


cku ; do=^(7oor. 


'kan=zffati'. 


qer=(vV(7e ; hole. 


Jwle. kam\i=Lwitiduw. 


circle, door. 


do^to eat. 


iixi=zh'j}. du. 


ka=fo speak. 


Thibetan. — kor=c('/-(7e. 


valley, cave. 


uchi. noko. daka. 


gan^t'//'c'Zf. 


'ket=:to eat. 


Basque. — chuloa=//o/f. 


gate, funnel. 


ketok. mu ; sa= 




ro (? 'ko)^mouth. 


Celtic. — cean. curu^iole. 


navel? womb? 


to drink. 




xaiia := to cat ; 


Greek. — k vk\ o i^circlo. 


cunnus. life. 






navel. 


Sanskrit. — muklia. Asspian. — pu. 


food? to eat? 






qq ; amam = to 


,, kupa=7«i?t'. 


chew ? speak ? 






swallow. 


A mharic . — shamuk . 

Etruscan. — zat ? Lut. — cov=./icart. 

German. — kehle^//(ro«^ 

Albanian. — yuic. 

Hebrew. — horz^hole. 'khi;li-=ijHilate. 




isu. diz. sooa. ri. 


sih. shi. 


mer=e//e. 


Berber. — azal=:.si"y. zeg. zcr. 


Eye. 


liho. rise. odzu. 


Hm. tin := to 


mi\=zto see. 


Etruscan.— sa ? "B." 




li. liso. masa. ze. 


see. [see. 


Ticnnn^to see. 


Basque. — tza^dai/. \\ki»i^sce. 


to see. sky. 


zu. disc, bashi. 


mad ; mar= to 


slm^ I i/f/it. 


Arabic. — s'ift ? ayn. 


light, sun.' 


gicho. 


ne. idi. silim. 


sc -sop =/////( ^ 


Anduiric. — cin. semme^s/'v/. 


moon. day. 


ilc. foss. khasso. 


zmz=iarroiv. 


haru=f/(/y. 


Caucasian. — ayu. 


shine, dart. 


zu=.s7(«. szanko. 


euum. 


kal^.5Z-y. 


Sanskrit. — netru. 


bi'ight. 


tsaguh. msliaU ^ 


ma. mal. 


sel^.sto'. 


„ dri(; = /o see. nayana. 


window ? 


arrow. 


si^liffJit. 


ra {?—na)=zsun. 


„ svar ; sku '?=.s7-y ; liglif. 


shoot, arrow ? 




zn\:=n/ii)ii»ff. 


ka=!'o sec. 


,, ushas:=rfrt«7(. surya=«HH. 




N. 


sin=;wooM. 


Hshr, set=ffr;'o«'. 


Celtic— rsiiil. ligad. 




noukou. ne. uya. 


narrow. 




Teutonic. — auge. 




nca. nun. manga. 


sig;=:star; shoot 
nannah= Moow 

^god: 
zin; 7A\=lriglit 
zw=light; sun. 




Chinese. — niu. mok. zi. t'se. 

,, shell ; ssi=ifo see. 
Greek. — o0. oaac. o^tna. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



142 







Amkhkax. 


TJguo-Altaic. 


Ea.st Taexae. 


North. CuNTKAL.t Soi-nr.* 


kolkix. koig'O. og. fi). t!ik;\i. 


mugo. dyll. 


mvichu^^nech. oogc=top. 


kallo==/rt('« (Lap.) 




biza. psb. tatsb. psbo. ca. 


tan. puz. baz. pu.sli. pank. 


kutsu ; kolloiz=«efZ:. 


toro.|- si. paksbu. ger.''" guo.* 


syly. to. gur. go. bui. tii. 




katso. motokan. 


yok. tagai. tshot. rcsz. 


tologo. t(j]ogoi. 


pu.* mu.* iku. iska. kab. 


pcja (Fin.). k()na=_/«f«. 




pto. pab. miit-d.'"'=foi-ehead. 


kuvui.=:/ii/l. paa, pcja (Fin.) 


iisu=:/i«(r. 


oc.f acu f tusu \z=/iair. kak. 


kallo(Lap.); koiia; ua=Lface; foi-chead. 




soz ; socco==//«(>. k'lil. moos. 


tsig. oik-c (Lap.) ; saz ; t]vdiA\-=/iair. 




keuek=«ec.'/i;. 


so ; tur ; 'ka.gla=.tkroat. ko=zkif/h. 






ten. tiwu. fig. tymc. 


icta. clioro. 


tut. itsa. tzal. tanus. 


tcsh. toz. tiL lu ; Ic^one. 


scbudu. 


zool. yen. tzi.f puti. 


szarv=horn. schansch. 


yesu ; gasun=Jo»J<;. 


quiru.* kirau.* sanna.* 


kad=»«;7. luch=Jo/(c. 


gbur=/ro/'y. 


zab.* taw. s'ak ; cao ; garrii=hone. 


bamhras. penk. hwh^one. Ij^^hone. 


urc'^/w/-». 


qak ; sa ; * nabei ;* onictl \z:zbone. 


takte (Lap.)=io««. sarwi (Fin.) 


giraui=;J6i«e. 


nixiso—hone. tak-nce. 


kar=/((«T^ ; to cut ; stone. 






pii. pin. saw. amde^/(«r». 






kan. ko. an. kom. cbor. 


kba. ama. 


kanik. qai. yu. sana. 


gou. no^door. ak^rtitlei/. du. 






XU. ku. buca. aak. kba. 


aman. amga. 


buccbu '^-=zcar. sobu. so. im. mab'oi. 


sii^wle. te-nn ; son=fo e/it. 






kbon. su ; sun (Fin.) sui. tun. 


tala — valley (dale). 


au. cm. ba. ta. ca.f bu. 


su=to speak ; sbim ; zumukb (Fin). 






tus. kurge. t'ut. szad? sma. 


sara. kuhii^naiel. 


cbi.f suni.* kob. ku. k'a. 


agina; auga. 'kjna=:Ii allow tree. 






pakapji=(/(/('('. awi^r/oor. uks. 


dcbeme ; idaku=fo eat. 


sbum. vakka:=f(«!?»w. simi.*sums. 


lotka:=i'«//6'y. kapoo=yrtf«. 








chsBsik.ar^ffrare ; hole. 


lakka.* kama.f oken=/o eat. 




okoWi^throat. 


mikumi=fo eat. naka=:fo eat. 






90'sin. 


sei. tesh. des. goz. szem. 


esba. osba. yesa. 


zu.* isbyik.* sab. setu. k'ks. 


sa.ite=arroiv (Lap.). zae=Jow. shima. 


yase. isal. 


situ.f hen. tsil. moopspi. kase. 


say. sime. ain. sin. 


lalat. mybi. 


scbillu. sala. sella ; sua^.s% 


silu ; silniii ; silm (Fin.) tjiilme (Lap.) 


tobicr. ehxiu^sun. 


sesa.f tesa.* asu. gassa.* za=low. 


tieng. 


boraru ; kabna=:see. 


kussu. kesis—Jtre. sebiwmm*:=«MW. 


sebi. sju. scbin. 


sa^ix^arrow. 


sillo*^s<«/'. yasir=wwo« pusika.f 


gotz. gus. bus. szem. desb. 




lolup, ilab.f si=colour. 


' sseul. sin. sicl^sim. sbinska. 




ten ; k'in^^o see. 


azal^=ski/. 




zuikc. tscbinda. .«benek. 


gor=fo see. kasat. kctsbe=.s«(«. 




sin=fo see. bunnab. tzub^c»vo(<'. 


N. Sound. 


IS. 
nidu. nudu. nade. 


nia.f naa.f babte.f nuita. 
mybb. nabui.* miii.* naui.* 


nogi^wJiite. nendie. 

na ; nai^ei/e ; sun ; shj. nan=s%. 


nydeng. niin^s/y. 


\_Sil is a Ugro-AItaic root, meaning to pierre. 


mckx\=^window. 


nee^iinoon. rieia.::=sun. 


according to some philologists ; but quite 




ne=^o see. natos:=sM». 


as likely, to dart, sliiue, rush or shoot.] 


nara — sun. 



143 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



AFEICiX. 


ACCABIAX. 


Egtttian. 


Stjndht. 


English. 


kama. ulimto. 


na. ni. sag. 


arti. reru. 


Coptic. — ka. 


M.AN. 


mo. 


gin. nin. 


ta ; \o.=male. 


Cbinese. — ^min. jin. nin. 




ke. koa. mano. 


nita. nu. 


bummu. 


,, ir=boy. ting. mau = 7iiale. 


people, kin. 


ger. ira bara 


mulu ? mim. 


bu. 


Malay. — ek. 


male. 


nas. emo. inimtu. 


mita-dam= 


temmu. 


Ainos. — ainu. 


busband. 


ningha. thomi. 


spouse. 


men. me. 


Latin. — vir. bomo. 


son? boy? 


goiir. garr. 


■ms=(/ real 


nerau. 


,, manus=/jrrw(?. 


hand ? 


adma (Ethiop.). 


man 


Txa^they. 


Greek. — ■x^etp = hand. afjp. 


father. 


kupp. bar. 


ma ; men = /. 


ret=people. 


„ d>jfios=people. 


I; me? 


mouliee. ume. 


uk\i=2^eoj>le. 


annee. 


Etruscan. — enna ? viz. 


woman ? 


dem= son. ma= 


nus? 




„ artb; arkti ^hinband. 


tree? 


son. 


gisb= ?««?(; ; 




Sanskrit. — jana. nara. man=<o think. 




namo. mume. 


tree. 




Berber. — guan =people. 




rume. okure. 


disb=3"'o. 1. 
enna. ag ? 
gaim. kii. 
tug. din. 




Basque. — koso ; Kn=male. 

„ leme. gizon. 
Indo-Cbinese. — mana. kami. 
Arabic. — 'VAVL\ax=dute-tree. 
Hindi. — mauoos. admee. 




keke; dson= 


du. 


ben ; nexen= 


Etruscan. — clan ; agail 'i=boy. 


So^^ 


little. 


tar; tnr= son; 


boy. 


,, t\\=child. ma.r\=youth"'B." 




'kektiie=little. 


small. 


sa. 


,, etera.=child. 


boy. 


yii. den. dcm. 


du-m\i. 


arti = »)(r«.. 


Celtic. — clan. .sil. zen. luan. 


child ? 


nam. 


gina = little. 


seri\x\=young. 


,, heg=small. 


brother ? 


ma. 


shii=litfle. 


nci=young. 


Sanskrit. — krigas ; amik-d = sin all. 


young ? 


baruka. 


sw-=brof/ier. 


ili';^ = little. 


,, sunu. jama=:tivin-brother. 


sboot. branch. 


sana = (7((7r?. 


shar=^ sJwot. 


acbem = 


Greek. — I'lo'?. 7raii = boy. 


tree? 


]s.iiko=icIiicken. 


sas:= chief; 


branch. 


Latin. — fiUus. natus. 


kith. kin. 


zaka ; nt.-ka= 


man. 


tar = free. 


Basque. — zu. yu. seme, gucbi. 


man ? 


brother. 




iiv=little. 


Berber and Libyan. — zu. ag. niene. 


chicken ? 






scms= eldest 


,, mis. kbitb. 


little, small. 






son. 


Japanese. — ko. 








athi= youth. 


Caucasian. — uas. 

Corean. — s5k. 

Cbinese. — ts'i. tsu. tik (old). 

,, siao ; j\\=Httle. &hu=tree. 

,, \i.\\n = brother. 
Hebrew. — tsa'ir= little. 




ndiigu. 


sissi. sis. 


sen. 


Basque. — auaya. 


Bkothek. 


nilta. 


urugal. 


"PX- 


Cbinese. — ko. ti. f\(i = little. 




ncka. yaka. 


sniki. 


ag]i= tree. 


,, kun ; biiing=<'/f/(r B. 


elder. 


egbo=<'W(T 


tab. 




Ambaric.^ — akliu. 


younger. 


brother. 


bar. iini. 




Corean. — cbege. 


boy. 


biiruka. 


tug^WWM. 




Kamscbatkan. — gabky. 


child? 


Hanii= boy. 






Polynesian'. — tuaka. 
Malay. — kakii. taka. 
Sanskrit. — bbratri. 
Basque. — sce-is. 


son? 
kin. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



1-li 







Amkkicak. 


Uueo-Altaic. 


East Taktah. 


North. CEXTiiAL.t South.* 


mar.a. mordva. onete. 


ore. ai-e? 


amo.* ormeii. inini. cnene. tama. 


mi's; iuegminc (Fin.), mcneei. cna. 


kun. 


giiiama.* cari.* grc* uare* ka.f 


ar. cr. ir. ai\ic=Jather. kcna. 


luimun. 


cuno. clic.* canai.* matei.* nic* 


ccna. lulam ? kiiiam. kiun. 


cgo=/nther. 


jaze. bama. nenco daur. 


liiiii. sen. kart. kop. kish. 


cnen=son. 


cozca.* tlacatt.f hita.f henui.* 


kasc. kodsha. konii. aika. 


ken = .sow. 


dor.f Icno. akun.f tiri.* 


mart. mi. mort. ninctz. 


occhc =J'ather. 


een-nc-suk. nama. cbecbii.* 


■avd\n\(i= phallus, sak. fcro. hutt. 


uing=peo2)le ? 


cliaea.* nin'nau. 


olma; mana(Lap.). p;urii. olma(La2i.). 




suCka. i5ot. k'a. ncnco. urno.* 


liuiweri. miesi (Fin.), weres. 




urrc* baka.* Icno. mena* ? taka. 


tschean ; en ; \\='pcoi)le. lize. 




unin. miabs. bommo. 


tar = so» (Fin.), rah-wa^^pcople. 




ince. nca. inik. boscma.*" ma.* 


mes=hHsbfiHd. crick, shet. 




akun=sore, boi/. \iosa=hi(iibund. ninnee. 


kome. liTm = «(«/(". ;\;ui- 




urku*=/»«/tf. 

manco = lst Peruvian man. 

biiano.* aw=people. hnhrij = icoiHan. 

kau; mmva= tree. 


sakko. su. sak. siio. siiink. 


cliukcn. cbii. 


ja. cbicbi.f chura. tama. aba.* 


tsoro. tiira (Turkish), der. 


o'kux = dauffhter. 


obccbii.* ncka. cui. apato. nab. 


kistin. 'kis = Iittle ; soti. kishi. 


occai. bala. kii. 


akiin.f g-wiss. gus. bua.f 


num. nc pup. 


cnen. omolgoi. 


taka. pee-kec. tiri.* book. 


'kish = mmi. pois. tsora. ai. 


acha.= brother. 


pama. tzi.f ti.f nama. 


poh. pa. pasli. pagul. poia. 


haga=little. 


een-ne-suk. skse. kci-meg. 


pii. bu. pse. ogul. algo. 


'bitzcc\nin=small. 


conctif; moulike*=/*o//. bake. 


neo. uli. oolu. poiwa. 


ken. 


pisi*; sic; cig; eenck = ////'/«. 


dal. dyl. ul. jile. Ian. 




tama; buano* ; euene ; taka = ww». 


fui. ar. tar (Fin.). si>m. 




canai*=?»rtM. saik = ioi/. 


peiwaz (Lap.), komi. cna. 




'ka'iik = younger brother, nokoa. 


mior (Fin.). \nem=lMle (Lap.). 




tsa; khoka.* sabae ; bu = <»■««. 


hena; hcne; kishtin; ai= little. 




sVs&=brother. lnia.^=brother. 


sa; sak; 6k=tree. 






oulu=ioy. tura=soM; chief; child. 






neo. natni. mo. pa-bn. ma. 






nin. jaja. 


tegu. tyge. 


baunin.* tab-cab. hake. 


hngom. alik. 


oka ; okm = sister; 


m-'\i< = elder brother. 


tugau ? biscli. 


brother. 


niska n = younger brother. 


qardam. kigam. 


acba. 


tciceaugb.* huanceque.* hua.* 


siuii=«o». 


tugan. 


si'sa. ke'ek=yo?»/(/«- brother, tata. 




du. dagoo. 


chiehif; akunf = «o«. nse-sako. 
nicta. tegu= dauffhter. giis. 
noka; chaca; akunf =»«««. 
taka. 



19 



145 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeican. 


Accabian. 


Egyptian. 


SlTNDEY. 


EXGLISH. 


tata. ba. 


aga. 


aft. 


Etruscan. — ae. "Br." 


F.iTHEK. 


baba. pa. 


aba. 


at. 


Hindi. — bap. aja]i = Hiirse. 


male. man. 


em.o = man. 


ai. 


tQ-^a,= ancestor. 


Basque. — aita. Berber. — baba. 


husband. 




ad. adda. 




Greek. — rt'na. UTra. 


papa. dad. 


(See elsewtere.) 






Celtic. — athair. Chinese. — ba. 

(See elsewhere.) 
Arabic. — abb. Sansk. — pitar. tata. 




auna. 


ema. iimu. 


xemem. 


Berber. — umma. 


"WoirAi>f ) 
Mother. 


muttu. ame. 


I'mf. gime. 


nia.-i = mother. 


Coptic. — shimi. 


ma. 


rakki 


hQnn\i=girl. 


Basque. — ama. 


wife. dam. 


nana = mot Jier. 


nena^ mother. 


hini't = iv)fe. 


Ambaric. — umm. 


dame. mama. 


meme. 


am<i.=mother. 




Etruscan. — &cx^=mother. 


lady. 


ya-ya. 


dam. nen. 




Papuan. — ama ; m.a.mxna= mother. 




niama= viot/ier. 


ana ; umma= 




Greek. — "jvm). 




naa. 


mother. 




Latin. — mater= mother. 
San skrit. — j amanl. 




moan. 


gin. 


bennu. 


Etruscan. — eicva=child. 


GlKL. 


ame. 


dumu. 


ni.&-t = mother. 


„ nur; tuser. "Br." 


maid. 


nan=hro(Jier. 


B\&= sister. 


sent=sister. 


Chinese. — tsie = sister, nu = sister. 


daughter. 




t\xr= small. 




„ nu=r/irl. 
Sanskrit. — svasri. 

,, nandana. = datiffhter. 
Dravidian. — anna ; akka=«('s^e;'. 
Latin. — noyns=!iew. 


sister, 
young ? 
niece? 


eni. itta. 


id. 


ua. 


Chinese. — yik. yit. 


No. 1. 


ikko. eko. 


dish. 


anuk=/. 


Greek. — caKrv\o'i=finger. 


finger, hand. 


ngi=I. 


ngac=/. 




Etruscan. — mach. 


I. me. 


kako ; kara = 


e\-=hand. 




Malay. — tik. Berber. — nek. 




hand. 






Simskrit. — ekah. 




sida. 


assa. 


sas. 


Indo-Chinese. — kichi. tuschi. 
Arabic. — sit. Coptic. — soon. 


No. 6. 


esa. 


.sisna. 


sfx- 


Berber. — seba. Arabic. — sab. 


No. 7. 


edse. 






Basque. — sazpi. 




shupa. 






Chinese. — sit ; zat ; tsch. 




eso. sessa. 








No. 9. 


po. 


'ka.!i=hand. 


sn. 


Berber. — ka=//(o». achera= /;««(?. 


No. 2. 


kako ; karu = 


ek ; iiX^hand. 


ka.t=hand. 


Sanskrit. — doe= two. 


thou. 


hand. 




ker=^ talce. 


,, kara=/'rt«f/. 'kuk = clhoiv. 
Basque. — biga. Latin. — te = thee. 
Caucasian. — tu. crku. 
Chinese. — chi =Jin(ier. 
(Jrrk.—tuKTvXo'! =Jiiiijfer. x<:''i>=^Mnd. 


hand, 
fingers. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



146 



Ug no- Altaic. 


East Tautae. 


American. 
North. C'ENTiiAL.t South.* 


babil. iutii. y])M,. ab. 
amya. tata. atiii. aija. 
aeke. abam. ainma. 
mna. amoo. taat. nta. 
i-s;i (Fiu.). iittjo (Lap.). 


ego. oecbe. plia. 
biibai. ama. 
igiTi. abu. 
abaga = gran dfather. 


liabi.* tayta. aya. ic. 

tamo. man. maa. ana.* 

ninna = tug father. 

baka*=OTa«. ba})a. oocb. 

ab-pab muo. pai. api. 

a'tab=«««; God. m;mum*= ancestor. 


mum. anke. amia. an. 

akha; miticm= wife. agj=)nofher. 

mamo. ema. ana. naina (Fin.). 

waimo (Fin.), nisluiii (Lap.). 

kari. zin. omnia (Fin.). 

emct (Lap.). cko= mother. 

ank (Ostiak). ne. imi. am. 


eke. alme. tti\Q=mother. 
eme. ame. 
o<ike=mother. 
dka.=daughtcr; sister "i 


notokeman = my wife. 
ami.* nena.f ma. tan. ikwe. 
sun. anna. nantU.f nsu. 
cbeke. zeemo.* imain. 
guarmo.* mcmc.* tbene. 
ao. na'e. ta'a. TiaTia=sister. 
wee-ah. wec-an. 
cunba.* me; ami=mother. 


kiss. kisb. leanka. agi. 

aa. ena. lean. nyl. 

der. tviY!x= child, ty-tar. 

eua. oreba? iyito =^daughter. 

ina (female termination?). 

sviser^ sister. vita.=elder sister. 

sak=«o«. t;ir. ii\ior= i/omi/j. 

pun; TLQ\ta. = daughter, pikola. ukon. 


non. oku. 

oka; okva.=daiighter. 


anu*=woman. x-sa. akekoan. 
m'ka = daHghfcr ; girl. nana*=sister. 
taski.* hua; gus = «o«. okc = sister. 
si- si = sister, tegu = da ughter. 
tnta = hrother. owaka. 
nitanna=w(y daughter. 
nantlit = «raw(rt«. tacuiia*=«M/«-. 
neaa.^ =ivoman. 


bir. yks (Fin.), okcr. it. akt (Lap.). 

juksi (Fiu.). 

iktet. acto. kbuta. iki. 

buea. ecki. aku. cgy. 

\och.\\ = elbow. jka^/iand. 

parmak=^Hy«*. kct=h<tnd. 


ncge. 
dsebyk. 
bi=/. 
'kax=hand. 
ege = father. 


buku. puku. iku. 

packa. buk.* tiek. mats. 

aqko. biima. nak = /. necbf = ?««. mai.* 

ak ; ck = hand. qat=/. 

gbica=No. 10 = (2 hands?). 


katt. kak-n-a. kut. 

hat. kot (Lap.), kusi (Fin.). 


sarga. kakwa? 
chorka. nukun. 


takbam. taki. sci. sib. sokta.* 
kautasb. 


seigbe. seiha. tse. bet. 

tsetta. satta. sat. nailan. 

seitze (Fin.), kjeta. dzcde (Lap.). 


tolo. 
dbun. 


sietc.f tch. tutsbeos. 
tsanu. sbanu. kancis.* 
bissicka. ikitsikam. 


dokus. gcssu. 

ydedsiin (Fin.), togosb. 


yese. yisun. yegin. 
vaiksu. 


yskun.* go'cuk. tssoi. pikso. 


kaks (Fin.), ket. yiko. ike. kik. 
te ; ta = thoii,. kaksi (Fin.). 
kar ; kasi ; yks = //(7«fZ (Fin.), 
kwekt (Lap.), kydy. 


kar; gar = hand. 
ta = thou. 
nggala=hand. 


yooko.f yskay. kak. kots. ako. 
ta.* zu. 'kh-=thoii. 
ka; ek; ak ; da= hand. 
ca=fnger. natokam. 



147 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 











English. 


Apbican. 


ACCADIAN. 


EoTPTIAIf. 


SuiTOET. 


(Principal and 
Cognate Terms.) 


dian ; toi]i:=r7r?y. 


an. ana. 


tu. kal. 


Etruscan. — 0imra:=«Zy-i7O(Z. "Br." 


Skt. 


tslien. kanu=:«/v/. 


nn^ieaven. 


hah. men. 


,, aurora=(/(?y. 




hana^rffly. 


nim. na. 


taa^morninff. 


, , numcu 'i^yod. 


Day. 


tsanna. 


ne=/?r«, cy^. 


tum=s!(«. 


,, tina^skg-god; dag? 




tango^«?/«. 


mm. iio=:j!re. 


haru=fi'fl'y. 


,, thv!ian=zdawn ; Ji re-god. 


light. 


arai. kose. 


zal^siin. 


aah=»io;7». 


,, usal^.swM. atjr^dag. 


eye. 


shah^^flame. 


nai=;««». 


ses=ffe?/. 


,, tm^ieavens ; god? 


sun. 


siku:=f/«y. 


tam=(?«y. 


^i ; hi^iiffh. 


Basque. — escua. egim. sua=^re. 


white. 


sui=s«». 


kim:=fo shine. 


ax; \ix=high. 


Amharic. — issat. semme. 


dawn. 


daan. lana. 


kau^««<«. 


aten=«!»» ? 


Berber, etc. — tigot. ass. agenna. 


high. 


keze. juko. 


Bih=f7/c. 


sel^«ter. 


,, anel=rfffy. azal=s2Mi, 


god ? 


tone=;?>'e. 


zii'^if/ht. 


AsM-=^ligM. 


Dravidian. — tin=f/rty. 


bright. 


nim=ci'/«. 


izi^sim. 


nennu^^o see. 


,, akay. am^*7-y. 


shining. 


mill, semme. 


kili:=.v^r/'. 


neph==rf«y. 


Latin. — dies. nubes;=c7o!<(? ? 


fire? 


tsanna ; oni ^ 


ili=/(iV//(. 


ra — sun ('?na). 


Greek. — mO/jp. yfit/m. o/iOo^^daioti. 


round ? 


heavens. 


ellu^i/'/f/Zfi. 


TLVi-i^ieaven. 


Slavonic. — den. daan. nebo. 


aurora ? 


jumme. ze=eye. 


tani=ffe)/; sun. 




Persian. — atcsh^Jire. t^h^dag. 




tari; nonge=SM«. 


ige ; nc^ei/e. 




Zend. — hvara^s«M. circ^dag. ari. 




tali=//v. 


zal=s«(» ; hright. 

zagli=;?r«. 

azag=.s(7(r/\ 

'ku.=zlriffl{t. 

tuzar^sim. 

nhi^if/ht. 

ad^diii/. 




Sanskrit. — ushas. 

,, ahan=dag. nayana=c?/«. 

,, daliana^r7rtic«. 

,, nabbas^s^-y. 

„ hvarc=s7(». hari. dyu. 

,, chaudra=»«oo». 
Celtic. ^twyu. aserw. re=)HOO»? 
















,, t(;mQ=/tre ; sun. tio. 










„ ur=sZ-y. huan^.si<». 










Chinese. — t'ien^.s7-y ; high. tok. 




AraLic. 






,, shu ; slien=7o sAme. 
,, nih^iot. sa=//-e. 




taib^(?«y. 






„ hua; hi=;^r«. 




nar=/r«. 






Polynesian. — kari:=f7rty. 




sama:=«%. 






Hindi. — nak. teon. kas. 
Hebrew. — esh=-fire. 
Armenian. — anag^^(». 




sure, isaka. 


zal. ut. u. 


ra (? na). 


Etruscan. — usil. 


Sw. 


dsua. kail. 


huzar. utii. 


aten. turn ? 


,, aisar=(/od. 




dsow. kcze. 


kiin^^ *7/;k«. 


hashar=_;?/-e. 


Amharic. — tsai. tscherka. asat— ^rc. 


fire. 


shall ==/'««;(!. 


zir; na^ir/ht. 


»hu^iffht. 


Berber, etc. — axcl^c/ff,!/. azal=s««. 


eye. 


su. zo. liun. 


gu ; iia==.s/'y. 


fiuax=fii'e. 


Chinese. — shu ; slicn=.s7(/»Y'. 


moon. 


mouc^woow. 


sm^moon-ffod . 


s(:t:^fu light en, 


,, kho ; nih^io^ yat. jcn. 


god? 


toin;=y?r«. 


ku. su. 


shoot. 


Basque. — iguski. 


heat. 


tango^.s(»j. 


sill; igi^^^-y^;. 


skal^i/'y. 


sxia=Jire. 


day ? 


asat. zo^^eye. 


izi ; zu-=::Jire. 


sel; sui^star. 


Celtic- — huau. sol. syr::=sfar. 


light. 


naaige. nonge. 


shi=^Iiffht. 


tcka=/;-e. 


,, teinc=^«. 


shine. 


gondc=moo». 


za.l=.briffht. 


saui=yo^(^. 


,, le^moon. 


bright. 


tari. 


ne=:ei/e. 




Zend. — huera. zarana=yoW. 


gold. 


iiun:=sX-y ; day. 


hil=Jire. 




Simskrit. — sfirya. kastira^^wi. 


yellow ? 


sizt'z=smo/ce. 






,, chaudra=::«!Oo». 


heat. hot. 


kosc=»ter. 






Latin. — sol. Thibet. — jscr=gold. 


bake. 


sanu=yoW. 






Greek. — »}\(os. Burmese. — nay. 
Arabic. — nar==^;r. arisat. 

,, kastir=//«. 
Armenian. — osgi^gold. 
Hebrew. — tzo]mr=^light. shcmcsh. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



148 



Ugeo-Altaic. 



East Taetae. 



NOETU. 



American. 

CuNTltAL.t 



SoiTH.* 



tangri. t;m. tit. tu. tana. 

taroTn^ienvois. tale, tsehcl. 

torom=:_(/ oil. tul. tol. tschi. 

pa'nvai ; pana (Fin.) ; kun ; kiun=fZ«y. 

Inu'ura ; diuu ; udun ; ig=:dtii/. 

kill, k'atal. kaiu=ffoy. elm. 

g\m=:dat/-hreak. 

kceuck ; geliiik. vira=f/rtir>?. 

shkai=sZ'y. B<i\icld=zda>/. xcnri. 

esh=^ffod of day ; heavens, alme. 

essja^silrer. run ; rei— fire. 

kiik. ketsohc. chog. iir. lun. 

kahan; t;igti=:«^ff?' (Fin.). 

tawash (Fin.). jcn=f/od. 

ten^iiffh. kul^fo shine, uracil. 

ama^spirit. jiima. 

seilu (Fiii.)=cv/«. sicl^s!(«. slii. 

sar; tiari:=liffht. sorxazizshine. in. 

nap. nuout. nue. nam. na. 

nai^=.s!<w. iiogi:=«7((Vf. niimma. 

nowa. nail, nomon. none. 

in-jen. »av-m^u'hi/e. jiima. mcny. 

mancii. 
saan=_^'/'e. asal. [svl^shine). 

(u=;k=t=s) ? 



tcngri. tiengii. 
tinguro. kiin=r/«y. 
nangra. ncnguu. 
niin. nian. 
ncn(lii"=:cy«. 
nara=:s(«». 
hara=ster. 
liurara=r^rt'y. 
maiigi. tL'l=s««. 
tan=zhii/h. 
6dor:=(foy ; cdiir. 



N.B. — Eoot Na=eye : 
Sim ; day ; sky ; 
fire, etc., common 
in Turanian, Asia, 
and America, means 
lii/ht, sight. 



tanif ; tahn=r7«y. tina=/(V//(/ ; day. 
taaudc. caan^.s'/'y, licavens. tikhas. 
ii^w^iosee. kow. kek. tek. Vm:\=zto see. 
sua. kuinyagc ; uni=.s/7/, day. 
tasliun. eeska. kcscdiokewc. 
kon=;s!<». zon=zday. bueion=«e<». 
sella, siina. teshc. mahetze.f 
kcsis ; isli=s/«r. giui^sim. shiiy. 
nali=«Z7/. naai=:.S7<». nam''''=:«%. 
nakai ; kccai*=:f/ffy. naait:=«i^ra. 
nam ; naa ; nani^eye ; sky. nas. 
tie ; tak ; tagg=r/«y. u ; idna=/?re. 
namotiik. manoak=s!<». 
cliaf=_^r«. eeska. iie=Lfosee. 
waliri ; cliaan ; f keg-ik=/i««fe««. 
pimcliaii*=.s7«). ; day (Quichua). 
]iaaTn=flre. 'aaikii*:=Jire. 
zak\z=white. son ; tachol^siar. 
(j^uilla*'^»(00». toiii;* inti=s?<«. 

(n=k=t=s) ? 



tshi. tsali==;?r« ; sun. susi. kal ? 
siel. X'lt. katj. oga;. haya. 
kiiin ; kiija ; tzel^iyht. kiin. 
shim, siiink ; siiina (Lap.), si. 
kaiza. konash. shimda. iid. 
saau=;?rff. tycl. (sal=«7«'?e«). 
tzi^sfar ; sun. kase=:«ter. 
schialla. zat. kar. kon. 
po'nva ; paw (Fin.). kis=^r«. 
sai'ni^^oW. kose=i!>o?j. koz=«te/'. 
iia=zlight ; sky ; eye. mondy. 
nai. nap. ai ; hara^moon. 

(See Moon.) 



kiin. ud. 

cliiin. ed-iir^f^rty. 

liiin=.s((« ; moon. 

\ai\x^yellow. 

tel. 

iolo^fire. 

delesa. 



(kun, in Accad.=s/i«M«.) 

(li=k=s) 

(d=t=s) 



cone. khon. kion. kon. kin.f * 
taika.* tsa. tab. tziie. za. tat. 
coun ; cun ; klion=^V<>. liaan=/?;-«. 
kesis^.s^B ; moon. kese. kislikii. 
tze ; isli^.sf'ff)-. sua. sakli. cacki.* 
haie.*" lii. sunh. kaysboli. 
tcslium=;s/7/. toiii.f inti.* suus.* 
schwim.* lia.slie. manoak. sail, 
hari.* nasli. sima.* soLn. haslie. 
naai. nait. nali^.sZ'y. nait. 
naika*"=^r(!. nec=«(06i«. a'ta. 
uat'usi. sin^fo see. uiua=_/?r(;. 
tscbol^.s/rtr. io^Jire. 
seh:^snake. 



149 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 











English. 


AriticAN. 


ACCABIAJT. 


Egtttian'. 


Sdnbrt. 


(Principal and 
Cognate Terms.) 


slinnde. 


sin. zal^sim. 


sui. 


Etruscan.— eet? "Br." tiz=?o)Y?. 


Star. 


kose. 


izi ; biI=/5/'«. 




,, turan=r«H!(s. 




tschen^sMH. 


kUi. 


sd. 


„ usil ; aiisel^.s?«j. 


fire. 


heium. 


sih; ig^i=ci/e. 




Amharic. — tsoherka =_^re. 




kion. 


elhi:=briffht. 


sba. 


,, asat. tsai=.SMM. 


sun. 


kiele:=.s!»2 ; moon. 


ili^/i iffh. 




Berber, etc. — tisii-i=«ioore. 




shall ==/?r?w;«. 


sikxm^shine. 


shn^if/Iit. 


Basque. — izar. ckhi=:^rp. 


moon? 


sisi ; azo ; chisi 


aagh^fire. 




,, ziliar=«/^c«-. itri. atar. 




:=smol-e. 


kn^hrir/hf. 


set=/o lighten 


Hebrew. — tzohar. kokob. 


light. 


tari^sun. 


gis-bar^;fr«. 




Ugro-Altaic. — essys ; sija=.s//!.w. 






tisliku^/i/iter. 


hatbar=/?r«. 
teka=^/-«. 


Polynesian. — betu. gilk'=«(oo)». 

Celtic. — syr. 

Sanskrit. — tara. 'k\\=^white. 

,, rikshah — Arcturus or 
Great Bear. 
Latin. — stclla. m-cre=to hirn. 
G reek . — « ari^p. 
Biuinese. — kyeh. 
Assyrian.- — kaspu=s;7(W. 
Sanskrit. — kasti'ra — tin. 


shine. 










Moon. 


karo. kicle. 


a'i. 


aah. 


Etruscan. — ekii. tirs. tu ? 




mocri. 


idu:=//(o?<;'A ? 




,, a\\\^year. axTi^'not/ier. 


month. 


mouc. 


aa = moon-god- 


abiii-=zmouth. 


Sanskrit. — masa. anala =/?rc. 




manga; ha.\=zei/e. 


dess. 




,, niihira ; hrarc^-sifw. 


sun. 


kiana. gonde. 


sin^ n^sun. 


shu^igJit. 


,, kil=«7»Yc. Chandra. 




queli. 


kan^.s7(/«f. 




Chinese. — yueh. 


eye? 


telec=^r^; sun. 


(Aln^^hriyht. 


haru:=^dag ; 


,, h'ua; lii=;?;r. 




massu=fire. 


nc=ei/e. 


time. 


Berber — tisiri. 


fire, shine. 


assara. 


zal^smi. 




,, zillar^.s;7r«/-. 




aoiich. 


giui^i n'(/ht. 


uta.^=ege. 


Latin. — khia^middle of month. 


mother ? 


hemm=star. 


kili:=s^ffr. 




,, luna. meusis=«(o»^/i. 




mosa. 


akn=:moon-ffod ? 
'kxi^sim. 


scl^star. 


Greek. — i'jXioi^sun. 

,, aeXiji'ij, fiiil>=:month. 


Ught. 




utu. itu. 


ra:=sun. 


Australian. — gille. 






nannah = 7?ioon- 




Celtic. — gcalach. remios. an\=zjirc. 






ffod. 


siii^sfar. 


,, luan. mi. lloer. sol:=s?(». 






ili^iir/h. 




Dravidian. — mila. matki. 






bil=/rc. 




Hebrew. — kese^woow. 

,, e\=God. halal=:s/«'«e. 
Slavonic. — hayle^.s?««. messcz. 
Assyrian. — e\\n:=bright. 
A rabic. — Allah=: God. 
Latin. — stella=s!'(W. 

,, urere^iiWM. 








N.B.— Foi 


tlie root sar, ser, sir, sil, signifying to 


shine, bright, 






light, in iiios 


t l)ranchrs of the Altaic family, see 5 


5cliott's Vebcr 






dcr Altaische 


Spraehengexchlecht, vol. i. j). 109, ct 


scq. It may 






also signify t 


shoot ; dart; rush. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



150 







Amebican. 


TJgeo- Altaic. 


East Tabtae. 


North. Central. t South.* 


sari. si. kasc. kos. koz. 


singsu. usika. 


zan. siri.f egnssa.* dcoshu. kcsis. 


tzillat!;. Uah^fire. kenza (Fiu.). 




kosu. sillo.f schillui=pye. ish. 


kis=/7Ve. yaldus. kisili. 


osliikta. 


tetsch =_/?«'. tidiietas. zun. son. 


sou. ziilus. kyonash. tysil. 




casiri=:»i06iM. isli.f silla.* tzo.f 


theltos. settcs. shudar. kies. 


hara. nara=SMW. 


kesis — nun, moon, star. cari. taika.* 


Baan=:ijire. t»i=mm. tesktys. 




tysel.* stan. ynn. zoo^moon. 


taskto (Lap.) kaiza=«M». iri. 


aisin=yoW. 


zariii"'''=y;/«Mf< Fcnus. st-hlum. 


kaka. tcchtc. tugyt. sicl=suH. 




chiclu==/r'/'«. tagg^ffoy. cckah. 


csh^ffod of dai/. tiigti (Fin.). 


zara. 


cone, ilia.* talis=««««. 


Biln^ei/e (Fin.). ^X\va.-=yellow. 




kakatosi. quilIa*^>MOora. 


kynsegci. iki. ilio. toles::=woo«. 


sh\va=.yelloio. 


kost'n. killa*^MO0?i. 


tuli (Fin. )=/?/•<■. kwcl=:«m. 




tn\i\^moon. 




shuu=SMW. 


tschol. 




delessa=«M». 




tylcs. toles. tilsye. tyni. 


zara. saran. nara. 


tulu. quela.* killa.* quilla.* 


tschcl=.s?m. tael. tilis. tel. 




sillo*=4tor. yace ?* cckah=siar. 


kotel. ku; kiiu (Fin.). kiin=M<». 


hara=:ster ; moon. 


kakka. pagsi.* sah. uh. chief 


sui. cliep. kiili. ahi. 




aguei. ailhai. spelos. nosi. 


kaudoma (Fin.), ui. ay. ai. 


muran. 


haan=/?;-t'. kayshoh. illa*^s<ar. 


kaya=.s7«». iUo. kyii. hold. 




tshane. sirif=:.!>V(?r. kolma. 


klic'p. kaka=:.s('flr. ike. 


gall=://-(;. 


kapui. soo. kewari.*" tsul. 


siol=«»;j. sil^rfrty. irri. ule==^/-e. 




bari. masa.* numa. ari. 


silu^cye. haya=.s«». ala=y*-e;a^ 


ud. sarah=;>«o«<A. 


haie ; hi=sM«. hari:=stm. 


tali (Fin.)=/iV«. kwel=sMw. 




uga=.s/«/-. hello=/?c«. 


ira. ere. skui. hara. 


tolo=/?;'«. 


iUu— /?/•(;. mna'*— /?/■«. 


kase^s^rtr. tui. tzui. 




quilla*=wo«^/j. iseri=:_/fr«. 


mak. mana (Lap.). nai=si«». 


nynde=:«'y«. 


casiri. sakas=7(o<. 


moudy^.?i(». mono. 




kon ; tzi ; sah=s!<M. auhe. 


meny ; manen=.«/'y. 


ghel, gal=/jo(!. 




kudai. kolita. zili=7?;'e. 






sal; kal (root?). 


delessa=«M». 




(k=t=s) ? 


nendie=«y«. 





151 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 











English. 


AFEICAJf. 


ACCABIAJS'. 


Egyptian. 


SUNBEY. 


(Principal and 
Cognate Terms.) 


kase^sxji. 


sagh. giig. 


teka. 


Etruscan. — $vsca\^Jire ; goddess. 


FlEE. 


kose=s!!«r; liyld. 


gis-bar. 


sliet. 


„ set=6»es. "Br." 




kese =(/«(/. 


gi. grr. 


xet. 


,, Tel^lir/hfning. 


sun. 


sie. su. 


gar. 


basilar. 


tiz=lo'rd ? 


star. 


itso. aka. 


izi. gusli = 


shii^liffJit. 


Celtic. — tes. teine. 


moon. 


tall. tia. 


hright. 


set=fo lighten. 


Sanskrit. — ghar; dali=fo burn. 


blaze, bum. 


kara=wioow. 


su ; mil = to 


rek. 


,, sfirya=«K«. agiiis. 


hot. heat. 


oko. rnosa. 


lurn. 


set=fo dart; 


Latin. — calor. ureo. 


god? 


sLah=;?rtHi(!. 


zal-zal = to 


sjioot. 


Greek. — wop. to. (pXd^^to blaze. 


light, bright. 


kaka. kasii. 


hum. 


iitet=:/o lurn. 


Lithuanian. — s-«-eistiks=^ofZ of fire. 


lightning. 


kiele=s!«i. 


zvA^suii. 


ra^sun. 


Hebreiv. — esb. 


flame. 


tari ; toue;=««».. 


bil. sa^^hurn. 


scl^star. 


Chinese. — iiao. sho. ho. 


smoke ? 




kill; si-=^star. 


suax. 


„ zvik^^hright. bak. kail. 


summer. 


Arabie^nrir. 


sakar^hriffht. 




Basij^iie, etc. — gar. iz. su. 


scorch. 




tislikii = 




„ ckki. zikki. izav^sfar. 


spark. 




Ixhtar. 




Berber, etc. — taehart. tahist. ehaal. 


bake. 




kll :=««(». 




Amharic, — esatch. issat. 






ii'\hx=ilright. 




,, sat. tsai:=SM?i. 




mongo ; lo^rivcr. 


a. ab. 


mu. ma. 


Etruscan. — ara. cpa. "Br." 


Watee. 


ma. sua. aft. 


ab-zu=;s««. 


mer. mas. 


Assyrian. — mu. 




ako. na. ni. 


aga. ugu. 


uti. Ilka. 


Berber. — aman. 


sea. 


nyanja^M't;. 


uni. i. 


at— dew. 


Basque. — ur. uharka. 


river. 


Wlcmka^lake. 


me. 


uat-ur=:s(!«= 


.Slavonic. — voda. 


wet. 


amo. metsi. 


nil. 


the great - 


Chinese. — shui. hih. 


humid. 


dsi. maza. 


slieg=r«r;'«. 


green. 


,, hai^«f«. ka=;-«-«\ 


dew. 


etj'-ii=s««. mema. 


sur ; sim ^ 


scxt=fiood. 


ji—ivet. 


rain. 


mcuya. nya. 


rain. 


XOTina^lake. 


Japanese. — umi:=«(?«. 


flood. 


di. -n-alian. 


kas ; kisi = 


she=ZflZ:tf. 


Nepaul. — kawa. koma. 


to flow. 


meya. inui. 


w-inc. 


seth=i well. 


„ asie ; yowa=r»w. 


well. 


lu. like, nienzi. 


liid:=r«r;'. ? 


bar=: «•«//. 


Sanskrit. — udaka. Tari. 


lake, canal. 


tta. ni-wa. ngun. 




ua. ssb. 


,, pa^/o drink. 


marsh. 






pex- 


„ nira. niira:=.sra. 


to soak ? 


Arabic. — mail. me. 




heq^drinJc. 


Greek. — I'icicp. Od\arrrTa^:zsea. 


wet. 


„ balir. wadi. 






,, iroTof.io'i'^rivev. 

„ \i'fii'ii=^la/ce. 

„ 7roT6i'^:=drinJc. 
Latin. — \)\ho=idrink. aqua. 

,, -marc=sea. 
French. — eau. 
Celtic. — uirge. csk. man. mor. 

„ sugh. ach. dwr, etc. 

■ (See elsewhere.) 


drink? 
wash. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



152 




153 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 











English. 


Afkicaij. 


AcCABIiN. 


EgtTPTIAN. 


StWDET. 


(Principal and 
Cognate Terms.) 


tou. hon. 


ukii^a'/if/. 


asar 'i^qood. 


Etruscan. — 0um. an. usil=:SMre. 


God. 




ann^^ski/-ffod. 


liashar=^rf. 


„ tiz^ord. tar= ("/(/(■/". 




kaka. 


ln-gal=h'n</ ■ 


nuter^.s^;-o?;_y. 


,, {iizar=god. tina^skg-god. 


fire. 




great man. 


ahu ; hua — god. 


,, kana=/f/oZ. tarO^king. 




sibu. zoo. 


VLu^sun. 


ur ; ^x^great. 


,, turan:=so?j of heaven. 


high. 




aku=:moon- 


i\\-A^hi(/h. 


Latin. — Ciesar. deus. dux. 




'hcmm::=sim. 


ffod. 


ashna:^great. 


„ numen? res.— king. 


great. 




kxm^briffht 


asten. X'^ti. 


Greek. — ^eo'?. fie^/ai^^(/reat. 




kauu. 


gis-'har=fire. 


ra ; tum '?=sun. 


Basque. — zinkoa. acn^strong. 


good, bright. 


1 


su ; kii=«M». 


aten=:sM». 


Hittite.— tur=A(W ? tarku:=fA;V/. 




kui-ii. 


ut\\=zsun. 


seti ? 


,, shcLsh-khir^" regent of the 


spirit. 




izi^fire. 


Xa; teka= 


Hebrew. — esb^^re. [/(('&." 




tamara. 


ma^h^i/reat. 


shining. 


„ dh^magic. Javb ? 


chief ; ruler. 




gnn=to shine. 


Osir(is). 


Chinese — t'ien^iir/h ; ■fkg. 




nom. 


an. in. 


shxiz=ibright. 


,, kung; kon^Z;;'«9. ze^snake. 


king; lord. 




aka — </reat. 


t'a ; uta=s^-y. 


,, ka.n.^bri(/ht. tsai=fo rule. 




oba. 


"kwc^strong . 


t'a ; liu^;«««. 


,, kok^great. sv.^=king. chu. 


sun. 




ausar ? 


teka=:;?/'«. 


Slavonic. — tzar. bog=yoorf. 




'k.xm^chief. 


hM^ffhrious. 


xn=gu<jd. 


Phrygian. — saba. Japanese. — kami. 


fire? 




tsirra — snake ? 


uiTix^god. 


Assyrian. — sar ; sarru=Z;*»y. 




kin-a^ffreat. 




Menes^ls^ king, 
se'p^snake. 


,, siTxi=^snake. 
Celtic. — an^noble. Persian. — shah. 


sky? 


zuzii ; cjo=^ffood. 






,, huan^.sM«. tes^fire. oun. 
Ind. — raj^prince. Ai-abic. — shaikh. 


strong. 


sa; zo^^snake. 






Sanskrit. — pati=:/orf7. reLJ\\=prin(r. 

„ su; arja=(/oorf. 

,, ucca — great, qirn — snake. 
Amhaiic.' — zer. tsai^«!»j. 

Berber. — seggem. takuta^«wor(^. 


tUvine one. 
snake ? 


sukari; iika= 


kha. gha. 


beseq. sek. 


To Cut. 


knife. 


tar. kud. 


akes ) 


Dra vidian. — katti=:Z-«V/e. 




dah; tak; kot; 


sheg. 


bksu ! -"'''■ 


Thibet. — saki. Burmese. — kah. 


knife, stone. 


takii^«^o«e. 


tuq^stone. 


toktu ; t\i:=sto9ie. 


Latin. — seco. saxum=6'^ojie. 


axe. arrow. 


acliii ; tari ; tot= 




ska=j>fo«y/j. 


Hindi. — katua. 


bisect, dagger. 


stone. 






Sanskrit. — nikh^^lreak, tear. 


dig. hack. 


qhau. gho. ke. ket. 






„ ak=cHt, pierce. 


bite. 


okuta^.s/o««. 






Celtic- — dach=s^««. gutach. taki. 




ekck — arrow. 






Greek. — kotd). Terixo^=^i('eapon. 






kir. sar=; 


ska^^o write. 


Japanese. — na=zname. 


To Speak. 




write. 


na — to lorite. 


Sanskrit. — na— voice. 






nam. ma. 




Turanian root. — sar^fo scratch? 
Latin. — nomen. Tamil. — namen. 


write, name. 


da. pa — Jiand,. 


ba. gar. 


ma. kot. 


Chinese. — pa. da. kih. 


To Give. 






\,^^-=.hand. 


Sanskrit. — dadadi. kara — hand. 


hand. 


ta. da. ka. mu. 


gin. go? 


'pct=foot. 


Chinese. — pao. ki. k'u. tik. 


To Go. 




va. du. ga. 


skii^walk. 


Sanskrit. — ear. nu. pad. ga. 
Tamil. — ta. kodu. 


foot. 


keba=/iff«(?. 


lad. lag. tab ? 


khcTp^Kind. 


Latin. — capcre. 


To Take. 


t^-=Uake. 


dib. jub= 


sbap::=to fake. 


Celtic— gabh. 


keep. hand. 




hand, 
'kn^mouth ; 




Greek. — kiutd;. x<''/'=^''"*'^- 


grab. 


'ku^mouth. 


To=mouth. 


Chinese. — ch'ih. holi. sok. 


To Drink. 


so=idrMc. 


to eat. 


sun^drink. 


Berber. — sou. Caucasian. — sua. 


water, sup. 






a.'kiiz=cup. 




mouth. 


kawe=?<'«r. 


knT=.enemy. 


XtiTu^enemg. 


French. — guerre. 


Wab. 


'ku=zdic. 


gha=:/o 


X»^^corj}se. 


Greek . — K<ip-=:LSoldier. 


blood, kill. 




destroi/. 


Xr=.wea))on. 


(See elsewhere.) 


soldier. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



154 



Ugbo-Axtaic. 


East Taetae. 


Amebican. 
North. CBNTiiAL.t South.* 


Tari. ter ^hiffh (Lap.)- Torum. 

diiir=lo?d. kun = moon-ffod(Ii;ss (Lap.). 

[jnmala; Tara (Fin.]. \ydcha.= ruler. 

mMia,= sb/-ffod (Fin.), jahu. 

mnnvi = f/od of fate. (Fin.), jcn. in. 

pac-u ; dying; lit; \iki3= great. 

padcshali=('zrrr. patshai. asa. 

jo. eiich=ffod of dai/. beg. 

horwii (Fin.); nt^ffood. ala. 

tsch;isar=cz«!r. istcn? 

^\i\7.= greatest, sumans ? 

}\im&-\a. = thimdcr-2)lace. 

kaiza ; khun ; nai=««m. 

in-mer. na. a. 

nom. mumi. nop. aghag. 

kbon ; iiiah = suH; fire. 

aghii =:loi-d. 'ko=J>igh. ur. 

jo; hi=good. kj-n-a=^yo(/ (Fin.). 


• ma.n= Icing. 

naiiim. Imrchan. 

v\\m= great. 

cjin. csan. 

tajri. aman. 

tangri=«^'y. 

kh'aan ; klian =prince ; 
king. 

kba-kan =y/Trt^ Ic/iig. 

bane; ban=«V/o/. 

tue=fire. ud=sun. 

burura ; tan = dag ; 
light. 

[Cbincse. — kan = 
Iright.^ 


eba. a'ta. tcotl.f dn=great. sibu.f 
capac*=/i/«//. tavai=^/'«rt<. 
bab-a-wuli=^/'«/(! spirit, tub-a-pec. 
manitou ; monidt) =great spirit. 
ogimab = <:•/«>/'. ogbaf = (?oorf. buot. 
te\yM]u) = ruler, iahf^ chief; fire. 
karan * = prince, beno = sun. 
baylli.* tu. hnay =great. 
tfia = sun; power, bun. toni.f 
bunab-ku.* yn = s/cg. u=fire. 
kon;* bene =««».' k]iun=fire. 
kuan*=grcat. tcmain. 
pacba-kamak.* eac;ique ? = chief. 
niou. Tiam.*=skg. ano. a.i=good. 
iihama-an = medicine man. 
nam*=?ye. tam-f = dag. 
chaan* = skg; heavens, eoze. 
tuns ; tali=_;?rc. 
osrdsta ; sch= snake. 
zibo.f baccba;* i>aQha*=great. 


kesmek. madad. ko; ta.=stone. 
tuka=«.re. heechak=hitfe. 
kar; kept; soeha^io plough. 
eke. 00^= arrow. kjet=loto. 


otol. saki. 
etka.=I cut. 
kagixhl = I ct(t. 


cuta.f kaka.* kut. kub. 
tiqa; kak ; te ; okot'oki= stone. 
■kaht=arrow. tznka=bou). 
(]haiji= knife, kat.f kat.f kor.* 


mTn=name. (s&T=to scratch). 
sanon. san (Fin.), kir-un. 
siirni= Ji-wrf*. hir=crg. 


on= call. 


sana=name. ni. 
nini.* YeTit = speech. 


Termkk. ajak. ta-et. ket= hand (Fin.). 
■wai. tuka. macn. 


ja. da. ka. 


da. ku.* kia. kot.* 


kat (Fin.), kar. ka. tiik. 


irrcne = I go. 
ka, = I datice. 


ka. ko. pa. ma. kar* (root), 
kat. tappot. 


kap (Fin.), kotem. wyen. jacat. 
wejem. zebt. kabul-et ? 


gaimi. 


chipani.* ha. ka.f cbab. 
kapiini .* kat =to folio w. 


sunat. 'ko=mouth. asokb. 
fi\i=tcater. suk^fioiving. 


00. osson. 


too-o. cbia.f 
i,o=mouth. 


kui'mo. geria.=soldier. 
•wa,T=blood. taro (Lkp.).=$oldier. 


cooba. 


gawi. kari.f 

1 



155 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 




A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



166 



Ugeo-Aliaic. 


East Taeiar. 


Amekican. 
North. C'ENTUAL.t South 


.» 


uan ; lui^it is. ihi=^ i/es .' 


bulm. bu. 


du.*iau; ami— lam. 




olmack. van. ou. 


baina. 


as.* babi. onca*=fo be ; I am. 




en ; ben ; mma=:/. 


nege=iVb. 1. mone. 


uoka;* ano;=/. 




ang=»ow {breath). 








ol-cn (Fin.), ylum. 








ma. im. mia ; niina (Fin.). 


a. bi. si. 


ni.f neebf =:me. ai. me. 




am. men. ben. mon (Lap.). 


nad. 


nan. ab-an. ucn. di.f 




en. mio ; min -jZ^we. 


bida=ffe. 


nee. yen. nak. 




en^people. tan (Fm.). akt ; yks=: 

^^0. 1. 




mena; enene=»?fl:». 




sie. sen. te. ney. tan. ten. 


ta. sbi. tscbi. tsi. 


zu. ki. ta. wab. gui. ti.f 




an. ty. ta. myn. staka. 


na. mi. i. 


nap. kam.* ni. ne. nau. 




kaks; ket=iVo. 2. sina (Fin.). 


bi. bai. t'a. 


kir. yia. daa. shen. 
nege. nue. so'ua. 




0. ol. kirn. bi. be. 
be ; ban (Fin.), sa. se. 
ang. tm=zshe. 


t'ere. t'a. 

ekoni=7im. 

ere^wirtM. 


kin. bin. ban. bi. 

na. bu. be (k&m=thou). 

yut. pebre; y|-=his. ta—A^o. 


1. 


kan. ken. kiin. kib. 


beu ? 


buen. na. at. una. tu. 




kanda. ni. dan. na. 
nama. az. ez. tama. 


eni. eri. tere. 
beji? 


kai. ou. ca. gya. 
niti. 'omak. amu. nan. 
mana. quen. bu.* quin. 
kiisbi. kwa. ti. 




tuo (Fin.), kacba. kim. kacbu. 








kib. da. le. 


de. dor. la. 


ti. teb. binnab. 




dan. den. us. 


ase. atscbi. 


tin. zo. cbi.f 




sa (Lap.); ka ; tc=«w. 


ende=7i«r«. chi. cba? 


caye. gar.* 





157 



SOME ANALOGIES BETWEEI^ ASIATIC, TUEANIAN, AND ANCIENT EGYPTIAN. 



ExGiisn. 



Egyptian. 



East Taetak, 
Mongol, etc. 



Stone. 
rock. hard, 
to Cut. 
Axe, etc. 


aar. tu. Mxi^hard. te^tu. 
tekhes ; sekh ; aku^c«<. 
sa-hu. x^l^ii- sai^done. 
bksu. sek. &Qi^arroiv. 


Arrow. 
Bow. 


set. ia.i=^stone. sau=fe cut. 
sati^ffoddess of the arrow. 
pet. 


Land,, house ? 
field, earth, 
circle. 


mah. ta. kar. 

kai. tu=:rock ; hill. 

qer— circle. tet=earth. 


Souse. 

hut. cover, 
village. 


ha. at. baat. 
bu. katr. 
aTii-=zteiit. as=>'ww. 


Boat. 


kaka. kaa ? ha.— tree. » 


Tree. 
high. 


xet. xi- acha=/(/^/j. 
ax-uu ?:=hua=ca»«. 
achem^branch. 


Motmtain. 
high. top. 
great, peak, 
head, god, etc. 


tu ; qa; \ai:=high. 

achii^hiffh. 

xe—tree; high. men. 

asai^god. 

tc])^head. iaa-:=$hmdder. 

y^u^good. hua. god. 

nr^great. acha^high. 


Death. 


mad. mai. mates. 


war. 

to die. kiU. 

corpse, buiy. 


y^era^enemg. 
mut. mer. tek. 
ahaz=uar. ak:=tomh. 

xa::=corj}se. 


ISfiglit. 
bad. dark. 
e^•il. pain. 


kek. xfi=*''''^- 
ak=ztomb. at'a^evil. 


To take (hand). 
To give (hand). 


xep. tet. tot:=hand. 
tutu. tu. xct. ma. 


Hand, No. 2. 
paw. take. 


ker. tot. haq. kcp. 
tct=i\'b. 5? huca=iVb. 1. 


Head. 
top. high. 


tu. hdi— high. top. 



kata=Aar(^. 
etka. 
saki. 
tshuka. 



sawa. 
kyet. 



karr=^o)t'tt. 



kanz=town. 



cheii^Jiigh. 
iki^high. 



ike ; cheu:= /«('<?/». 



kha=^r««#. 

cheu^^rea^. 

ura. 



iki ; yc]s.e^=great. 
'kcchoT:=tomb. 



haika^bad (Fin.). 
ala=<o kill. 



eko\=zniglit. 
kcclor=^owS. 
jrto^dirtg ; bad. 

ka. 



2;ar. 



TJgeo-Altaic and 
West Taetae ? 



ker. kit. kao. ta. 



eke. seh. sahso. 

tuka. socha=^;?07<^A-s7i«r«. 

aksjo^=axe (Lap.), 
saite (Lap.), 
zaa. 

ma. kher. 
ker. kar. da. 



hat. haz. hu. 
huomo. kar. 



kayik. agh.ag^^tree. 

ak. aghag. 

aqhe. chu. yu. 

pu. agha^great ; tall. 

tau. ta. kai. ke. 
Yii\ca:=great. akc^=greaf. 
kar. hegy. mattas. 
tzar ? 
mar. rsiagla:=zhigh. tu. tar. 



rep. tepc. tep=^head. ho. 
m'evt. margh. mara. 



helak. mana. 
gerva=^ soldier. 



'kara=:bad. at. 
fekkete=fZffrX-. 



kotom. \it't^ hand. 

tuku. ta-ft. hcq=/(a7(rf. ) 

min=/iff«6?. j 

kar. ked. kat. 
heq. ta-et=y/w. 

to. iau^hill; high; head, 
ko^high. top. tc'pe^/(///. 



158 



POSSIBLE ANALOGIES BETWEEN ASIATIC, TUKANIAN, AND ANCIENT EGYPTIAN. 



English. 


EuiTTIAN. 


East Taetab 
AND Mongol. 


Ugro-Altaic and 
West Tahtae? 


Foot. pad. 
go. run. 


pet. tebt. uart:=rM». 
^.c'^—stcp. Van-Van— dance. 


bctka. kochar. 
ka^to dance. 


kok. pud. 
but. 


Tooth, etc. 


tcs. hcnti. 
kamat=:/ior«. 

senf. teshcr^rec?. 


gasim=J«w«. 


ten. tes. tcsh. taug. 


Blood (red). 


sengi; tusu 


ssiv. scm. (Latin: sanguis). 


Hair, etc. 


s'nu. su. hinsti 
sti ; sah.=.head-gear. 


usu. 


saz. sash. 

tosch. 






Mouth, etc. 
hole ; round. 


qcv^cifcle. kar^nside? 

aman^fo swallow. 

dapu ; chaiMi— navel ; eat ? 


kha. 


kha. 


ama. 


ku. kapu=f?oor. 


Ege. 

see. sun. 

light, sky. shine. 


nu. mcr. xa=«/"'»««. 
sh.u=zlight. ra ; sa ?=«mm. 
nennu=<(} see. hxu=:.dag. 


nyndie =:«;/«. esha. 
shun^«M». taii.=zlight. 
kahna=:/s««. yese. 


sei. sehi. seilu. 
nan^«%. lihii^zshine. 
na^skg. 


Light, etc. 
sun. moon, 
star. sky. 
eye. 

heavens, 
shoot ? 
dart ? 
am-ora. 
fire, etc. 


haru ; hah=:(?«y. 
her:=fo see. men. 
tu ; 'kal^skg. o.tcnt=sun. 
sel^star. ahu^light. 
sin. san=:s/(w«. 
rsL^smi. ahi^moon. 
■)(Vi,^shine. iwa,^ morning, 
nvi^eye. ncimu^^o see. 
set:= to lighten. 
sun; siihi::=ti)roiv (shoot), 
xet ; tcka ; shet^j^';r. 
rek ; suax ; niit^Jire. 


harara^^o see. 
hararat=: /*««<. 
hara:=«<ffl/-. nara:=sM». 
esha; yese =:<>?/«. 
sUin=zlightning. 
shun:=6-i<». 
isal ; neudie=:cy«. 
niin ; num^«%. 
nangra ; tangra:=«%. 


hiiTuva=zdag (aurora ?). 

(ahah, Sanskrit). 

tan ; tn^dag. 

timgriz=sl:g. 

nai ; siel=.s?<«. 

ea^heavens. cah^god of dag. 

na ; asal^«%; bright (azure). 

sol; iiil^to shine. seilu=«ye. 

salj^lighfning. chn=^dawn. 

tschi. Rhnz=h'ght. 

kaka; tisil=is^»-. aah=wJoow. 

kak ; toka^ fire. 

numma ; nan^skg ; light. 

num ; neue^«%. 

su ; tuck ; rak=_^re. 




















Gold. 


sani ? (soR-^to shine). 


sale=;VoM. 


same. 


Camel. 


kamaar. 


komi=yo«<. 


karmes=fow. 


Life. ear. 


ankh. 


onka=:sheep. 


amga=:m ; =zmoufh. 
jank^navel. ki=///e. 
kanaka=:w«?i. ceengi=:Mose. 
an=;H(fl!». anka=mother. 
ta.iig-:=tooth ; fang. 


















Bog. 

cur. 


uher. hor. 
fu (? f=k). 


uher— ox. 

kou ; ky. 


ued. koira (Fin.). 
koy. chcr. yo '? 



159 



ANALOGIES BETWEEN ASIATIC, TURANIAN AND ANCIENT EGYPTIAN. 







East Takt.\ji, 


TJgeo-Axtaic and 


English. 


Egtptian. 


Mongol, etc. 


West Taetab ? 


To be. 


un. pu. 


bu. 


un=iY is. 


to Drink. 


sau. ro— mouth, sura. 


osson. sm=:zvater. 


s\\=^ivater. 'ko=.moKth. asokh. 




akxL=:.cup. hek. uVa-^^ivatcr. 




arke^=>cater. 






JTater. 


mu. uat-iu'=s«rt. ssh. 


muku. mu. 


mu. mo. met. 


sea. 


bar ; seth^i^-^Z^. ma. 


utia. sui. 


Tvut. iir. bahr^««« ? artu. 




abx=^river. xenna:=?rti«. 




ul. 


wet. 


mer. atur=r«W. 


ushu. utia. 


■whor. shes. raeri-=:sea. 




uka. a.t:=deiv. fihc^ake. 
XU. sarp. haqt. 


sui. dalai=s^ff. 


sat. vrat. mari. 
ai-pa. rak. ruh. 


Wine, Beer, etc. 




Brother. 


nex. 


acha. 


saka=:so». 


Girl. 


hermu. 




anna=«'o»ia». 


Son. 


sen. sa. 





su. siun. 


Man. 


reru. hummu. unti. 


ere. 


ar. ena. kom ? ennete. 




menh=yo!«8^ man. ncn^thei/. 


man=/i7'«y. 


tar^.so» (Fin.). 






t'a ; ka=w«7(;. 
nti. ter. 


ko^MM. 

tere. ene. 


mama. nia—hrotJwr. 
ni. 


Pronouns. 


Adverbs. 


an. cher. ha. 


dan. ka. da. 


la. chi. 


Thou. 


tu. 


ta. 


te. su. sen. 


m.2. Haud? 

behind. 

I. me. 


sen=iVo. 1. tliei/. 

bah. 

anuk. an. 


scn^iYo. 1. 
bah (Chinese), 
ngo (Chinese). 






han. 



IGO 



ESTHONIAN AUB AMERICAN WORD-COMPARISONS. 









Amebican. 


English. 


Lap. 


Fin. 


NoKTH. Central. t South.* 


Stone, etc. 


kedke. 


kewi. 


ketla. caa.f kotai. \i=earth. 


House, etc. 


goattc. wicso. 


kyla. 


calli.f uta. kat. ghoti.f 


Enclosure, field. 


aker. 


lua. 


aca.* cancho ; zaca\^=ffarden. 


Innd. 






mah=.land. 


Bout, tree, canoe. 


ipu=iree. 


pu. kauil(i=('/Tc fniiik. 


qucnnua.* k'an=/;vv'. hue.* 
kami^fixli. 


Mountain. 




magas. mcto. 


ma.chi='/n'iif. 




Head; top. 


oike. 


laa. 


ongc:=toj). ikn. pah. 


Great; good. 




iywa=i'/o(/r/. 


kuan. 




Axe. 


akshjo 




ca-sa-que. 




Deatt. 




kuol. knlm— cold. 


thel. du. 


Eisli. 




katta. hal. quele. 


challua.* pala. 




Bird (chicken). 




kukoi=A«?i. 


kukai. kuku. 




Cow. ox. 
Cup. can. 
Food. 




harcha. 
kannu. 
mudda. mima. oscli. 


aucha.*^<«^;V. 
hantaka. 






Binti*^boiIed viahj'. mamg^cfff/. 
ash-ki-moi^Z/r'sA. 




Snow ; ice. 




jiie. 


jah. 


Heart; blood. 




syda. 


sih^blood. 




Foot. 


lapa. 




pata.* 




Hand. paw. 


kiit. kiisi. 




ka.* pats^/(««fZ. k'osh=/o6i^. 




Eye. see. 




seilu. 


seila=.s/:y ; ei/e. 




Nose. 
Hair. 
Tooth. 
Bone. 




nenii. 

inshcd. tukku. 

saw. 

s'ak. 


can a.* 




tatshz=/;tY^^/. cliucca.* i^]s.ix:=zhead. 




zah.* 


taktc. 


qak7=tooth. 


Mouth. 


su— <9 speak. 


shuu. shun. 


shum. so. 


Man. 


mana. 


innimene. miesi. 


enene. ma.Ti=fiifhfr. 


Sun. 


suina. 


ega. 


eekah;=s/rt;'. ega. aika— /?;■('. 
sunh. sua. 


Star. 


tashti. 


tagti. 


egussa. deoshu. tak. tagg^f^wy. 


Moon. 


mano. 


kuu. 


mamoak. masa.f kou=*««. 


Fire. 

Sky. day. eye. 




riikki=z Ji of. kcitc^^w hdr. 
seilu. taiwash=:fA?y. 


k'lk koli riika sakh — sh}i 




seila^zs/// ; ci/e. iahn^dtn/. hashe. 








pana=r/r^//. 




"Water, etc. \ 


appe=.sm. 
kynu=r/i-pr. 


tjitse. vcden. 


tsha. wap. pa. waai. vaat=«f«. 


River, sea. ) 






wiro=r»Y';-. 


mar=.S('rt. 


aba. jah. tsash. mayh=r/iT/-. 



21 



161 



COMPARISO:S^S OF BASQUE WITH X. W. TUEAXI.iX AND EGYPTIAN. 



English. 



Dog (cur). 
Stone. 

Arrow. 

Axe. 

Cow (ox). 
iSheep. goat. 
Deer. 
Great ; high. 

Night, bad. 



Fra. 



Lap. 



koii'a 



saite 



aksjo 



hareha 
kauris =_i'/wrt^ 
peura 



diennes 



paz 



Thunder. 

Fish. 

Hair. 

Eye (see). 

Tooth. 

Son. I 

Brother. ) 

Father. 

Woman, mother, omma 

Fire. 



suina=. SM« 



Star. 

Sun; silver. 

"Water. 



rfikki = //<•«!! f 



tiigti 
tiitse 



silma=cy(; 
wiro=r«'w 



God. 



Ugeo-Alt.uc. 



koy 

karo 

I sahs = sfo»e. 
sak a. = J,' ni/e. 
za'd = bow. 
so2:am=arrow. 



iikor 



Basque. 



Egtttian. 



kara. = hf/(7. 
bckkeka = W«tA'. 

tsehari 



saz. \)az = Jic<id. 

kus. ketshe=6«« 

saw 

su. siim 

sak=.so» 

aitiii 

cma 

xat. kiz 

kiz. tuck. esh. 
azal=.sZ'y. siel = 
sun. sal=s/iiitc 

ur =;•«»» i 

iihor=rrt/;«' i 

jen 



ora 
arria 

> sageta 

!asta= stone 
haizkora 

oreh=oj; 

ac]iuiTia = /«wii 

beya= cow 

acu = sfrotig 

gau ; balcha = 
niyld. c\iax = had 

turmoi 

arrai 

adaz 

akus = fo see 

esiir =bo!ie 

scc-is = lrunier 

s\if:wi=irofJicr 

aita 



sikki. ekhi-iz. 
izeki 

iza. ekhi=^/'« 

ziUar 

va-i=rain. \iv. 

uharka 
itsaso. =cri'ia = 

rirer 
jainco. 



uhcr. 



I set. sat=«<o??«. 
s-d\i\i=sfo?ie? 



( bksu. 

kaari=(?o«<. 

axa. 

I kek. krh. 

bari. 
sah. 

s}iu = /i//Jif. 

Six\\n = fo cut. 

sa. scra\\ = i/oifnff. 

sen. %o-)^=little. 

at. 

mu-t. 

teka. suax- x"*. 

&ci=to lighten. 

rek. 

teka =firc. \ 

sc\= star ) 

uat-ur =«<■(/. 
uri. uka. 



163 



SOME TUEANIAN AFFINITIES liETWEEN DRAVIDIAN, AMEEICAN, 

AND UGllO-ALTAIC. 









Amekican. 


Engltsii. 


Ugeo-Ai.t.vic. 


Deavidiax. 


North. C'ENTiiAL.t South.* 


stone, etc. 


khal. ko. sah. 


kallu. kal. (koduli=;aAT.) 


kat. silla.* thalIif=:<'«;-^A. sah. 


House j 
Village j 


kholla. tura. kalle. 


halle. era. 


calli.f era.* ha. kah. cal.f 


har. al. mat. 


mott. in'=^rill(if/e. 




Lan<l. cartli | 


ma. unit. 


pura. tarai {Liit.=tcrra.) 


gar.f mah. milli.f amet. 


Field. ) 


kyra. 


mata. malam.. 


gare. 


Boat, etc. 


hiijo. 


padagu. 


kajak. pah-a. pcku^Z/rf. 


Tree, etc. 


pu. kaiidu. 


pura. ])n=zjl(nvcr. kodu. 


kira. hu.f muira.* 


Dog. 


kaik. 


\s.-M\n\i.'=jaclcal. 


kc:ikuc. kakka. huchcte. 


Snake. 


manza. 


naga. 


nan -gar. 


Bow ; arrow. 


zaa. saiti. sahs=s)'oMf. 


miY^arrow. 


zaf:=iwir. sahpc=ff;TOiC. 


Beer, etc. 


arak. raki. vodka ? 


uruk. churukka. 


acca *=^)naize beer. 


Sugar, sweet. 


sukker. 


sakkare. 


sachi=salt. suda'k=:siceet. sak^ 
white. 


Honey. 


sima. 


sima. hima. 


ma-mak^mffar-cane. 


Son. ' 


ma. 


makan. mayo. 


ma.* nah. maneo*; matoi*=»irt«. 


Head, etc. 


kolkii. bail. oike. psh. 


talai. kodi=<ojj. 


psho. chola. kukka. oc. 


Tooth, etc. 


pu. til. 


kuli. pal. 


pi. gu.f ka\h\*^leak. tuUu. tzal. 


Hand, paw. 


kar. ki. 


ka. 


ka. pa. eaj^/i»(/er. pa:=^o take. 


Foot. pad. heel 


pud. jalka. kul. 


pada. kallu. 


pu.* po.* pa:^^ I/O. pata.* 


Hair. 


cac. 


kaco. 


cuua.* chucca.* 


Tongue, leaf. 


keli. dil. 


cli. 


kalla.* del.* 


Eye. day. ) 


tana ; kon^^dai/. 


\a.\\^eye. diua=ffoy. 


kane ; kannah = ?)/«. kan. 


sun. i 


kan=s7(». 


taua=;.s«». 


kon=.s«;(. tam=f/(/y. tinii:=l/ykt. 


Sun. shine. 


su. 


surga (Sanskrit sui-ya). 


zun. zu. sakh. 


Fire. hot. 


tu. tat. akh. 


tu. te. ti. ago. agni ? 


tata* tee. ahu. su. aika.f 


Skv. day. ] 


kon. kuu. tan. 


Vau^eye. bana. 


t'nvd^b'i/Jif. kannah^(?y«. 


light. j 


tangra. tana. 


dina. din. 


tana ; tan=rfrty. kon=siin. 


Water. 


ar. pi. tona. 


a.Y\\:=rii'cf. pa. 


a.f pa. tona^river. na. 


Sea, etc. 


nurr=*<'«. 


nir. niru. tannir. 


neah. tu. uru.* ki. 


Wind. 


charu. 


karru. 






Bear. 

Gate, door.* 


karhn. 

kapoo. pakapu. 


kiradu. 
kappu=»«ve?. 








Pot. cup. 


kab. 


koppai. 






Bad. dark. 


kara. kecotu. kurak. 


ketta. kanippu. 


kaak. kaka. 


To give (hand) 


ta-ct. kar=:/(cfKe?. 


ta. ka=/irt?i(^. 


ka ; pa=/irt«(/. 


He. 


han. he. 


wan. 


hin. y. 


Thou. 


ncy. 


ni. 


ni. ne. nan. 


I. me. 


ma. man. 


nan. 


nen. ma. man. 


Goat. 


kauris. 


kora=/(c>-stf. kurisnari. 


ceaura ^'^sheep. 


To take 


) 






(hand). 


kap. 


pattu. 


ka. jja. chab. kapuni.* 


? (Keep (hand) 


kar=/(rt«(^. 


ka=/i«Mflt. 


ka; iM^iand. 



Edkins says that the Dravidian or al)original Hindostan languages in syntax strongly resemble the 
Tartar and Japanese. It has lately by some Gennan scholars been found to be nearly allied to the 
TJgro-Altaic and Turanian family. A con.sidcrahlc number of affinities seem likewise to occur as 
between the Dravidian and American, possibly through the N. E. Asiatic Turanian. 

Interchangeable Dravidian letters are probably, (h. y. v. k. p. st) ; (g. y. j. k.); (k. y. h. t. s.) • 
(v. w. b.); (m. n. j.); (s. t.). 



163 



accoeda:n'ces between Semitic and turanian, etc. 



English. 



Hebrew. 



Stone ; rock. 

Cut. Lack. 

razor ? 
axe ; knife, etc. 

Enclosure. 

field, garden. 

house. 

town, etc. 

Mountain. 
God. 

Great; high. 
back ; strong. 
Tree. high. 

Death, etc. 

Bad ; dark 

(Light). 
Eye ; and see, 

etc. 
Sun. sky. 

Shine ; firo. 



Head, etc. 
Hair, etc. 
Tongue, etc. 
Foot, etc. 

rood. 
Seed; gi-ain, 

Pot (shard). 
Wing (fly). 
SraaU. 
Sou. 
Man. 
Moon, etc. 

Star, etc. 

Day (sky). 

Fish (snake). 
Fire. 
Water. 
Dog. 



tsur. 

gazar. 

sakkin. 

khazar. 

gan. 

gali=/;«(7/ of 

stones. 
hh'a^=castle. 

hor. harr. 
jah. el. 



Ae.U3IC 

(Amharic. "A.") 



AssraiAN. 



malieth^death, 



raah. ayn. 

schemesh. 
sham. 



esh==/;'(;. 



rosh. 
se'ar. 

'alch=?«ff/. 
herekh.=/cnce. 

man. 
sheher=/o(;r7. 

kad. kas. 



sakhrah. 
dak. "A." 
sikkin. 
zaxa^farm. 
carria==/(WH(. 
bait. dar. 
dar=i7wuse. 
tel. 



ayn. 

shamak. "A." 
shamak. sama. 

shahr=??ioow. 
nar=;?r«. 



r as. 

sha. 



katu. 

kakku:=(«V(yjo«. 

'mntu^coiiiifri/. 
ginu. kar^c/rt'/c. 
girrn^i-oad. 
kiru=:field. 
e^allu^ jmlace. 

alu. 



paklu. 

kanii. 

matu. 

aku. 

e]l\i=^hriffM. 



kurah. "A." 

mat. 
slieru=^««A. 



tsiVir. 
ben. 
adam ? 
kese. 

sham=«/I'y. 



saghir. 



nun. 

esh. 

kcleb. 



kan. "A." 
(zanda. "A.") 



nuru=%/i<. 



reshu. kakkadu. 

kalur=.sj»e«X-. 

shuku=/fi7. 

karsul^fl«/.7«. 

zim^seed. 

karpatu. 

parashu^^ojfy. 

tsakliru. isu. 

zmi=zchild. 

maru. 

elhi=:Itrii//if. 

dn:=nwon. 



Ugro-Aitaic. 



tsachao. kach. 

sahso. 
kusi. laz. 



East Tartar, 
Mongol, etc. 



tsakur. 
saki. 



suka. 'kach^stone. suka(Lat. seoare.) 



mn^find. 
haza^wuse. 
kar. bar. 



hat. baza, 
kholla. kylu. 
karo=/«0Ms«. 

bor. kar. pil. 
jahn. jen. 
ke. paca. 
arko=^;Y"rt<. 
kandu. ano. 
kiina=Jo«^. 
margh. mara. 

keka. 

kwel=s?<M. 
gyn (Caucasian), 
shema; szem=: 
eye. 

na'K'e^irJiite. 

num=«/'y. 

es=^Jire. 

pash. resz. koigo 

ccr. zao. 

keli. 

kasse. kur. 

kucha. 

mak=srti^. 

shi'ut. serum:= 

milk. 
kab? 



sakko^.vow. 
hcTia^iftle. 
sak ; nvd^soH. 

kosi:=.SM». 

ilio=:wioo«. 

kisili. si. 

saan=fire. . 

tan. klion^47<M. 

niim=isky. 

nanza. 

ais. es. esh. 

mu. 

kolb? 



gar::=}iouse. 
ail^tow7i. 
karr. gar. 



kha. 

acu^stronff. 
shen, (Ugric. ; 
sh=k?). 



eche. ckel. 
horaru^^o see. 

sh.um=:sun. 

nudu=:c//f. 
nara:=s««. 

kutsu=:w<>fZ:. 

noshu. 

kale. ala=.ihumh 

bedka. 



sharai^ort/s. 
garclu. 

garshu=:/('ff//i«;\ 
asika=::yo»//i7. 
siun=:;so» (Ugric.) 



smgsu. 
(nian). 



164 



ACCOEDANCES BETWEEN HEBllEW, THIBETAN AND AJIERICAN. 

J. Edkins. R. p. Gkec* 



English. 


Hebkew. 


Thibetan. 


Ameeican. 


Sun, etc. 


shcmcsh (csh*==/?r«). 


snamha—lif/ht ; shine. 


skemai. ishmcn. 


Sky; day. 


shiim. tzutz. 


taerha^ iff /it; shine. shri=: 
lord. 


tza=*MM. zun==^/Y. 


Star (fire). 


tzha ; sar*(suraf;* esh*). 


tzaba=://m^ zIa})a*:=»iOOW. 


zo=s^-y ; eye. tash. 






7Zer=r«y uf lii/hl. 


ish^«M». 


Light, shine. 


tzohar.*" man. 


sa ; ri ; sahmeh ; mi==/?r«. 


tsa^sMM. mna-^Jire. 


Eye (see). 


ayn. 


ayn (Caucasian), spyan. 




God, etc. 


Jah. rabh*=^;'Cff<. 


rjc; jobo. 


jab.=.win(l. ohii^ffod. 
ju^ski/. tou-jii]i=zeMef. 


ditto. 


El {e'ni=brighi. Assy.) 


11a.* 


quallo^^oofZ. illui=: 

ehief. 
khollo=/«7/. id\\^(/ood. 


ditto. 


(Allah. — Arabic). 


llamn.— priest. 


lla^sX'y. killa=;«f/o». 


Man (red). 


adam (adorn). 


hama* (dmar). 


dame. tama. 


Son, etc. 


ben (Arabic abu). 


hu=cliild; son. 


hua. dina. 


Father (male). 


zakar."* ab. aba. 


(yak*), yab. pa. 


apa. appa. bal)a. 


Mother (-woman). 


am. mo.* em.* uni*:=;Hff». 


ma. (auo ;* ami*). 


ami. amama. 


Image ; idol. 
Tongue, etc. 

Enclosure, etc. 


snu. skih. 
lashon. 

'koi*:=ctrcle. gan=^ffar(!c>i . 


sku. 

I'ce. I'zags.* 

kor^circle; cup. gur*=Ao«sr. 






garland. caneha= 






mkav'"'=./oii.. gom*:=sione. 


garden, 
chava^skin ; cover. 
can=^house. 'ka-^mouth. 


Bad ; dark. 


ra'g.* 


nag.* nig.* 


nek. keka. (sclig=«m). 


Ax-row. 


mas. kidon.* 


mda. nida.* schidaja*=spear. 


TLxahi^cnife. 


Bow. 


kesheth. 


yzu. 




Fish. 


nun.* 


nya.* 


kanu. num. 


Food, etc. 


zun {!iiz:=zhfeast of milk). 


zas. 


zaxi=cw«. sum. 


House. 


beth (Arabic bait*). 


barr (Siamese). 


hit. baan. 


Stone (cut). 


sakkin*=^-«//'^; ciif. 


zaccar*= f!i7it stone. 


shekt; iiz— knife. 
sah=:<;M<. 


ditto. 


sia. tzur. 


suw. tsiil.* 


seh. tsai. sawa. 


To breathe. 


nasham.* 


sua.* 


ceak&^noise. 


Head. 


posh. 


bash.* 
sa. kor.* 




Tooth (horn). 


shcn. (kercn*). 


sah. sanna. yen. 


Hand. 


yad.* 


lag.* 






I. 


ni. 


na.* 


nek. ni. 


Thou. 


ka.* 


k'ycd.* 


ki. ta. kir. 


He. 


hi.* 


di.* 


i. ch-ili. hau. 



165 



SOME SPECIAL ARYAN EQUIVALENTS AS WITH AMERICAN. 
(See Page 120, also Part II.) 



English. 


Aryan. 


Ameeican. 


House. 

toivn. stone, 
covering, etc. J 


oka. oikos. khara. hus. ur. bal. 

deba. car. cot. khana iot^field. 
c\ii\ii=shin. liut. tigli. gal. tap. 
Ka\ta=nest. caLllou=/?iw^. inn. 


oca. uta. cal. calli. ccara=s/./«. in. cani. 

koga. kukk. hu. 
deba = all age. acare. tot=stone. era. tah. 

huasi ; kotai ; cari = /(o;(.sf. hit. kah. ata. 


stone, rock. cut. 


cUa. sah = cut, saw. (;ak = round ; i 


silla. tsai. kah. kat. seh. kuh. tee. caa. 


earth, land, 
cut. stone, 
enclosure, etc. 
garden, liouse '? '. 
field, cii'cle. 


strong. 
'kai = cut. khak : \c\-xa = earth, ku. 
torr. tot afield, qar. zhair. gora. 
garth, karten. gardh. inno. arta. 

aker. eorte. carre = sqi({ir('. caer. 


tee; tot=«^«<'. a:ar = laiid. thalli = ««!r^A. 
carratu = s)'(/«c. gar=laiid. ca.ncha= garden. 
hii = house. kaka=-s<w««. ia = house. 
zacii'\ = garden. 
cra=hoi(sc. mak. m\\.jiik. = circle. 


court, 
circle, stouc ? 


Xu.'pa = country. 

iim=plowjlied land. ^m=carth. 
Kv=htud. 


tcmeq=earfh. gar =earth. 


Tree, etc. ] 
cane. ) 


quercus. gaccha. daru. boka. 
Kuvva. dzar. pitus=i;('««, oah, etc. 


cahak. kan. hi. cahak. koi\i= wood. 
haccha. sacha. pika. kah. tze. khoka. 


Ase. spear. ] 
knife, cut. hack. ) 
stone, sharp. ) 


churika. secare. tah. hecht. 

twcca. nuttW. kutt. ak. a^turj. 

thiak= nJiorel. anku = f/oad. 


chuki=.y)r'/r;\' shekt. taque; ta ; kak = .s^o«(;. 
kakswa. kak. pesh. hashag. akyek. 
akka = ?)0(r. kaka; cuta=/o cut. ukhe. 


an-ow, etc. 


aka^poinf. saeth. isliu. /o?. shoot. 


sh\u = l)!rd. sape. tzah. ahso. sia. us. 


Mountain. 

head, great. much. V 
many. high. / 


kuta. tor. opKt<!. pen. tau ? 
koh. kakud=/ifrtX-. 

\\'k'ka.=ijreaf. malia; collis = 7(/7/. 
fieyai: hoiih = /liffk. lioli ; kuh = //;7/. 
nKpn=toj). 


khuta=yoo(/. kaklm^grcaf. orcu-tce. pan. 
mochi = h/g. mnkta = strong, mach ; vach = 
great, kn; ikah = /(('fff/. kukka=/rt^j. 

toro=hcad. ucca = h/gh. khollo = /(///; strong. 

haccha=great ; ku = ;-ocZ-. manaho =great. 


Blood, red, etc. 


sirt. scherme. surk. siol. coeh. 


sutsa. zeh. kik. sckroon. cstli. zahhuar. 


"Wind. 


zcrcd^ Jieart. 
va=to breathe, an. vesas. aijp. chwa. 


vahcrc. ano = sy!'y. vatcca. hnairi^sjjirit. 


God. great, good. 1 


tio. diu. KuXwi ; cv=(/ood. czar, 
bogai. duhcs=pir{t. 


wayra. 
teo. tu. du. hue. tshie = s2(». quallo=yoorf. 
ogha. te'wa.=good. tsi=power. ku. 


J 


Bird. fly. ( 
feather, etc. j 


pat. pakshin. vaka. penua. /o9 = 

arrow. 
ure. kaka. orak. ptcatza. vogel. 


iyat = wing, huira. pania. pen. uassee. 
shui. huaka = //n'ic^-. pisku. tsit. vok. 


Snake. 
Ship. 


azhdcr. 9esha. sarpa. nadr. 
curachen. canoe, kahu. cahute. 
kaku =fi>ih. 


oshei.sta. shardcc. see-sce-ah. srbh. 
skakah. caoua; oagnc=/(s/(. khoka; kau = 
tree, kajak. 


Death ; kill, etc. ) 


naq. niri. maka. kale, nccarc. 


m;ilki = ("(»7w^. mak'a. nieca. nekani. 


i 


niarna. niort. mat. dlii'ihi. 


niiU'a, niutn. du. miikha. 


) 


Niglit. hlack, ) 
bad, etc. 


naktfi. kale, qyama. noctis. orcus. 
KriKoi. ax<)^ = pain. dc\f = devil. 
aTiji=hurl. mrak. 


chamaka. zama. \i]i\in = wiched. 'kaak = l)ad. 
kak. nek=«/cA-. vakra. ati. tak. 


' 





166 
SOIIE SPECIAL AllYAxY EaUIVALENTS AS WITH AilERICAI^. 



English. 



Food, flesh. 



Seed. Egg. Eiit. 



Fish, etc. 



Pot, etc. 



Salt (shining). 
Snow (white). 



■beer. 



Sky. day. 



(light, etc.) 
Sun. eye. 
Moon. 



Star, etc. 
Fire, etc. 



Water. 



Eiver. sea. 
Splash, wash. 
Lake, etc. 



Animals. 



Man. 



"Woman. 



Aryan. 



Mother. 



mar = to grind ? soseme. 
anusha. sasza. shir. semcn=« 
^■Ma=cream; to soiv; seed, o^jrov. 
maj'se. magh. ^ea. ^uifio^. fia'^a. 

txOvi- imichli. kaku. hai. ayo. 
canoe = iort^. keiye. ukku = s«(r/i.r. 

udaka=(rffi'«'. ■\)\\ia = carify. aaKoi. 
patra. pan. pota. aiinii= water. 
aaicKui=h(tg. euach. Xckov. manika, 

9uci. sara? tiishara. = ;<;«. sel. 
shakkar. h\\1v.i\= white, ice. zarkar. 
shmaa. skan = «/(»'««. tsiun. 

sack, whisky, udaka. a(]\\i\.=ivat(r 

raki. 
arak. ik^io<i. sura. uisk. eau. 

surya. tag. tio. dina. 

azure. 

auLii. konda. uak. teinc =;?;•«. 

sfirya. miit. son. sunus. nate. 

chandra. mi\»ix = iiioufli. ile. kano. 
mi. nirdi. mosye. micsyac. 
(tf\;/)')/. 9j\io'i = sim. messez. caun. 
sitfirali. trira. s^t. stella. seren. 

ignis, dali. okon. shah = //rrt^. 
teine. \u'ere=to burn. nara. krak. 
azer. agni. 

aber. udaka.. orche. ap. ah. 
dsyr. see. dzow. eas. lo. eau. 
wa. vcwp. vw. va^ia. aqua. asc. 
amhu. am. mira. humidus. 
pa=<o drink, varsha. mor. marc, 
mor. morge. uisk.' 

lamb. cur. paca=^o(?^ 

porcus=7^/i'/. 'k.\\h = cow. 

hog. camel, kaora. hakri=ffoaf. 

canis=dor/. icvici'=dui/. 

-pccus = cattle; sheep. 

khar=(H.v. simha = /('o«. tiger? 

hor. homo. nara. manu. dyn. 
av)^p. ari. dome. maon. uea. 
innai = w«. uyi. kin. 

ma. ^/rinj.- cunnus. kin. jena? 
naug. dama. 

gC'm = to beget, chayua. koinue. 
mamma, mat. nam. 



A.MKitrc.^N. 



maze-morra. stisi=<o eat. shoman =/?«/«. 
mahiz. sara. mati. sohan. mauig. 

magne. sanku. smu. souk, tzoma. 

ikii-uk=s«rtZr. michun. cagna. hai. yee: 
lean, pague. kanu. kckon. 

kuyka. puti = Jo.r. koto, akkik. 

ak = ;c((^(7\ manka. i)'i = water, niche. 

sachi. zak ; zura. = white. 
Rhukose=srt/<. sw\n.k = sweet. oh-zcl. 
kisini; k.eis=ice. 

a.cca=maize beer. ak. = watcr. wash, essauh. 

mas = /o drink. sorci=.y}irit. 

skie. ziXYa = while. tani ; tagg=r7ffy. dino. 

'aik = ege. zuna. dzu. 

tahu. ue. nicli. nakou. ano. tu. kin. 

■/Aira—white. suna. sa. nait=fy«. zun. 

khangra=««m. masa. manaok. illu. 
maitsaoa. mets. khan=^>r. k'un. quilla. 
khan=^;'«. silla =s;'rt;\ mata=ege. 
sah. siri. zariu. ari=w(oo». citalli. taosi. 

serrika. 
iguach. tah. oko. sa=.s««. dino = d(ig. 
into, uniri. aguai= /«oo?j. nan=mn. t.sa. 

kak. tona=s(«?. 

aba. ak. uhu. uko ui. nash. 
mem. mayu. amu. humu. miki. 
wa. ua. mem. yaku. li. eia. 

pa. tsha. maya. tsash. essauh. 



llama. chcr=dug. camiu. kuin = (7oy. 
icharme = (/ori'<. 

hoctu = Sort/'. kamela = f/c(v. ccanra = slieep. 
])ai:a=goaf. 'k]ia=biiffalo cow. ]i.\u:a = lion. 

a.Ticha = tajjir. tikc=jn(ma. chinka = 7/</H. 

k'hommo. mena. nani. hahri. hama. 
annin. uare. dohme. uni. dini. nah = so«. 
inno. iniu. gari. nare. cune. dame. 

huaruina. cuuia. china, nana. 

kona. ghanni. dome = mother. 
marmi. mania, uaa. ma. 



167 
SPECIAL AETAlSr EaUIVALEXTS AS WITH AMEEICAN. 



EXGHSH. 



Aetan". 



Amemcan. 



Son. boy. 




Small. 






Sister, 


etc. 




girl. 






Eoot; 
to go; 


paw. 
kick 


hock. 


Hand, 


etc. 





Ear, etc. 

Kose, etc. 
Tonijue, etc. 



Leaf. 



Moutli, etc. 
hole, cave, etc. 



Head, etc. 



Hair, etc 



Tooth, etc. 



Eye, etc. 
to see. 



To take. caiTy. 
To give. 

To cut. 



Personal 
Pronouns. 



sunu. szmn. puer. zoe. pisr. ua. 
nau =««!». natus. nea =>««». 
tsa'ir. kuchh. ziek. kri^ja. 

nauda. svastri. napui. naing = 

tvoman. 
siur. ni; mc. = (7inif/Jifer. se.stra= 

sister, natus =.s6«. 

pada. cik. spag. no ga. uk. 
cos. ancle, pai. hock. ri. 

kara. x'^'P- pancha. mag. rcka. 
manus. paui. /m/ji/. lapa=^;rtZ)«. 
tanka. (quiii(pie=J\'b. 5). 

concha =s7(r7/. gosh. kama. 
ogh. ounkn. fcan= i/iouth. 

cuincan. nak. scent=smeU. 
kuca ; queue; puccha = fai7. 

tail ? lingua, cauam. ce\ = moufJi. 
'kehlo^fhroat. K<;i\oi=l!p. lingam. 
did = lc'a/. (pv\\oi' = Ie(if. gula= 
throat. 

niukha. Trcf. Ijucca : ceg. 
ghar=rflce. kripa = //oA'. chin = 

to drink, man. 
man = /o cat. curu = /;o//o(t'. 

kakud =jt)Crt/'. aKp(i = to2). Kupa. 
torr=mou)itaiii. baghar. bale, 
cara. tab. kach = /'(H'r. koh = 7(//?. 

ke<;a. kuca. kshupa = J«(s7;. 
thatch? sioch. zub. ciiti. cherstee. 
mu. Kics. Ojii^. 

tine. fang, danta. aV = to cut. nail. 
Takra = f«rc«7. shakh = /i'or». bee. 
zahn. cornu. tusk. nokha=wffj7. 

nayana. kan. netra. anin. nck=shy. 
nictare=fo ivinlc. akshi. su. oaac. 
occhio. iksh = /o«M. a;il. ar. 
capcre. grab. ghab. Kvw = to carry. 
dfi. r'l. &i\TA=lia)Hl. 

saw. liack. kat. awh — stone. 
khak = ('(«-//'. acute, ak. 

I. nic. ck. ego. 
thou. ail. thee. you. 
lie. i. vA — ,ilic, ij. 



snne=ma)i. cin. su. tsi. sie. pascr. nah. 
izu. hua. m\mk = i/ou>iff. psi=s»i«^7. 
sie. tsa. natsi ; chichi; wai=«o». 

nisis. nana, nitemi. sisi. 

x-sa. nasuim. nika. taski. sa'tiq. 

pat. pai. po. ri ; kar = fo _<7o. podo. 
caki. uoc. tao. k'os. canka. pi. 

ka. gora = /o give. paco. pana. cab. 
mull, matua. maki. llapa. iku. 
canka=/cy. onca. goca. cha. 

kas. cam = to>/r/ue; nose. ceJika=nose. 
ekh. guk. ceuu. 

cani. cenka. n\ = tongue. uk. 
puchu ; kuchuch = ^fl(7 

liuga. del. ulue. ghane. 

cana = >(os«. gyc'lcm. ccallu. 

cu. miiclui = ««•/■. h'll. ca. k'a. 
koptra=frtir. ukku=/(o//ow. ■aiixakaaa.=to eat. 

qara= to feeit. ku. chi. 

ikah. coba? kah. koh. kakha = /(y;. 

ta. ppekei. toro. tepo. pckhe. pok. ku. 

cuca. tzitz. tatesh = /((•«■ (7. mu. 
zub. tash. cutz. xta. socca. 



t'ong. kirau. tanus. cang. nahc. 
aca. huakru. pakh. kchaka. 
qak. s'ak. tsi. 'kak=sfoHe. zah. 

kannah. nik. nieote. nakay. na. 

isliyek, ossa. iiu. il. 

kian. ura=(lai/. aino. 

chab. ka. chuc. tacani=7(rt«(7. f!,orn=ffirc. 

da. ko. ka. ara. dsxha,=hand. c\i'a=hand. 

cutu. ciita. i<]\f]it = /:»ife. kaki. 

sowe. iki. kat; seh = «fo«('. huakru = /ooM. 

ck = jV". 1. ni. me. i = 7«('. noka. 

zii. ti. uli. 

luiu. i. liee. ea = s7/c. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE 



ACCOEDANCES. 

(PART IV.) 



22 



169 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SmSTDET. 



Accaclian. — gish.. 



Lithuanian. — t!ichaka::=branch. Sanskrit. — gaccha. 

Sp'iac. — kaisa. Norse. — askli^as/i. 

Japanese. — ki. 

Arabic. — sidi-. Celtic. — clrii. ghar. seracli. 

Ugro-Altaic. — oka. agash. aijlie. 

Assyrian. — etsu ; isu. German. — ast=^braiic7i. 

Chinese. — shu. 

Hebrew. — siukmah-=:si/camore. ets^iii/h. 
African. — kia. oki. eku. ati. etsi. 
,, kasgar. koye. kite. tia. ki. 

N.B. — Amharic includes Ethiopian and Tigre. 



Sanskrit. — cakra=:r//r/c. Zend. — arta. 

Assyrian. — matum=ugurru. kakkaru. eklu. 

,, gmu^f/arden. kiru=;f('W. 

Arabic. — earria=:/ff/'wj. \a.gh&k.^town. 
Hebrew. — gan. 
French. — carve=^square. 
Etruscan. — ma=iJ(ind. 

Amharic. — M'ai'=roimd. agar^country. medcT^and. 
Coptic. — kar. aht. 

TJgi'o-ALtaic. — kyra. cher. zend. arta. aker. karto. ache. 
Persian. — chak. 
Celtic. — caer^stone-circle. llan. gardh^^ff arden. 

,, lur. mae»=field. da\)hoch=zf(irm. carn^ieaj} of stones. 
Accadian. — gana. 
Greek.- — aypo9. 
African. — mugiind. munda. kira. oko. deba. varo. baki. 



Egyptian. 



asr. 
taku. a(j^h. 



^anta. 
aar=?rt«(^. 
set. 
qeT=zeircle. 



English. 



Tkee. 
twig. wood, 
ash. branch, 
sun? life? 
stone ? cane, 
oak. hiah. 



Enclosuee. 
farm. land, 
field, garden, 
earth, 
stone. 

place, yard, 
house, 
square, 
round, circle, 
enclosure. 
waU ? 
country. 



Maori . — kuteko^ducl-. 

Assyrian. — pishu ? issuru. parashu=:fo^^//. 

Malay. — \>ezi=Hrd. 

Fin. — 'kwk^dove. 

Slavonic. — ptak. 

Litliuanian. — paid^sztis. 

Etruscan. — ciis ? 

Sanskrit. — jtatz^tojff/. pakshin. 

Celtic. — piotd ; poused. 

Mongol. — pata. garssu^/e«</(er. 

Lap. — tjurok^/o y/y. 

African. — pidi. tc. peso. paku. 



■p&[=^to/i/. 
patex=<o/y. 
shn=:i feather. 
ta=J/>-«?. 



BiKD. 

to fly. 

fowl, pigeon. 

wiiid ? wing, 
feather, 
arrow ? 



A nilLOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



170 




171 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SuiTDfiY. 


Egyptian. 


English. 


Celtic. — bal ; c].ac]ia]i=:vina(/e. tigheau. caban:=/iH;. 


at. 


House. 


„ cani^icdj} of stones. 






Latin. — vicus. dumus. 


katr=foj<!». 


stone. 


Greek. — ockoi. 






Chinese. — kck^.s/7'«. iik. 


ari. 


field. 


Phoenician. — c-artha^cif;/. 






Arabic. — dai^Jwuse. karah=;owre. 


a.ar=zstone. 


area. yard. 


Phrygian. — dvha=foic>i. 






Draviflian. — wxz^riUage. 


qcv=circle. 


home. door. 


Etruscan. — ccerc=foK')» ? ez^wuse. 






Asspian — siikn^strcet. ekhi=/ield. 




cabin, hut. 


,, 'karTi=fortress. garru^^road. 






Latin. — domus. Cambodian. — daba=/oi6'«. 




town. 


Persian. — khan. Sanskrit. — oka. 






Celtic. — t}i' — tower; land, dabbach ; kar — Iwuse. 




enclosiu-e. 


„ _ tre. tigh. ty. 






Slavonic. — kodc=:fo«rf ; earth. 




cot. chamber. 


Accadian. — gal. wcu^^^toicn. 






African. — da. deba. aar. ilii ; wlu^viUagc. ura. daka. 




skin. ) 
cover. I 






Albanian. — fiooi). dn^earth. Latin. — saxum. 


aar. 


Stone. 


Arabic. — katu^fo cut. tzakra. sikkin=Z:H//'p. 






Lap. — aksjo^aw. Fin. — kuwi. 


zeqer^/o cut. 


rock. 


Celtic. — al. earn. caQ:T=.stone circle. 






TJgro-Altaic. — is. t'ah=axe. 


sat. 


earth. 


Old Zend. — otaare ? siu^^strong. 






Amharie. — dak. daha. toY=s2iear. 


bksu=«.rf. 


saw. cut. 


Hebrew. — gal=/(c«/; of stones. 






Assyrian. — katu^fo cut. abmi. 


ati=fo cut. 


flint. 


Accadian. — gai^touse. khar. kud^r»/. 






African. — taku. kou. okuta. sia. qhaii:=^o cut. 




crag. 


,, ekct ; nc^arrotv. kiitu. kn ; esi. 






,, sakun=:hiife. 




tree ? 


Sanskrit. — nau. n&aka— water. 


baka. 


Boat. 


Arabic. — felukuk. 






Celtic. — bark ? vak. curachan. 


kaka. 


ship. 


Latin. — yela^sail. 




water-house. 


Dutch.— cahute. 


niii—wind. 


canoe. 


Ugro-Altaic. — kap. kireb. 




raft. 


Slavonic. — karawi. 




barque. 


African. — kokua. kojc=.tree. aoha. 




sail y 


„ urate, kanowa. bewata. 




fish ? keel ? 
(:=water-boat). 
trCe. log. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



172 



LlRYAN AND 


InlvItlAN Oil 


Caucasian and 


Amkuican. 




Bekiihu. 
tcgun. 


EASliUU. 


Akilenian. " A." 


NOUTII. CuNTUAL.t 

E.=KaBt of S.A. 


SoL-TH.* 


CC'llO. 


ioxm^iouse. "A." 


kah. kukli. kci. 








sakli. saclili. 


llukka *:=fj'W«ye. 




akham. 


uri; erria^ 


chouka=:«^"m ; clothes. "A." 


ngu.* pchi-c* khckh. 






village. 


kagbak. chokhi. 


glioti.f pcrca*=twa//. 




tagahamt. 




Ilia. iAa=toivn. 


uta.* buari. kamka. 






etch. 


down. daba==^(fw. 


taba*=^o/<7j. 




tigamcen (pi.). 




'kaho.:^stone. niehr. 


era.* llackta^i-;7/rty(^. 






torroa; crria=: 


kera. 'kim.^^village. 


dirui. otocb.f coca.* 




ghour. gher. 


tower. 


h&vk—roof. "A." 
asif. byz. \ia\\-=.sfone. 


de:ha*=village. (E.). 
coochat. oca.* cani. 




adouar:=t'»7faye. 


CYVQ=.village. 


\n\i\.^barh ; rind. 
ia.r=:ihigh. d(jh=zi-illage. 


calfz^liottse. gara=:?«M(^. 
karpa*=)'t7(i. auk. 




ioomit:=lan(l. 


[ata — door.'] 


ga[=zsto7ie. 
\inma.r^roiind. 


cliabk ; k:ik:=stnne, 
carif bob. acrare. 




ikhkamcn. 


nm-A-^stone. 


sboni=i';7/r///#. 
gomi=: /(/»(////. 


kiki. dum. tumnie.* 
niki. kjicmm. 




cliaimc=to(i. 


te^— residence. 


ttti^and. 

kera ; 'khar^stone. 






am=zstone. 




kani=s/rm. 

icikir =zhouse. "A." 






a.k'k.id=zeatih. 




dim. "A." 






taliuyat=(;o(.'«-- 










ini/. 










izzu. 


arria. 


kera. kau. dor. 


hoezu. itza. itz.* 








tarria. kuar. dur. 


carratu.* (S.E.). rada*= 


earth. (E.). 


izra=roffo. 


aitz. 


kaba. tcb. tsbi. 
kwa. izo. 


tsai. oaa.f tzc. 
cbipa.* 




ardgart. 


toiTca^foifw. 


kua. kali, 
tsbin. tbi. 


kub. to. sab. kwb. 
tcbou* (Carib.). 




ekedi. 


art. asta. 


kar. "A." gal. 
misa — earth. 


kotai. sawa. essec.f 
calj— house, akal.f 




arri. 


liarri. 


sze. qber. itso. 
erkir^earth. 


garland, istl.f 
tebou. kat. kak.* 




kketsen \^tocir- 
sekhtsen) cumcise. 


hxr^zcarlh. 


shcn^aiid; stone. 


era*=house. itak.* 






zbair=w/l; hill. "A." 






adgar. tagugan. 










aytzu. 










tanaut. 


botca. 


t'argi. 


tappa.* jahak^tree. 
piraga.*"(N.E.). 




akai'koii. 


lauflia. 


kaf. 


canoua^-— wafer-house ; ft 
cabak. igara.* 


•ee-house ? 


kelii — sail. 


outzia. 


karwi. 


khoka^zf rec. 

acallif {water-hoicse). 




sofnio. 


clialupa ? 


nauak; koiir. "A." 


a. ak. ob. yakii. ) 
iii. bu. aka. ki. ko. j 


-wafer. 


toraft. 


barka. 




kah; kan— tree. 





173 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Sundry. 



EGrmAN. 



Arabic. — kaus. 
Latin. — arous. 
Assyrian. — ^ashtu^arrow. 
Ugro- Altaic. — zaa. 



African. — n.csh=zarroiv. 



English. 



Bow. 

arrow, 
to bend. 



Thibet. — yzu. Accadian. — kashtu. 

Amliaric. — sa,yi=zsword. 
Chinese. — shct^sAoo^. Celtic. — saeth. 

Greek. — jos. o(«tos. (i)(o9^soj;). 
Sanskrit. — isbu. 
Latm. — sagitta. 

African. — eai^hiife. se. san. leba.si:=arrmo ; sio=zsivord. 
,, sara. tsoh. 



sesu:=iott'. 
set. 
sshr. 
sat^sfowe. 



Amharic. — kwdar. Lap. — aksjo. 

Mantshu. — snca^axe. 

Arabic. — Rikkm^mife. French. — hache. 

Sanskrit. — ak^fo cut. asi^sword. 

Accadian. — t'dk=^sfone. shah^s/(oo^. 

Assyrian. — kakku. katu:=fo cut. kashtu. 

Latia. — aseia. sectum^ci;^. saxuni. 

Celtic. — twcca. dagr. da.c'h-:=sto}ie. 

African. — ake. azio. tigeran. ndsa. sok. dcka. as:=rt.ir. 

,, katsara=.«/)fff/-. sio:=sivord. 

,, sukari^/viZ/i;. auchan=: knife. 

,, ziqzen=<o cut. sappe:=X'«7/«. 



bksu. 

hesq:=/o cut. 

tektii:^stone. 

sek. 

sut^s^Me. 

j^aqu=^o cut. 

Bshi-:=cirroiv. 



Aeeow. 

bow. 

stone. 

to shoot. 

bird? 

lance. 

offspring. 

bow-stone. 



A.XE. 

knife. 

hatchet. 

spear. 

stone. 

to cut. 

dagger. 

saw. 



Chinese. — kek. 

TJgi'o-Altaic. — gi. 'kara^^lad. bakkcka=W«(;i-. 

Coptic. — krh. cushe. 

Assyrian. — tabachii. aku^ivicl:ed. 

„ bi'shu=i(7f7. siimu. 
Italian. — scTci-z^evcninff. 
Celtic. — ce. ciar. dorch=:W«fZ,-. 
French. — soir. 
Sanskrit. — qyama^JfocZ,-. 
African. — oru. 6kiui-:=niff/it. tuku. zu. 

,, eso ; sitan:=rfej-/7. 



krh. 


Night 


xemii=J«rZ. 


black. 




dark. 




bad. evil ? 




devil? 




shade. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



174 



LiBTAN 




Caucasian and 


American. 




AND Berber. 


Basque. 


Armenian. " A." 


North. CuNTiiAL.t South 


# 


kous. 


aztayu. 


muswilde. 


za.f tzeika.* 




eknu. 




"A." ujed. 


siii.f 






amczrag. 


iztoa. 


isari. 


pes. us. za.-\=.iota. 




tiyizM^stonc. 


gezia. 


bzey 


casii'i.* se-a-pa=««e. 




izzh=$fone. 


asta, — roch. utonc. 


sze=sfow«. 


tzah. iss-shah. 




s\isu=^lird. 


sayeta. 
aitz=.s/o«e. 


zhair— stone. "A." 


itz*— stone hiife. 




tadgenouts. 


aiztoa^inife. 


haschti. 


itzf—Jlint knife. 




takiiba^sifo/-*?. 




tsao=X-«//«. 


tzah^arrow. zaj^^bow. 




aizkora=«.re. 


iztoa^arroio. 


jccchj ; chamii^hii/e. 


ah-so. se-a-j)ii^axe. ayri.* 




azgar=sji;««/'. 




si;h^knife. 


tck]ic:=hiife. sah:=stone. 




piida=:(r.i'«. 


haizkora. 


thiak "A." —shovel. 


txik'h.^cnife. tsai=:stone. 




asga.r:=tree. 




i^'d^sicord. 


itak ; sawa ; taque^sfowe. 




tacliacourt=:fl.r«. 


samm^sJiarp. 


(ia.r-=rock. " A." 


cutaf=fo cut. k'dk=^sto7ie. 




fellck=fo cut. 




zxi\i^=ri.fo. 


cao-sa-que:=«.c«. 




athaganz=sivord. 




szo ; shuv^stone. 






mokas^scissors. 




isari^nrrow. 






takukii^mvord. 




katzin. "A." 






segzcm^to cut. 




dabar. "A." 






eg'zem=<o cut. 










khetzem | , 

sekhtsen 










circumcise. 










ith. iilh. 


balcha. 


shiirdo. sari. 


yami.* sui.t ta\i=hlacl:. 
se-swek. kacho. 




dori=iffl(?. 


gau. 


ccyci. iici. 


akahha.f za.* ati:=bad. 
kaka=Joc?. 




tcbrekt=:W«('^'. 


char=iff(?. 


ghame. Icet. 
key-shey. surdo. 


tah. yacy.* huizai.* 
kaak. oca.f^black. 
aya*=zj>riin. 
ch.ama,cha*=zblack. 




ikme:=f< hurts. 




gisher. ("A.") sen. 






[i=zhad me). 




scmy=llack. "A." 
jcs=bad. 







175 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SumDEX. 


Egtttia^'. 


English. 


Phoenirian.- — melck^liiiff. 


axa. 




Geeat. 


TJgro-Altaic— bar. aglia. ar—maHi/. 








Amhaiic. — amlak. 


mnx. 




stronger 7«V//(. 


Sanskrit. — iwva^iiffh. malia. 








Assyrian. — madu. rabu. arkh.u-:=back. 


Tir. 




bill. 


AccacHan. — mabg. aka. 








Greek. — fic/ai. 






mucb. many. 


Hebrew. — rabb. 








Celtic. — mor. ovda—JiiffJi. mad—ffood. bor. rak. \m=^high. 






good ? 


Afi'ioan. — baka. 6kc=^iiiouHfam. 






God? 


Assyrian. — bel. ilu. sbarru=/L-»(y. elu=(/reat ; high. 


bua. 




God. 


Accadian. — ana. 








Cbinese. — \mz^s])irit ; man. 


aba. 




great. 


Arabic. — AUab. 








Hebrew. — va\)\i^great. 


axa= 


great. 


good. 


Phffinician. — nielek=^'/«^. 








Ugro-Altaic. — Jomala. a^a—greaf. ala. jcn. 






king. 


Celtic. — rigb ; ri\k=grcat\ God. aou=good. o\=high. 








„ cun=:/««^. 






ruler. 


Etruscan. — An. 








Aniharic. — Jazer. zcr. csgcr. alia? bago=yoorf. 






strong. 


,, amlukr=^r««^. 








Slavonic. — Perrun. czar=Zv'Hy. 








African — oba. oluru. akay=(7»V/. kank. hou. 




• 




Ugro-Altaic. — kur. agha=great. dagb. tan. 


mnx= 


=great. 


MOTJNIAIN. 


,, syra. kar. tar. as;ni=summit. 








Sanskrit. — giri. Zend. — bara. 


axa= 


high. 


rock ; bill. 


Accadian. — kur. tag^rock. 








Assyrian. — niadu=^;'(>ff^ tillu. arku:=irti7i'. 


men. 




great; bigb. 


Celtic. — man. niacn. ol=hi'gh. dag=:good, great. 








,, tyr. toiT. tur. 


aar=; 


roclc. 


back, strong. 


Hebrew. — hor. barr. 








Anibaric. — tarara. ta\ak=great. 


qa. 




stone. 


Lap. — ware. 








Indian. — kob. 






bead. neck. 


Latin. — altus=7(/j7(. mons. 






. 


Coptic. — tu. 






b(]rn. tope. 


African. — okc. ora. boro. goro. baka. 








Celtic. — (juacb. bacbla. 


.akana 




Pot. 


Latin. — tassa. poculum. 








Sanskrit. — kalasa. 


kellu. 




cup. can. Jug. 


African. — ako. doko. koko. saku. ize. kika. 










aqt. 




eartbenwarc. crock. 




hek= 


to drinl;. 


boakcr. vase. 



A nilLOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



176 



Libyan and 




Caucasian and 


American. 


Berbeu. 


Basque. 


Abilenian "A." 


North. CENTKAL.t South.* 


mek.=ffreat. 


acn=s/ronff. 


atto. dagh=^47/. 


aach^much. orcu.* 




handi. ) 
andia. ) 


])ari=//ow/. "A." 


liaccba.* da.f vha^strong. 


alai=:/(/y7(. 


tuk. didi. 


bitka=//(V//(. (jglia=yo(i?. 




on^ffood. 


mrigbla=///(//(. 


atun. mie(:k*=::»«McA. 


rab. macifir. 


1 larria. 


har^moKiitidn. "A." 


maebi=mMc7j. 




ar=«w«y. 


attu=/»>//(. 


mauaho.f nob.* aach=:^much. 


ikoolia. 


mon^>oiver. 


bartyxr^/i/y/i. 
tai^hiffh. 


hatun.* ukku.* oki=:yo(/. 


8't=stronff. 








■ a\.o.v=Lhigh. 


imquc. 


magbla=/»V?A. 


ano=s^y ? god. eose. 






ashtwad. "A." 


macbi=»(Mc/i. 


nhou—ffood. 


ja'inco. '1 
jincoa. ) 


kysser. saal. zalla. 


hiwyz^greaf. isa^great. 




g'merti. Imri^r/ood. "A." 


qyvAWi^good. 'k\mia\^:=good. 


rah=greaf. 




kargi=yoo(/. 


sillo*=47rt;'. 




ona=i70o^/. 


ioru=" the strong one." 


'ku=zrock. (|uallif =1/00(7. 


rougli. 




yal\Az:zshj ? 


bapcba*=:_'//r«<. 




am=«6'(/«y. 


astowadz=(/o(?. "A." 


ogba. kou=f/oo(7 ; sim. 


guellid. 




tcr=Iord. "A." 


kuan. ajar.* ayar*^e/»>/. 






dal. &iia-=.great. 


cacique =(7(/f/. 


m'koom. 




jomu. jen. 


Purruna-minari *z=god. 
isb=<"/jiV/. ogba. oki. 


amgher— ruler. 








ikhoo ha=^greaf. 








mek^=ffreat. 


acii=.s//-o»y. 


maghla — high. 


abbi. or.* orcu.* da.f tee. 






aito— great. 


cbahta. aach.:=grcat. 


urar. abar. 


arn^sione. 


mta. zbair. " A." 


quaubtki.* at\m=great. 






aitA=^high. dor^stone. 


sah=sfo«(!. kub=.s/o»e. 


tigbilt. izzii. 


mcndi. 


pil. tar. kua. 


te^stotie. kn^roc/c. 






tag ? 'kh'di^sfonc. 


te'pe^rock ; stone. 


alai:=hiffh. 


torrea — tower. 


tagberz. tukt. 


mieck=«iMfA. tete.* 






tan. 


kaac. tuk^rofT;. toak=:7»y7;. 


azron. alai. 


&sia-=^rock. 


bans. "A." 


pata.* bitka^/ifV/Zi. taxi^reat. 






kar ; knr=/i;7/; rod: 


nkku*=/i/y/i ; great. 


atbraar. 




Ijcarn. "A." dar. "A." 
dagb. gori. nitlii. 


h.acch.a*=^great. 


tadak. 




rka:=/ior«. 




akenseh. 


belze. 


tds. 


tzsy. huakkura.* 


aeoukal. 


bat. kikera. 




tecomatl.f kaka.* 
euak ; akaz^icaier. 


axin. 


uaharka^rt re- 
ceptacle for icater. 






bukul. 









23 



177 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SuifDET. 


Egyptian. 


English. 


Coptic. — teu. 

Sanskrit. — vayu. am ? yac^^to speah. 

Celtic. — avel. aog. gwyn. 

Chinese. — ki^?2/«; spirit. 

Kurile. — keeru. 

Ugro- Altaic. — charru. mese. 

Assp-ian. — shai-u. 


'ka^soiil. 
meh. mai. 
anx=?*/e. 


■Wind. 
air. breath, 
spiiit ; life, 
ghost. 


Accadian. — mat=Jf/r^. miid=:Woo(?. 

Arabic. — maut. mat. 

Sanskrit. — niri ? m.A\.a=^sacriJice. kala. 

Assyrian. — mutu. 

Etruscan. — cul^death-spirit. 

Lycian. — guar. 

Celtic. — most. maw. abhaU. 

Latin. — mors. 

Amharic. — mot. 

Lithuanian. — mirti. 

Slavonic. — mrch. 

African. — m-mut. mota. 


mem. 
mt. 
mer. 
chemi=iflf/. 


Death. 
tomb, 
corpse, 
kill; die. 
to buiT. bad. 


Amharic. — tshawoo. 
Slavonic. — soly. 
French. — miel. 
TJgro-Altaic. — sioh. 
Sanskrit. — skan:=^o shine. 
Latin. — sal. saccharum=s«<^ar. 
Afiican. — etsa. 




Salt. 

white. 1 
shining. ) 

sugar ? 
sacchaiine. 


Etruscan. — so ? 

Asspian. — sarpa^icJiite. 

Slavonic. — sniegas. 

Greek. — x"""- 

Sanskrit. — sara? 

Celtic. — llyr^ ice. 

Ugro-Altaio. — suT=zice. tuit. bus. 

Afiican. — etsa. nsalo — salt. 


&h.-a.=^shining . 


Snow. 

ice ; hail. 

salt? 

white. ) 
shining. ) 


Assyrian. — sumku. sharku^fV/ior. 

Indo-Chinese. — htscilin. swe. zoit. 

Aniharic. — dam — biood. yakala — red. 

Arabic. — qidab. 

Kurd. — sarch. 

Slavonic. — schcrmo. Rerdtzay=/(Crt/-('. werri. 

Celtic. — gwar. siol. kahm^ heart. 

Accadian. — nhng^heart. y.i=.life. 

TJgi-o-Altaic. — 'iy.\\\'w=heart. chim. •\ycYQm-=.rcd. 

Afiican. — yelo. dsi. dseli. esi. 


tehcr=>-(?(^. 


Blood. 
red. 
heart. 



A PIlILOLOaiOAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



178 



Libyan and 
Beebek. 


Basque. 


CATJrASIAN AND 

Akmenian. "A." 


Amf.ricax. 
North. CENTUAL.t South.* 


athou. atu. 
ameT=.life. 
a:ich=:life. 


htAsa^reath. 

aizia. 

aiz. 


moch. 
gun. kari. 
gi'ank ; Vc^ife. 
hog'ra. "A." 


where, iki. yam. 
vaherc. vateca.* tokhu. 
sah. she. ik.f yah. 
yoli=/*/«. {auk-^hotise.) 


mouts. 

immct=:/ie died. 
azekka, — fomh. 
mimet ? 


U. 

erio. 

o\ii=:tomh. 

TiSi\m-=twiUgJit. 


mah. "A." 
chand. mokluli. 
t;hana. 

thal-cl=^ hmj. 
dovf-dcvil. "A." 


mciuil. mulki*=w»;«wy. 
mou. mutu.f oiigul. 
mietlan.f muluf=:rfmf^. 
du. kloma=:^ kill. 
tlacaf=i(Y»-. 
mea. mulu. 

mara*:=te kill, miijui.f 
meme. nakani=fo Icill. 
huanu*=^o die. mui=fJOWO«. 


tesint. 
molil. 
soucheTz=su(;ar. 


gatz. 


zam. zogho. 
shoogoo. shug. 


shukesh. sheh-eh. tipi. 
sachi.* skuhosh. oh-zel=«'eg. 
iztal.f iztao ; Hhotto:=white. 
shmaa=s«o/;>. 
sivhik^stvecf. zak-\=^ivhite. 


zanu. 


lei=:w«. 


tziun. "A." 
ziwa=:w?f?. 
t'owli. se. 
law. ten. 
kis. sar=/cc. 
schorak^(<.7i(Y«. 


sikkoo. kkasa.* kais. 

zahs. kharsa. 

koyal. 

toosha. rassu.* 

yolii. shotto; zi\k\^=white. 


dzeggayh — red. 
idammen. 
axel. ehm. 
zoqur=r«(^. 


odola. 


sis'chli. sherd, bi. 
v.rki=:heart. 
ariun. ("A.") 
zirt.=/iefi)i. "A." 
hin. klch. sar. 
schita; syrch-=red. 


zahhuar.* yahwa.* (Quichua.) 
cuallo.* xylitz.f eeh. 
estah^icaii. 
sutsa:=r«rf. estli.* zeh. 
zihtz.* rylitz.f qhi.f 
tshal:=re^. hah^ieart. 



179 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Stjitdet. 


Egyptian. 


English. 


Celtic.- — pysq. Assyrian. — nunu. Hebrew. — nun. 
TJgro-Altaic. — tyg. Accatlian — gba. 
Arabic. — samak. Greek. — ixOvf. 
Slavonic. — zuwik. ryba. Amharic. — assa. 
African. — somba. assur. sie. eya. zemi. suwa. 


samen. 
nar. 
bari. 
auav. 


Fkh. 

char? 
herring ? 


Lithuanian. — shuns. TJgro-Altaic. — koy. 
Amharic. — wosha. Slavonic. — pesia. psit. 
Celtic. — ^u. ky. huad. 
Sanskrit. — kukkura=9van. 
African. — kere. kura. hara. sii-ku. 


uher. 
au. 
shat. 
k.a,=ideer. 


Dog or Cue. 

hovuid. 
jackal ? 
jaguar? 


Camil, etc. 

Koriac. — gama=/ior.!!C. 
Thibet. — rama^wiM goaf. 

„ Tua.mo= female camel. 
Coptic. — j amoul . 
Egyptian. — kamaar. 

,, t'am^/;'o«. 
Libyan. — alom. 
Caucasian. — kan=co?<'. 

„ lomi=//o». 
Aniharic. — laam^roii'. 
Assyrian. — gammalu. 

„ Aa.m=j)iff. 
Arabic. — dalul. 
Hebrew. — gamal. 

,, ha-mur=67((;-«.M. 
Mongol. — temo. 
Japanese. — kuma=iwr. 
Georgian. — aklcmi^camel. 
South American. — llama. 
Central „ phane^/(orsc ? 
Ugi'o-Altaic. — emii — cotv. 
Mantshu. — 'kom^ffoat. 
A frican. — kom — leojjard. 

,, kama=//oM. lalom. 

„ Icmcnc^sJiei'jj. 

,, gombe:=eo«'. 


Greek. — x°'P°^- sus. 
Latin. — ^porcus. 
Persian.— takah. guras. 
Polynesian. — puaka. 
Celtic. — muo. uLrceau. giiis. 
African. — ogoro. 


kaari^ffoaf. 


Pig. 

hog ; boar, 
pecbary. 


Sanskrit. — aja. 

Latin. — hircus. Greek. — ai^. 

Celtic. — poo. -pocaa^zhe-ffoat. 

Egj-ptian. — an^u. 

Dra vidian. — -piicu^cow. 

Mongol. — akse. 

African. — aku. ba. 


ka=oi-. 


Goat. 

deer, 
buck. 


Accadian. — lu. 

Ugro-Altaic. — kar. osch. 
Malay. — lemhn^catlle. 
Celtic. — choi. caor. uan. 
Amharic. — laam^coio. 
African. — lemcne=s/((r^j. 
„ onaz=s7ieej). kara^^doff. 


ar=^deer. 

kaari^ffoat. 

serau. 


Sheep. 

buck ? 

ram. 

lamb. 


Sanskrit. — go. nkshan. 
Persian. — quarch ? 
Celtic. — vioch. bugh. bo. 

,, ta.rw:=bi(ll. 
Ugro-Altaic. — osch. 

,, chjaiia (Fin.). 
Amharic. — la. para. 
Coptic. — bahsi. 
Accadian. — darjL=sta(/. 
African. — esu. la. 

„ okoi. tura, — hull. 


ka-hull. 

kaul=('0i«. 

khu:=(/w/% 


Cow. 

bull ; ox. 

buffalo. 

calf. 


Accadian. — lu=generic term for animal? 
As.syrian. — sisu. kur. Hebrew. — sus. 
Arabic. — ayir=::a6s. Lithuanian. — azvra. 
Turkish. — at. ismi. Andiaric. — fcras. acliya^(rs.t. 
Persian. — asper. az=ffoaf. African. — so-sa. la; \o—coiv. 
(See elsewhere, p. 123.) 


ses? 
as=iswift. 


HOESE. 

ass. 
donkey. 


Japanese. — taoullao=/(r?/Y. 




Hake. 

rabbit. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



180 



Libyan and 

BEKJiliK. 


Basque. 


Caucasian and Armenian. 
"A." 


Ameeican. 
North. CuNTUAL.f South.* 


semm. 


arran. 
arrai. 
arraya. 


gar. awar. 
tcwsi. tsebua. 
tsugu. "A." 


gua.* boua.* (SE.) 
horan.* bua. 
kay,* ican. beika. 


taidit. 
akjouin. 
aidi. 
takjoun. 


potsoa. 
ora. or. 
zakur. 
(arari=r«w..) 


kbar. kyen. 
goglori. pubu. 
zagbli. 
scbou. "A." 
gai[=ivolf. "A." 


aucha ;* ahurara ;* aiiaia^-tapir. 
jagonara.* yabuar.* 
zabrceti. skari. sbonk. 
shakba. kakba. hiyu. 
oher. y a ware.* shonka. 
ja.-ha=tvolf. keikuc.* 
zabbuar=Woo(?; savage animal. 


ilif. ilfan. 
alkonk = young 

pig- 


urde. cbcrria. 
{j&ca.— monkey.) 


bniti. buobon. 
g'ori. cham. 
boton. 
cboz. "A." 


kuchi.* bocto.* 
pukurrrZo^. 
yuk:=/wy. pecebari.* 


tayhat. 
asolaq. 


auntza. 
akcr^ie-goat. 


tsetkli. t'cba. 
iremi=stey ; luck. 
touri ? 


paca.*aucba.* ytuchi.* 
huaca.* — tnrncii*=zluck. 


tickbsi. 
onlli. ana. 
ikerri, akra =; 
ram. 


chikbiro. lo. 
ardia. ardi. 
acYmrrvA^amb . 
abari=rrtw(. 


ocbkbar. " A." 
aru. "A." 
garn^/rtWiJ. "A." 
tzkwari. maki. "A."? 
hcene. 


ccaura.* raccu.* uan.* 
taruca.* wild sheej} ; buck. 
Uama..*— lama. 


azquar=JMW. 
tafoiinest. 
esek=icalf. 
ti\.om.=icamel. 


oroch=;o.c. 

idia. 

usurgbo. 

beya^co^r. 

zei'ena=:Ji(/iJ. 


aklami^camel. 
kuro=('ff//'. oscb. 
garn=/(irOTJ. " A." 
kbari. puri. 
ought— camel. "A." 
ezT\=zox. "A." 
jesb. kov. "A." 
auroch ? 
gegQW— cattle. "A," 


kha^^bufalo cow. 

movsbati=S?</^rt/o. 

llama=^(H/i«. 


aoudion. ais. 
agmali. asis. 
amlekkek=«.s.s. 
azad=as«. 


zaldia. 
aston, — ass. 


tscbu. la. tzi. "A." 
zebcni. gau. sehu. 
gari ; csh=:«s«. 
koto. guri. 


kuss. nau. 
phane.* 


aoutal. 
(oulli=.?/((?(?/)). 


erbia. 




to-a-tu-end. tuvu. 
tocbl.* TO. 



181 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUNDET. 


Egyptian. 


English. 


Japanese. — kiima= lear. Latin. — ursa= J^sr. 
Celtic. — arth= hear. Greek. — ai>fcTo<i = benr. 
Hebrew. — tannin ? 
Afiican. — adsa — rZo^?. 'kama— lion. Vova — leopard. 


labu. tam. 


Lion. 
Beak. 
Wolf. Fox. 


Persian. — azder. Assyrian. — siru. 

Greek. — ocpa. African. — zabe. zewe. sa. osi. kali. 


sep. 


Snake. 
adder, asp. fish? 


Persian. — miesh=^esA. sehmast= milh. 

Latin. — siligo = rye. 

Assyrian. — .sheru. 7,\v\\=8ccd. seiim ; waia.v\i=ioheat; corn. 

,, '\tt\\ = wheat. seethe= to cooi. s\ieru=Jlesh. 

„ shisbu=)»/tt. 
Hebrew. — maimah '? desh.e= grass. 

Celtic. — ]eaz = maize? segal=rye. min. raa.a = food; meal. 
Amharic. — mekeb = food. sendea = wheat. 
Accadian. — zi. she. usu. Polynesian. — m'ia. = food. 
Arabic. — zara = maizey Tnz=rice. fihair=larlei/. maka? 
Greek. — a/iroi^bread. aap^^ flesh. 

Chinese. — mi=rice. Lithuanian. — may sc thread. 
Afi'ican. — sikawa ; sinkal — orrYs. sauyo. si. sa. gussa. 

,, masa. znai = maize. marmi. oka. maniac. 

,, osese=Jlesh. mi=w»7Z,-. 


maku. 

ak=hread. 

sekt. 

sha. 

sa. 

xer. 

shames. 

snu. 

maku. 

seht. 

sens. 

uahit=wheat. 


Food. 

maize, 
seseme. 
corn, millet, 
milk ; flesh, 
egg; bread, 
to eat. 
wheat, 
mouth ? 
rice. cake, 
seed, grain, 
leaf. 


Greek. — koi\o9. 7riH\>]=gate. Latin. — bncca. 
Celtic. — gacta=(7«to. ceg. cean. 

,, 'k\\ = enclosure. eyl ; cnTU = hollow. 
Sanskrit. — mnkha. ku\^a=hole. Accadian.— ka. ku. 
Ugro-Altaic. — ku. khakan. karu = fo eat. 
Coptic. — hd\'k = curved. Amharic. — shamak. alu? 
Dravitlian. — kappu = navel. Turkish. — kapou =^(rto. 
African. — mokomo. ku. eku. kapu = ««cc/. 

,, ko. shu. mosuk ; ena. ubor= f/oor. kana. dsi. da. 


ken. 

qer= hole? inside. 
ka=to speaJc 
xapa =<!«!'; navel. 


Mouth. 

lip. 
to eat. 
circle. 

vaUey, hole, 
door ; gate ? 


Assyrian. — eYdu=promtnence. kalu = fo spea/c. 
French. — manger= to eat. Tungus. — mua. 
Latin. — collum = wcf^-. lingua. German. — ]ia.\s,=throat. 
Accadian. — eme. Turkish. — dil. 
Arabic. — lisan. g'uiscl = ««(?/,tc. Amliaric. — mclas. 
E. Tartar. — ilengu. ■pe[=ear. Celtic.— liab. 
Thibetan. — sbrul = stialce. 

African. — cnu = mouth. tele. bele. elc. nene. 
,, ulime. telam. halla. 


nes. 


Tongue. 

throat? ear. 
snake? leaf? 


Litliuauian. — barzda. Celtic. — sioch. 

Chinese. — sha. Hebrew. — se'Civ=hcad. 

Accadian. — sag = head. sig. Arabic. — suf. sha. 

Amharic. — tsequr. shar. Sanskrit. — (;h-aR=/iead. keqa. 

Ugro-Altaic. — saz. sharp. 

Assyrian. — .shartu. ret^hi^head. siiknu^ heard. 

African. — kun.si. sitsi. asi. ziro. suki. neuch. sak. zau. 


sah. 
Ishaau. 
s'nu. 
setert. 


Hair. 

wool. head, 
tress, beard. 
top. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



182 



Libyan and 






Ameeican. 


Bebbee. 


BASftUE. 


Caucasian and "Aemenian." 


NOKTH. CENTKAL.t SoDTH.* 


izem. 


Icoya. 


ariaj. lomi. ars. 


llama^fowa. jmiua.* 


oughclicn. 


aztza. 


datiii. (arch. "A.") 


euitlamiztli j^lcopard. 


iikab=/oiC. 


otsoa. 


mgeli. gheli. (kaU. "A.") 


matto. monk, mci^rapa. 








tiimmo. chula=:/o;r. 


azrem. 


suge. 


gweli. (ots. "A.") 


qactzali j^serpent-ietnple. 






tcwsi=/sA. 


sebh. shahdce. 


senger. senusen 


■ai'xrai\a.:=.lread,. 


marmm^_;?M7j. 


mahi; manka — maize. 


■=.millet. 


bihi:=(W«. 


swili ; syl^/«a««. 


swpia— egg. 


zarkoxm^oat. 


ogiiie=foY«(^. 


c'horzi^/fesA. pu. 


siji ; nmhiz^maize. 


isan. Z([ucr=: 


esnca^wi/tt. 


misch=/fs/t. "A." 


maina* (Carib). 


fiesh-mcat. 


xiioa.-=.h-ead. 


mau=:i/'c«(7. 


ptchomi=i/-p«fZ. 


timzin. cous. 


gazta=;cA«M«. 


marz-n"ali^.stfefZ. 


sagua=/m/. 


temasm=J«/-%. 




mikel. mak. 


ashkunai=//(?,sA. 


etteh=fo eat. 




nxxna^milh. 


■miiz([iutlf ^^cocoa-nut. 


amar^ threshing- 




tshakna \ 


Tsuxvaiik^sugar-cane. 


floor. 




tshcib [ hreaA. 


sa,nkii*= maize-2}uddi?ig . 


emeiidi=2t'A««<. 




hatz. "A." ) 


stai^to eat. 






scz^f/rass; herbage. 


thukma.f tzoma^fo bake. 






matzom=im ilk. 


sara=?««2se. 






tzQVi^egg. " A." 




izi. imi. 


aboa. 


Vwi— valley. 


rakka*=:«'o»iJ ; hole, suni.* 


S!s!aX\^vaqiiia. 


chilkua=M«t'<'/. 


shey. dzch. 


shiim. so. ca.* sun. 


takna=a)M«. 


ata=^«fe. 


haku schsche. 


pupii=: ««)'(;/. tek*=:fo eat. 


taghouzi. 


cbuloa=/io?«. 


kaaL kol. 


okkoti*^aims. ehi.f 


eguzi^/(o?«. 


alioL 


kawar^c/Vffe. "A." 


hutc'cu*:=/(o/e. Ya:=mo2tth. 




zulou:=/to?«. 


koko. Q\\s\=znavel. 


moopec^wosc. nacazf=:ertr. 






\n\=throat. "A." 


hoI=:/io/e. kama.f 






mukam. 


hikka.* shommak.* vii;. 






t'awi=^/(yort;. 


goztif=f7oo/-. simi.* 


iles. elis. 


Tningafia. 


mushull. ucn. 


khollu.* bal. ekh. 


'\m\^mowth. 




k-zju. "A." 


mmu.* nenat. 






duUa. (Daoian). 


ipile. ulue. 






gweli :=s««X-«;. 


atla. pallit=?e«/. leej=leaf. 






ena. mot. 


del. pena. 






qncli— throat. 


qhane.f tenilla.-f- 






maat. uina. 




char. 


khuma. 


her. ("A." shara.) 


kaskus iska^head. 


zaden. 


adaz. 


suz. shatz. 


soz.f tusii.f skhatso=^ca(;?. 


i-klif. 


bizarra:=5ear(?. 


vaornik^head. 


taesh. suga. cuca. socca.* 




iUe. 


shha=/;rarf. toma. 


coh. tzotz.* 'kah=z/iead. 






.'iar^ /o/j. shazey. 


ikah^head. si.f tutsh^head. 






ser; kah ; isa, — head. 





183 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



StTNDET. 


Egsiptian. 


English. 


Latin. — nasus=«os(!. 


anx- 


Eak. 


Fin. — korwa. 






Assyrian. — uznu. 




nose? 


Turkish. — dil=tonffue. 






Australian. — kure. 




conk (nose), lug. 


Celtic— tud. 






Sanskrit. — karna. 






Amliaric. — izuc ? 






Afiican. — ocua. hana. 






Etruscan.— zia? "B." 


ta=^face. 


Head. 


Sanskrit. — qiras. 


xi^^roof. 




TJgro-Altaic. — keel. 


Isbaau. 


face. top. 


Celtic. — kloigeau. stiur. pen. baic. baghar. 


sahz^/udr. 


neck ? bair. 


Ambaric. — ras=^top. 


tep. 


bigb. poll. 


Arabic. — ra's. 


tata. 


skull. 


Asspian. — kakkadu. sbadu^wecX-. resbu. 


kai. 




African. — ori. ka. gika. klogo. ire. kala. to. isi. ku. 






Litlmanian. — akis. 


mer. 


Ete. 


Arabic. — ayn. eu. TiOOT=.liglit. 


nennu=^o see. 




Etruscan.— sa. "B." 


sbu=//y/(^ 


light. 


Assyrian. — enu. sig. nm-\i=^liffht. 






Hebrew. — ayn. 




to see. 


Ugro-Altaic. — sei. kus. 






Cbine.se. — zi. di. nye ? 




sky? 


Burmese. — nab^fa;-. 






Sanskrit. — acbsbi. iksb. nayana. netra. 




ken ; scan. 


Celtic. — s'uil. 






African. — ze. diz. liso. nya. ili. an. ku. yi. nun. 






„ nite. anku. nuku. 






Ugro-Altaic. — pia. posa. 


anx^ear. 


Nose. 


Ambaric . — afinka. 


'ka^^hreath. 




Aecadian.— pi. Arabic. — adan. 


fent. 


pug ? conk. 


Coptic. — sba. Celtic. — sron. 




peak. 


African. — bangi. cbanga. kindsa. 




ear? 


Assyrian. — sikkalu=J<;«i. akaluzzzto eat. kamu:=Aon». 


tes. 


Tooxn. 


,, t1imini:=hard. 






Ambaric, etc.- — ters. sin. azent. 


kcs=Jtf«<;. 


fang, teeth. 


Latin. — dens ; dentis. French. — ong\c=z)>aiI. 




tine. btac. 


Arabic. — rca'q^Aorw. sin. 




beak; horn. 


Celtic. — gbabal ; adharc ; piacal=:io«c. dant. dyns. 




tusk, ivory. 


"Ugro-Altaic. — tang. saw. sior. tez. 




to peck ? 


San.skrit. — \a.'krd=airved. danta. ak=<o cut ; bite. 




hard ? 


African. — pak. son. diso. oko. sosoen. esi. ckki. aku. 




curved. 


,, kaug. soku ; aku; oso=io»«. 




tear; bite. 



A PIIILOLOOIfAL TABLE OF ACCORDANX'ES. 



184 



Lybyan and 

BERIiEK. 


Basque. 


Caucasian and 

AltllENI.W. "A." 


American. 

North. CENTUAL.f SorTii.* 

E.=Easto£ S.A. 


imoj. 

atrik. (pi.) 
icni^muitth. 
ukkcga. 


bolarria. 
cbilkua=»f«r^. 


taku. mall. quri. 
bauka. een. an. 
quiri. kbuz. 
ounkn. "A." 
akancLk. "A." 


iniri. gu.j- okak:=<o«yM«. 
atowocgic. nami.* 
iaco-=.nose. nacaz.f nacat. 
taurike.* (S.E.). ucbo. 
cnahiri.* to-wrig. ckh.-=.tongue. 


ikkif. 

chav=hair. 
azron. izzu = 
hill. 


burn a. 


tbawi. .'ibka. kab. 
zbaii-=;u7;; rock. "A." 
sbio. za. ser. 
chuscba. t'awi. 
tala. topti. 
glaukb. "A." 
isa. korte. tare. 

ZUZ^/irt/r. 


thie-si. V&Vh&-=z peak. 
sabuk.* siacan. sab. 
psho. pakshu. ikab. 
huba'^'" (E.). poke. pah. 
skbatso. toro.f yaeae.* 
cbola. atsi.* pan. tatsb. 
iska. pto. asbaggee. ija.* 
taesb=:7;ff(>. 
cuca^/irt/r. a<-u.f 
ca=Aa/r. tepe:=;'0('X- ; hill. 


titb. (?-sit.) 
baba. 
zig. \ 
zer. 1 , 
tbil. =^<' '"'■ 
ouali. j 


bcgi. beguia. 
iz&^sl-y ; day. 
ukisi=fo see. 

akn%—to see. 


mib. nee. cem. 
nob. "A." 
tsasto. 
asa. t'wali. 
kannu. beer. ya. 
akn. atcbk. ""A." 
anc. 


naa.f nage. naui. 

sesa.* sin^^o see. nakay. 

ne.* piisiki. ngc.* 

ila.f slillu. uill. ol. 

tesa. tzie. bunnab. 

into.* sikoho * mata.* (E.). kassee. 

kannab. gbual.* 

sab. asu. seila=sty. 

skissuga. zak.f zhig=skij. 


auzaren ) 
=:tankarcn ? i 
tagbandjoiu't. 


.sudurra. 


akanclik=;w. "A." 
kith. "A." ouncb. "A." 
peck. peb. unc. 
fuuz. fijidsc. 
sunisub. sahwiri. 


cenka.* bcnka.* 

uk. taco.* (tacu— /bo<). 

pcua;* ekh:=^o«y«e. 


akarmoiin^ 
beak. 

onglan. 
igaes—tusk. 
senn. 
igBi=bo>ie. 


( esiir=3o«e. 
1 <iz\\Yva,^bone. 
iskon^iclaw. 
moko^^bcdh. 
kas; adar^/(c;-». 
hortza=^o//i. 


Tka.=^bone\ horn. 

likka=Jo«e. 

•i\&\l\^bone. 

kibiri. 

dzeb. zib. 

AwaXi^bone. 

sibi. pitz. 

dendag. siw. 

atamn. "A." 

egbchiiu'^/^orw. 


huakra*=:Jo?ic maquar. 
pakh; ouna:=io»e. 
saca.* dza.* (E.). tzi.f 
sanna.* (S.E.). 
tulla^ioM«. kcbaka.* 
garra.* elesa. 

icare.* (E.). nacha*=<;o?«i. 
tanus.* tong. itsa. 
ba-okah. 



21 



185 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDA^X•ES. 



SUXDET. 


Egyptian. 


English. 


Greek. — x"^'/'- Etruscan. — max^^fuffer. 


ker^^o carrg. 


TTand. 


Slavonic. — rcka. 






Chinese. — di ; chi — finqcr. 


ket=7M«;. 


paw. palm. 


Assyrian. — idu. qatu. t^\:=finfjer. makhani^^o seize. 






TJgro-Altaic. — katal. kal. ki. 


xebt. 


to give ; take. 


Accadian. — da. ti. gu. Malay. — kaki=/oo^. 






Celtic. — hrak = arm. 


tot. 


fist, fingers. 


Amharic, etc. — id. edsh. 






Mongol. — gar. 




to point. 


African. — ma; mok — j)ahn. lika — ^c/^/w. koka — foot. 






,, koko^7(«;;r7. ekkaki. koa. pcka. ikn^Jinger. 




arm. foot. 


Sanskrit. — kara. angTila:=:_;?«(/er. (\ik^point. 




1; and 10? 


Sanskrit. — pada. Malay. — kaki. 


pet. 


Foot. 


Slavonic. — noga. imk-A^mnd. 






Assyrian. — alaku=/o go. shepu=/oo<. 


xet- 


ancle ? 


Hebrew. — herech^/iV/ctf. 




leg. toes. 


Amharic, etc. — igger. kurah. 


tot ; kat= 7; (/«(/. 


shin. 


Celtic. — cik. ped. uk. kos=%. 




paw ? 


Persian. — lacht= %. 




shank. 


Afiican. — keka. laku. magiini. keka. Uka — palm. 




to kick ; walk, 
to go. run. 
pact, hand ? 
5. 10. 


Hehrew. — tsohar=%7(i. esh=_^r<;. ajm=e>/c. 


ses^ dag. 


Sky. Day. 


Amharic. — scmmi. asat^JJre. 






Etruscan. — " Br." tina. zens=sJci/-goil ? 


harxi^dag. 


light. 


„ thesiin=Jire-go(l ; aurora? usil=«««. 






„ turan^/'frtr««.s ? ajtr^dai/? 


agh.:= fire. 


shine, dawn. 


Accadian. — za — brifflit. zikara. zu. an — s^i/. azag Iright. 






Assyrian. — shamii. M-\x^shine. 


t(fka=fire. 


heavens. 


Turkish. — kun. kjun=:r/rty. 






Chinese. — ti'en^.s7v/. Mongol. — tangra. 


shn^liglif. 


sun? 


San.skrit. — ahan^rA/y. svar. agni:=_^V(;. duia. 






Celtic. — twizn. aserw. deiz. 




high. 


Slavonic. — den. dziera. daan. 






Ugi'o-Altaio. — scheld. diiille. tengri. azal^.s/cy. es. 




fire? 


African.^ — sana. tsanno. zu — sun. taih — ihn/. aso. kese. 






,, \]s.a=fire. kanu. tzanna. zoo— god. 






,, geuaa:=s?<». im. semme. 






Arabic. — harq=^/-«. 


Tck^fire. 


Love. 


Assyrian. — kakkabu=«<rt?' ; fire ? 






Accadian. — zag]\=z fire. 


agli=///-(;. 


life ? to burn. 


Fin. — mnto=^ivarm. 




join? 




teka ; s\mx=fire. 


cross ; tic ? 
fire. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



186 



LriiyAN AND 




Caucasian and 


Amkrican. 


Beedeu. 


Basque. 


Aemenian. "A." 


NOBTII. CuNTHAL.t SoUTII.* 
i:. -Kastof S.A. 


afous. 


eseua. 


mntn. " X."=finger. 


iku. fnii * luuhn.-' 






pe. ki. 


kuki :=_/«(><. maitl.f 


achcra=10. 


&iz-=. fin(ji;r. 


\yA\^=Lfmyer. koda. 


maki.* maeo.f eab.f 






Ishcu. clie. ca. 


kollatat = //.v^. \vh-foot. 


idonkal=^;((/w/. 




gliob=^^ take. 


nam^finyir. fd-\^/inger. 






kach. oyg. ia. 


maeo.f 


igliill=ffn». 




\dti— finger. 


pace* lloka.* kahou.s. 






klieli. ia,t=:.palm. 


tachlli.f po*=_/w(' ; /land. 


ikmcx:=thiimb. 




tzern. "A." thath. "A." 
kukh. kwer. 


kch=:/oo<. 


atliar. 


anka. 


tklake. tic. 


pat.* caki.* 






p'cclii. 


keh. 


acliera=:10. 


zanka. 


kok. pog. 


kuki. ghica=10. 






thath. "A." 


chauka^/«/; shank. 




o'lna. 


shepeh. 


po* (E.). goca'"=/^y. 






kakh. perhi? 


tacu.* looga. taco=«ose. 




takou=(7«;<'. 


wot. "A." 


aean.f chaqui.* pi.* 






otn; otz. "A." 


tsiko. idapata.* sakhi. 


tigota,n=zkeavens. 


eguna=Af//. 


akn=:e«/e. "A." 


zima. ano. zom. zo.* 






tza. zo. zob. 


co\VL\:=fire. geshii=«i«?. 


agenna. 


a,rgi=:hrif/hf. 


sar. tcshin. 


taxah.f izGr^^star. 






za-z^heavens ; sky. 


sesa*:= <>?/«. 


guina. 


bezain ; zuri= 


siir. zata. kina. 


tani.f cini.* tash. 




u-hitc. 


d'ge; gA^zday. chu. 


uru.* kizlio=^V-(?. 


igna. ass. 




tsash. girkin. 


tikhas. tmaz^h'gJit. 




zilla=; ■?/?(■(?;•. 


ashman. 


taha^day. huenu.* ara.* 


tigot. afa. 




div; oi~ day. "A." 


tashun. yu.* chaen. 




zem^s^'y. 


h.\\\'=ifire. 


siela. tselc:=sZ,-y. sua. 


axel; as=z(J(ii/. 




tshzal. gwn-^day. 


ceska. nakhai. tagg. 




goiza—mo)-m'}iff. 


anag:=/m. 


quih=zday. zura*=white. 


tignat— ski/. 




o.v^=zheavens. 


silIof^s?(«'. cgussa*=«^«/". 




juicoa= God. 


djnan. dini. 




itzin-ik = shin iin/. 








sseru. safas. 








achk. 


eklii=_yf;-«. 


krak=>e. "A." 


a,rm\ike=zfatJier. onca^fo be. 






zezkhli=i_^/'«. 


nkbn. kun. naquem. 


regli=:^o burn. 


onctsi. 


kam=/ore. 


anak*=,/(;!'/((r. takum.*=/o Join. 






khach^«'os.s; tie. 


saka*=/(o/. taikaf =/;■«. 


eke ; ezi(l=fooZ-. 


maitatu. 


matli=ii'fl'/-w. 


tlacotlaf^/ //(•('. mcp=_;?;-«. 
mahote. kamaui*=:Zoi-e; power. 



187 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCOEDANCES. 



Sttndet. 


Egtttian. 


EifGLisn. 


Persian. — taTj. 


suax =/'■«. 


Sun. 


Koriak. — cikhi— fire. 






Hebrew. — kese^-i/won. esh^Jire. 


teka=_;?;-«. 


star. 


Celtic. — sol. tio. liaiL teine; seal=Jire. 






Ai-abic. — arisat. kasclir:=^m. 


ma=^o see. 


moon. 


Amharic. — tsai. asat=fire. 






Accadian. — azag::=briffht ; silver. 


hashar; agb=/'rc. 


fire. 


,, zaL tu. za=^hriyht. z\\^z<joId. 






Chinese. — bak=S«Z-«. tiia.o=blaze. 


saui=(/oW. 


eye. 


Ugro-Altaic. — azalr^.sZ//. toka=/?/v. iz^firc. 






,, cga^sffir. tA^siin. 




day. 


Mongol, — usika^.sYrt/'. 






Assyrian. — isbatu— A"''''- arkhu=:H(oo». 




god? 


Etruscan. — usil. eku=>»oo)». 






Sanskrit. — kastira=^/«. 




Ught. 


African. — keze. su. zo. usaua. zoo. ikiz=^J!.re. 










shining. 


Indo-Chinese. — sar. 


^n-^^light. 


SlAE. 


Celtic. — syi\ zead. seren. 






Latin. — stella. 


sai^star. 


fire. 


Arabic. — uar=/?r«. kasdir=^/«. 






Etruscan. — 0ct. set=/?/-(?. usil=i.s?(;?-. 


shet=//-«. 


sun. 


Assyrian. — ishatu=/(;v. tsaii5u=.'i//f(i;-. 






Accadian.' — za.=^lright. zig. siv^igld. 


bashar=;jf?-«. 


moon ? 


Phoenician. — zerah=;47(«. 






Greek. — anjtjp. 




Hght. 


Fin. — silmii. 






Sanskrit. — tara . mrya^swi. 




shining. 


TJgro-Altaic. — suta. tysel. zara. yildidz. kase. 






Mongol, etc. — usika. 






Hebrew . — e sh =fire. 






Persian. — sitarah. 






African. — zo=Lsim. su. &vc\.=Lsmoke. 






Australian — gille. 


aah. 


Moon. 


Assyrian. — ellu=Sr;///(i. nrkhu. 






Ethiopic and Amharic. — tslierka. alsa. 


s]m—//f/Iif. 


sun. 


Japanese.^zuki. 






TJgro-AItaic. — niano. ilio. aeo. 


ma=zto see. 


fii-e. 


Arabic. — alaaw ?=/;y'. hiliil ; shahr. 






Greek. — aeXtj mj . 


teka=:_/f;v. 


light. 


Celtic. — mos. eig. llocr. 






Slavonic. — messez. 




silver ? 


Persian. — niah. 






Latin. — argeiitum=:*(7(Y;\ 




month. 


Sanskrit. — maaii^nion/!/. 






Etruscan. — eku ; tivs=woo«. a.xVi'^-mother. 




mother ? 


African. — mocri. qucli. wvA^irc. mucsi. mazi. ali=(;y«. 










eye? 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



188 



Libyan and 
Beubek. 


Basqud. 


Caucasian and 
Aksiknian. "A." 


Ameeican. 

Nohth. CuNTiiAL.t South.* 

E.=Easto£S.A. 


aziiL ) 
tafoglit. ) 


iguski. 
I'klii. 


art-f. "A." 
marra. inzc. 


uche.*(E.). utsi. (E.) isb=/;-e. 
ceska=«/:y. gash.f 
kisiti.* (E.) hoisu.* 
kesis=^/'«. za. ieo\ =god. 


tufet. 


(ikusi=fo see). 


oki'r=yoW. khor. 


caclii* (Carib.). 


itsnrik=s!iiuiii(/. 


izv\ii=j!re. 


baak. barkh. 


quassi (S.E.). taika. 
egussa*=»<rtr (E.). 
masa ; bari = wioo». 


tigot=dai/. 


VI ; sua=/?/'^. 


bukh = ^o cool;, ardiuis. 


iakai. liaika = AV«. 


axel=(?(?y. 


izio = fo lighten. 


\)Q\)k.=eye. tcigba. 


caq iq uo* = ch icf. 
nakkai=r/(7y. arassu.* 
tma=light. sakas=^o<. 


ousal=«Vo». 


ziki =fire. 


subukia=/////(^. 


kakba= w(oo?2. islie. 

caclii* (Carib.). uasbi* (E.). 




begi =«?/«. 


ashman ; dj ch = ihnj. 

masah=H(oo«. 

kyssa=(/orf. 




itri. atur. 


izar. 


za. tsa. seta. 


tse.f siri.* zun. 


ari. 


(ilzar=/y(oo«). 


astla. "A." 


taosi. sillo.j- ari*=;«oo» (E.). 


tisivi= moon. 


zillar=«(7('cr. 


ali=_^re. 


yaeetata* (E.). 




izcki =/;•<;. 


ooshega. 


tata* =;?/■<;. za=sM». ilia. ikai. 






azdcgb. "A." 


taika. eeska=s^y. 






yetsliua. baak = s!(«. 


serego.* 






osgi =gold. 


egussa* (S.E.). ke.sis=/;-e. 






zoa. stal. 


isb.f tysel.* za= sun. 






sutu. ziiri. 




tisiri. 


illagi. 


masah. mis. 
anag=)'m. 


masa.* musbe. kiUa. 


ay or. 


ilzar. 


m'tare. maatlie. 
tuka. ali=^re. 


sillo * = «/«;/•. bari. illu. 


aiour=mo»^/(. 


argizagi. 


baz. m'tAvare ? 
zrma=//(Yf;-. 


kakba. kewari. ari.* 


agger. 


iguski =«««. 


moots, butsi. 
but ? la. 


aringi (E.). viata.*=cge ; fire. 


ousal=«Vo«. 


ziUri=si7i'«-. 


baak ; m.a.\-ca.=suti. 
selardis (Vannie). 


casii-i.* moar. 




eklii=«MM. 


mai. 

losin. "A." 


maitsaka.f baikaf =_//•«. 
iUa*=«/«/-. yasi* (E.). 
ari* (E.). yakari* (E.). 
paksa.* citlaU.f 



189 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUNDET. 


Egyptian. 


English. 


Koriak. — cikhi. 


rek. teka. 


FlEE. 


Chinese. — sinp;=s^«/'. sa. 






Japanese. — zaki=mooH. 


set. suax- 


sun. 


Arabic. — ar. suklm=7io<. a'le-n". arisat. li'araq. 






Celtic. — tes. teas. 


hashar. 


bum. hot. 


Assyrian. — ishatu. sharuru. 






Slavonic. — ogni. 


shv.=I iff /it. 


star. 


EtiTiscan. — set. ^e* ? 






Ugro-Altaic. — sin. silaka=%/(^«/»y. maclia=io cook. 


agh. xet. 


moon. 


,, teka. ega=«^«r. tuz. 






Latin. — urcrc. ignis. 




to burn. 


Persian. — ate.sli ; azer. 






Thibetan. — t' sig-pa= *(«•». 




lightning. 


Hebre'n-. — e.sh. 






Sanskrit. — agni. surya=s!««. 




flame. 


Accadian. — parra=««». zagh. shu. izi. 






Greek. — \vp. few. 






Amharic and Ethiopic. — asat. esatsh. tsai ? 






Nubian and Abyssinian. — cka. tone. kako. 






African. — kasu. itso. oko. noro. gii'a. zou. sie. niosa. ika. 






Amharic, etc. — waha. bahr. zer. alma. mi. hor. basash. 


uat-ur=«M. 


Watee. 


Arabic. — ma. biihr. wadi. arga=rzV«r. kurr. 






Ethiopic. — ayam. ama. ana. li. 


uri. ma. 


sea. 


Fin. — -wesi Lap — "wiro = river. 






j Greek. — vcwp. vc-oi. 


akeb. 


well, river. 


Thibetan. — tschur. 






Etniscan. — ara. epa. ar ? 


ssh. 


rain. 


Chinese. — shui. ho. 






Ugro-Altaic. — nurr. pi. wire. tat. se. (Fin.). 


alu =rn'cr. 


weir ; lake. 


,, uhor. ses. pizcm. esso. 






Sanskrit. — ndaka. mira = sea. 


ima. 


(urinate). 


Celtic. — dwr. cuan. uii'ge. ar. amlian=riV«r. 






„ uisque. esk. aber. 




(splash). 


Slavonic. — reka. voda. oTioda. ezero = Me. doshd = ;'rt/?«. 






African. — lo. ame. anki. azi. metsi. sua. sama. 




flood. 


,, amu = rff/». nu-nya. nso. lo. uratc = m;(of. 






,, iru\Ya. = Jfth. eza. 




shower ? 


I\.B. — There arc some curious accordances for IVater 






between the S.E. side of South America and with the 






Caucasian. Also for Fire ; see also the Basque and Berber 






and Celtic. Some fire and water words are identical. 






Slavonic. — zo\oto = (/old. 


saui=//6i/f/. 


copper. N 




Assyrian. — eru = wc/«/ ? khnratsu=,(/oW. kaspu = s//;Y/-. 




iron. 




Accadian. — \uiii]. = cop2)er. azad=silver. guskm=ffald. 


nasera = Jrrt«.«. 


gold. 




Amharic. — nrihas=Arrm. 




silver. 




Hebrew. — kliarus=yoW. 




bronze. 




Tungus. — sal = iron. 


(See elsewhere.) 


metal. 




Sanskrit. — ayas = iron. 




stone '? 




French. — or = gold. 




yellow ? J 




Latin. — a;s= i/Y/««. 






African. — xro=i)/one. sanu; wura = (/o/rf. 







A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCOKDANCES. 



190 



Libyan and 




CAFCASiAif, Lesghian, and 


Ajikkican'. 


Beebek. 


Basque. 


Aemeniaij. "A." 


NoilTlt. CENTHAL.t SoUTH.* 

E.=EaBto£ S.A. 


times. 


sikki. sua. 


za. zo. all. 


Ula.*— star. 

saku*=/w< (S.E.). t-sinoo. 


iuifiii. afa. 


zik. iz. 


tsi. tza. 


scute. 

sbiks.f iakai*; te*=:4i«i. .skut. 


tuchart. 


izcki. sn. 


ahc>di=y/rtw(e. 


\mi*::::zdai/. uie.* 

kesis. isu.* isse* (E.). 


csbcgli:=fo hunt. 


eklii. 


zio. mza. scz. 


cbicbi.* tikiai. tscbuc-o.f 








tetsh. koso. icbe* (E.). 


ecliat. 


cii'c^fo burn. 


tsctskbli. zezkbli. 


uru*=:sA-y ; dai/. aegacc.* 
sakas=:/(o<. naika.f 


ecliaal=^o light. 


goin.:=Jiot. 


sing, ti'igba. 


mata*=::«ye or fire (E.). 
tscbuco.f zak. tsa. 


taliist ; tesori= 


gar:=fla)ne. 


bour; kvak. "A." 


pira* (pir). masa*=:woo». 


flame. 






tizaker.f ioak. baika.f 


ch\r\ga=^ sjMrk. 


djeb. 


taikuf=.«(w. 


azcraki=iliffhtmff. 






tasba^' (S.E.). sacn* {%.'E.)—hot. 




ki=zsmoIce. 


bukb:=fo cook. 


rcra* (E.). tsbeke.* kisiti. 


igna^ski/, etc. 


- 






aman. 


ur. uharra. 


chour. ("A.") 


tsba. use. tasb. atsa. 






tz-wima=ra»». 


tzob* (E). oca. dzu. tuna.* 


esuf; asif =/•;>«•. 


uiurge. 


tziirma. dzeh. 


sie.* sa* (S.E.). i.* unu.* 






dow ; sg'wa:=«ea. 


parana*;= river. 


hnhar^sea. 


uii=z ram. 


sbin. dim. 


dzu* (S.E.). mi. cuak. ui.* 






gct=ru'«-. " A." 


peez* (S.E.). uru* (E.). be.* 


vcajm=zweU. 


ema=r /(•<■;•. 


pishi. psez. 


ma* (S.E.). aba. pa. buan* (E.). 






kbim. don. 


abmab. bumu. pae* (S.E.). 


aga.ha=^river. 


c'harka;=r/ir;-. 


cbor ; ncch=river. 


waai* (S.E.). waca. 






izquali. 


orusb^s(?rt. bauiri.f 


auzav^rnm. 


aintzira=/(rX-c. 


kbi. dzobabo. 


am* (E.). una.* 






dzo\v=-sea. "A." 


ameyam=;7V6'?\ euak.* 




urziilo=sc(?. 


akn:=spri7iff. "A." 


bau-buira*^*7Vc/\ li. 






hoi-well? "A." 


abesu. aka. ko. kik. 




uliarka. itsaso. 


alikb^(t'«!i-e. 






uhin =;(<.'«*•«. 








hosina. 








uhaitz. 






ousal=froM. 


arria^stotio. 


s.T[)ilcnfi=z copper ; spelter. 
icrii\i]n:=inetal. 


kokori*=(/oZfZ. ccaxi=(?oW. 


no]ih.afi:=copper. 


\\rrc=^ffoId. 


siii\cw\zc^=copper. 
hnw^stone. 


curi. cbuquif=^oW. kori*=yo/(^. 


azil=^ iron. 


kobrea ; bronza^ 


hczkii\i=itilper. 


kbolki*=s//cfr. 




bronze. 


smlendo = co^jpcr. 




delieb=^oW. 




okcr^zffold. 


sillaf=:.sf«/'. anti.* 




ziUa^silver. 


axa\=zsilrer. 




kezdii-=f/«. 




osgi=ffold. "A." 


sh-m-a.\\^silcer. 


fodlier=«i7i;«r. 








a-rdgaghz^stone. 









191 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUM)ET. 


Egtttiau. 


English. 


Hebrew. — adam. ani=/. 


ta. at. 


Man. 


Frenot. — mari=/«(.si«»r/. mniz=/; me. 






Chinese. — ^bak. jin. mau. iv^wtj. 


se. 


kin. 


Amharic: — adma. 






TJgi'ic. — aita^/(/^/(«r. kasa. murt. mana. 


hammu. 


male. 


Turkish. — kis. er. odam. 






Fin. — mics. 


menhzziboi/. 


husband. 


Sanskrit. — manuslia. manu. 






Jajianese. — kodomo. 




son. boy ? 


Etiiisean. — viz. enna. 






TJgro-Altaic. — er. mort. mat. kimi. 




father ? 


Malay. — loll, lesi ? 






German. — er^ie. 




people. 


Papuan. — meteme. Dutch. — er. 






Acoadian. — gin ; mamu. ma. konii. 




family. 


Basque. — ■msmx^^commandment. 






Dravidian. — tamma=:^/r/. an. 




me. I. 


Celtic. — ari. dyn. duine. modh. kas. maou. gvfv^male. cia. 






African. — mana. moku. mo. rume. yiyuma. eiiia. 




he? 


,, mar. momba. okure. mahi. koshi. ira. hama. 






Lycian. — tedcema. 


sherau. sa. 


Sox. 


Sanskrit. — silnu. 






Chinese. — tz'i. tzu. 


a'tu=yo»i'/(. 


tiny, little. 


Greek. — ■7ra''fi. vioi. io^=^arrow ? 






Ugro-Altaic. — sakka. sen. sua. kisi. 


hen:=Joy. 


child. 


Hebrew. — tsii'ir^iifle. 






Assyrian. — sakliru=s)«ff^/. »hcvru=i)/0)i>if/ . 


m.enh=zlioi/. 


boy. 


Accadian. — zi. sh^i^hrotJier. 






Celtic. — clan=fiimili/. mac. luan. c{&i\=^children. 


t'am^i/oKtJi. 


man ? 


„ sil. zcu. ccar. 






Coptic. — sone^hi-ofker. 


nex=eJiild. 


kith. kin. 


Arabic— saghir=s)»«7^. temarz^dnfe-tree. 






Amharic. — timi\sh=litfle. sow=;««». 


semi ? 


brother ? 


Slavonic. — syn. izu. 






African. — sana^ioy. dzanna. moana=f/»7(/. ansa. 


ncm::=litfle. 


shoot ? tree ? life ? 


„ ashku-=Joy. 






Greek. — ^/dutj. 


■o[i.a.-t=.mother. 


^VOMAN. 


Ugro-Altaie. — ame=.tHotJter. 






Hebrew. — cm. 


]iim't-:=w(fe. 


mother. 


Arabic. — tamar-=(Iafe-free. 






Amharic. — mnnhc— wife 




wife. 


Coptic. — s'liimi. 






African. — matshc ; amni — mother. 




girl, 
man ? 
kin. 

morn ? 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



192 



Libyan- and 
Bekhku. 



madden. 
aoutan:=«(«y«. 
ergaz=:/M<si««f/. 
anient. 
guanz=pcople. \ 



Juandicsuf I 
Cimary.) J 



=(Guanflics of 



mcna:=so». 
gar l^^people. 



zu. on. 
yei. ze. 
mcna. 
ag. mis. 
ai. niene. 
ammis. 
khith. 



tamethout =^wife. 

toulaouin. 

tamat. 

(mis=«o«.) 



Ibeeian oe 
Basque. 



Caucasian and 
Aemenian. " A.' 



lemo. ^om\-=.family . 

khomo=.s'o« ; hoy. 
semc=«o». zui ; gori^ioy. 

ce. lak. lag. 
gizon. ladyer. agn. 

moi. agni. 
kozo=:MrtZ(;. kmari. gwami. marc. 

mard; air ("A."). 
arc^malc. adam. stcg. 

chiTiii, tlo}i=:hu)iiand. 
aita=f(ifhe): masla, lieka. 

kazi, dzug. 
t&v=.people, tribe, mi^mc. I. 

hair=ifai/ier {" A."). 
a.na\a=zhrot/ier. 



seme. 

mutil. guehi. 

Iiumc=f7///f7. 

anaya=Jro</i«r. 

sec-is=^brotJier. 

sviciva^rother. 

zma=:hrother. 

leme=w(rt«. 

chicane/; (7(7. 

gastc=i/oii>i</. 



emazti^w ife. 
avaaz^mof/ier. 
cme=ifemale. 



timal. timir. 

ua. has. zui. miscli. 

goma. plia. 

tziek; sougli=/(W(; ("A."). 

bishi. gab(j. 

acholic 1/ on ni/. 

kog. kanat. 

tina.=^h'ttle ; tiny. 

ze. kazi:=wff«. 

tyiisiil=7iY(f^(;. 

khome. sagbn. 

zin=fa!mly. 

sakri (Scytbic). 

ordi ("A."). 

dzSn=to beget ("A."). 



NoHTH. 



timir= .SO??. 

deda=wo^^,w. 

sbumak. sbooz. esa. 

kin. "A." 

dzeii^to beget. "A.' 

zm=:fiiiiu7g. "A." 

karnn. "A." 

uana^motJiei: 

mair^iiiofher. "A." 

tlyadi^(f//«. 

maia:=wioci«. 



Ajiebican. 

CENTIlAL.t 

E. =Ea8t of S..\. 



South.* 



h'hommo. nil.* amo. 

hania. leno. umo.* 

mcna.* tamma. cune. 

dame.f dobmc. clie. 

sune.* tania. matei.* 

laiya. cnono. aba. 

tabulate, bake.* dau. 

tata=f<it//er. umasoi. 

dina lukku.* taka. 

mc=/. vie. 

hcnumc* (S.E.). khari. 

jazi. nare.* sunta. 

nitemi=(///7. abrif=:(^'o»;rt». neka. 

kosa=/'«.si(7«r/. aba.* nnin? 

linaraini*^«'o«(fl!».. 

comai* (E.). iatc*=»(a?j (E.). 



conetlf=Joy. bua.* 

taraa=:inan. 

tiemc^'^girl. aunm^man. 

b'bommo. timawon. 

umo*^»«(7«. sboknab^/iY^^e. 

chicbi.* akun.f isbt. 

klcnc '^^'z^woiniin. 

haban.f tigami* (E.). tsi. 

saca^tree. sunc^man. jaisi.* 

aze. sie.f pera. tze. 

'nia.nte=zlittle. pilzintli.f 

]azi^man. keimcg. 

eenek. toksii^'^ittle. kooch.::^little. 

uisbam. biia.! jay.f 

saik^^oy. siL'^little. 

ssijay, miabs. nenco. 

puskce^/(V^/e. 

pama. nnin. nani. 

STML^ivonian. saka. 

cana.* natsi. baban.f 



dome.* nantli.f cnnba.* 
temabe=«(o^/(f/-. anu.* ouell* (E.). 
klene.* laykni^mof/ier. 
cunia. naua.*=.v/47p;-. 
arao^man. timi^=.so?^. 
tamma=w(«». 
dim.* kami^OT^w. 
maitsakaf ^wtioH. tan. 
snn. nsu.f masa^wioore. 



25 



193 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SUXBET. 


Egypiian. 


English. 


Celtic. — nionag. caTlm=zgirl. 

A f I'ican. — nike^woman. nokioz:=»ian. 


nts^little. 

net'i^t/ounff. 

nexcn^child. 


Girl. 
female child, 
sister, daughter. 


TJgro-Altaic — Ji\\=sister ; daugliter. kutz. 
Celtic. — nighean. nic. ni. choar. cailin^yw-/. 




Daughtee. 
giii. 


Etruscan. — tusurtliii; scch=zdauffhter. 


sent. 
sat^dauffhter. 


SiSIEE. 

(younger or older.) 


Amharic. — abut. Arabic. — ab. Latin. — pater. 
Etruscan. — ae. French. — perc. Sanskrit. — tata. 
Hebrew. — ab. Ugric. — aiti. Celtic. — atbaii-. ater. 
African. — tlada. ba. tata. baba. 




Faihee. 
(papa.) 


Celtic. — nam. ninge. mam. mathair. 

French. — mere. Amhaiic. — um. Etruscan. — mir= maid. 

African. — ma. anna, mav-u. mama. 


himt=!t'('/«. 
ma.-t=^ woman. 


Mother. 


Ilgro-Altaic. — uaz. East Tartar. — tugan. 
Hebrew. — akh. Amharic. — akhu. 
African. — mitta. egbo. ati. nidugu. 




Beothek. 

(elder or younger.) 


Celtic. — se. Amharic. — sedest. Accadian. — ash. 
Arabic. — site. African. — esa. sida. 


sas. 


Sis, No. 6. 


Celtic. — seiz. Latiu.-^septem. Arabic. — saba. 
TJgro-Altaic. — sat. seitza. African. — aesa. 


sfx- 


Seven, No. 7. 


Celtic. — stad. 
Afiican. — pata. eko. 


Tpet=foot. 
kep=«<«p. 
chet=to stay. 


To St,u.-d. 
upright, go. foot. 


Hebrew. — jesh=ithere is. 
Assyrian. — ishu. 


an. un. 


To Be oe Do. 
I am. 


Hebrew. — yasa — to come out. 




To Cojie. 


Celtic. — Bugh=fo drink. 


sau. sura. 


To DllTNK. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



194 



Libyan and 
Beebee. 


BASQinE. 


Caucasian anb 
Abmenian. "A." 


Amekican. 
North. CENTKAL.f South.* 


ffle. 
techcliiclit. 


neska. da. 

colaba. 

aizta=»w<«r. 


(zc=so».) 
psahscy, yasc. 


tuaia.f x-sa. nsu.f gal=wo<7igr. 
nika. taski. 

nasuim. tiemc* tinnr=so?«. 
chiebi \ — son. nxiAii— sister. 


m. 


kali. 


doorstr? (Aryan), 
soopsbaz. 


nitemu* {daughter or girT). 
buarmi.* nika. 


isetma. 
ulema. 
oulctsma. 


arreba. 
da=;)r/r^. 
aizpa. aitzta. 
neska=y;V/. 


dii. daslikim. 
kiur. "A." 
zwv^'timilij. 


n\sis=zsistcr. ninishu. 
no.s,um\=^dau[ihter . mk&z^daugMer. 
nsuz^iroman. taemia.* 
taski*^y/r/. 


dad. baba. 
(oualdin^ 
parents.) 


aita. 


dcda. 
bair. "A." 


baba. dada. tayta.* 
iate*=:wi«». (E.) 
attata. tata. aba*=»«aw. 
aize.* 


imma. 
umma. 


ama. 
papo=J)Y«.s<. 


mayr. "A." 
nana. mama. dcda. 


mama.* 
amanie. *anna. 


egma. 


anaya. 
neiiea. zma. 
sucan. see-is. 


natz. wahi. djima. 
egbair. "A." 


huauceque.* saik=Joy. sie.-f- 
harmin*- (N. of S. A.), unin. sisa. 
annin=:)«r/H. eenek;=«o«. 
liua-liua*'=(7( ild. ghuiida.f 
saca:=so«. buauki.* 


sedit. 


sei. 


ziba. ekwassi. 


sih ; so. sokta.* chisa. 


seba. 


sazpi. 


sVidi. skit. 


siete. t'setta. nuisa. 


bed. 


agon, egotu. 
set — stability. 


M^ot— foot. "A." 
pog=/ooi. 


dat. Tpa—togo; stand. 
pat=/oo<. gua=/oo<. 


Ui. 

iga=A« did. 


izan. ni. 
eg'in=/o make. 
izate. egni. 


uliiu^/o do or make. 
csa=:/ am. 


eni. cam. cani.* 
takshi=:/aw*. 
onca=:to he. gba. ne. 


ased. 


ator:=/(e comes: 


esun. 


tzih. aiba. tali. 


sou. 




sua. 


cbia f too-a. 



195 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



SuTa)RT 



Egtptiajt. 



Dravidian. — alia. Celtic. — na. nag. cha. African. — kari. 



African. — ibba. 



Celtic. — do. an-so. au. ri. gu. trc. air. 

Accadian. — nig. Dravitlian. — aga. 
TJgi'o-Altaic- — da. dan. li. 

Chinese. — ti. si'. Afiican. — la. di. 



Sanskrit.— e]£a=J\^o. 1. 
TJgro-Altaie. — ma. a'i. 
Amharic. — egnea. ame. 
Hebrew. — anoki. 



Celtic. — mi. Gothic. — aki. 
Etruscan. — ma. mi. 
Accadian. — ugae. min. ni. 
African. — mi. ngi. 



bu? 



amik. 



Accadian. — tu. zu. 

Hebrew. — ka. African. — ku. do^iVo. 2. 



tu. 



Hebrew. — hu. 
Sanskrit. — ^ha. 



Celtic. — co=Lwho. a. 



Fin. — ikke. 

Sanskrit. — eka^JN'b. 1. 
Ugro-Altaic. — anke=mo^/;tT. 
Accadian. — aka^/o make. 
Afiican. — changa=»ose. anku= 



Chinese. — ki ? 



-.eye. 



Latin. — ederc. 

Hebrew. — VheV^jmhde. 

UgTO- Altaic. — idee, ku ; 'ko^mouth. 



ncn^tJiei/. 



anx- 



usha. 
xapa. 



Accadian. — akak. kha. 



Celtic. — dyro. dan. 
Sanskrit. — dadati (da). 



Hebrew. — yad=7iaw(?. 
Latin. — dare. 



Celtic. — ghab. 
Ugro-Altaic. — kap. 



Chinese. — tak. 



Chinese. — gang. 
Amharic. — heuda. 



Sanskrit. — ga. ya ? pad. 
African. — gim:^fuoi. 



khep=/i««r?. 
haq. 



Celtic. — zcn^son. suarac. beag. Chinese. — tzi^son. siao. 

T'olynesian. — kcichi=:(;7»7rf. Dravidian. — concha. 

Ugro-Altaic. — kistin. sakka ; sua=*w8. sen. 

Slongol.— occai ; cliuken=.soM. asika=yfl?«((jr. 

Hindi. — kiuMi^Mle. Malay. — bachat. African. — okerc. 



sa. 

■mcs^child. 



Ekglish. 



No ! not. 



Yes! 



Adverbs and 
prepositions, etc. 



I. me. 
A^o. 1. we. 
Finger. 



Thott. 
JVo. 2. thee. 



He. 



who? which, 
this. that. who. the 



Life, etc. 
breath, wind. 



To Eat. 
mouth. 



To Beat. 
strike. 



To Gn-E. 



hand. 



To Take. 
to gi'ab. 
seize, carry. 



To Go. 



to gang. 



small, 
son. 
chicken ? 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



196 



LlHYAN 

AND UkKIIER. 


BASQins. 


Caucasian and 

Aemenian. " A." 


.'Vmerican. 

NoUTH. CENTllAL.t SoUTII.* 

E.=Ea8t of S.A. 


ala. 


cz. gori. 


nu. aham. 


na. ma.*f ha.* la. oua.* 


twi. eb. 

dog. eg. in. 
si. did. giio. 
aaoli. en. i. 
yur. zfg. 


bai. 




baha. hani. ia. 


to. i. tik. 
la. I'u. 


gan. 


ti. nak. ac. at. 
mau. ca. to. t'eh. 
nikau ; iz*=;/i('r(-'. 


i. ma. nek. 
ni. yin=iVo. 1. 
nekai=2<»«. 


ni. 


mi. so. 
ca. "A." 
mc. 


me. ni. noka.* 

nek. (we?), oncaj— I am. 


ketch, ak. kcm. 
kai. sin=.A'(). 2. 


bi. i. 

zu. bi=iVo. 2. 


bo. bun. 

du. "A." sben. dou. 


kam. ki. 
ano. ken. zn. 


netsa. 


na. 


0. ban. is. 

na ; da ; sa. " A." 


zen. na. bin. 
bail. nqui. kaki.f 


di. ki. ati. 


cena. a. ao. au. 
ari. hai. na. arec. 


es. aman. 
win ? ra ? 


ti. at. kwa. mana. cbo. 
na:=^/«e. huen. ac. ar. 


aich. 

taukaren=:«os«. 
agau^^o tie. 


aiz — wind. 
aki\=zjjli(inus. 
egon^to be. 


grank. 

akancbk^Mr. "A." 
ke. 

banka=f(rr. 
oimku^rar. "A." 


iki. takhii^wi'wf?. 'ha,ca=^life. 
ann'kki=fat/ic): onca.^= I am. 
ekli^ioiiffiie. yob. 
anak*^/}tther. ju*=zunion. 
ank=/i««s«. noka=:/ (ego). 
auk*=/ooi. benka*=wos«. 


ctteli. 

\z\^:zmouth. 

iseti. 


jail? 
yatia. 


kuna (Lesgbian). 
kako=^»iouth. ja. 
mukam=/rtO!<tt. 
outel. "A." 


tek.* atsi.* oakcta* (E.). 
mikimi. koh. tzi. 
banal. f qua.f guma. itsa^=.tooth. 
mankana.*ka; ha=»iouth. 


iggat=/«e strikes. 
aor. 


golpatu. 


yob. 

"bar" (root). "A." 


sak-mani. ka. cbey. 
teka^to strike, taka. 
ik^fo break, hayta. 


cfk. 

ctsak=/;(; gives. 


doaritu. 


dzl. yetteb. tal. " A." 
dam. "A." 


da. zal. kia. du. 
eki. ku. 


akli. 
awaj. 


atzi. eutzi. 
ekarri^fo cany. 


gheb. barla. kaTgo=itMef. 
arnoul. "A." (root, "ar.") 


tacani.* ha. chab. ana. 
kachik.* buika.* ikn^^kand. 


eddou. 
tcddam. 


gan ? 

goaz. joan. noa. 


yago. vol. 
genal. "A." 


ko-see-quab. dau. kat. pan=;yoo^. 
tal. koulou, aiba=:^o come. 


zu=«o«. 
mczzi. 


{sncun=brother:) 

cbica^(7(/W. 

giicbi. 


pokr. "A." 
koka. tina. kouza. 
tziek. 


taksa.* sie. chichi. f saik. akun. 
koocb. tsi^so«. 



19T 



Note. — The Libyan and Berber family bavo been recently considered by 
Professor Sayce, as almost certainly tbe lineal descendants of tbe tall white 
(blue-eyed) prehistoric races of Palestine, more especially represented by the 
Amorites and Amalekites of Scrij)ture. They could hardly have migrated 
thence to Libya prior to the time of ilenes of the first Egyptian dynasty ; 
the Egyptians at a very early period being the deadly enemies of the Libyans 
of their western frontier. 

The late Mr. Ellis supposed some linguistic connexion between the Basque 
with the Libyan and North African, as well as with the Caucasian and 
Etruscan; but neither Mr. Robert Brown, jun., nor Mr. Hyde Clarke, consider 
this a likely hypothesis, nor does the Libyan appear to be at all nearly 
connected with those languages, nor indeed with almost any known language, 
judging by the Comparative Vocabularies in Part IV. of this work. But 
naturally not a few Celtic words are to be found ia the Basque, as well as in 
Caucasian (see Appendix xx) ; but I believe Mr. Ellis is correct so far that 
a Caucasian linguistic element (and therefore a Turanian element) may be 
traced in Basque. 

Naturally semi-Semitic and Arabic words must be found in the Libyan 
and Berber tongues (see Prof. Newman's Libyan Vocabulary). 

The Etruscan is now clearly shown to be mainly connected with an 
Altaic branch of the North Asiatic Turanian by Mr. Robert Brown, jun., and 
others, and not with the Libyan or Basque as suggested by Dr. Briiiton and 
Mr. ElUs. 

In the Caucasian column of words in Part IV. I have mostly followed 
Latham, and have generally included the Georgian, Circassian, Lesghian, Andis, 
Iron, Tushi, Curali, Tscherkess, Abasi, and Absne dialects. Most of these 
are, of course, Turanian, and possibly Finnish, though some of them Altaic, 
and some of them more purely TJgric or West Tartar. The Armenian, as an 
Aryan language, is separately marked by "A." 

Some have more lately considered the Basque and Iberian to be connected 
with the Esthonian ; at page 100 I have given some few comparisons; b>it the 
American shows better results. (See Ajipeudix xx.) 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE 



ACCOEDANCES. 

(PAET V.) 



199 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 







Abokiginal 








Chinese. 




AFEICAIf. 


SUNDET. 


Mian and 
Lacouperie. "L." 


English. 


kcrc. kura. bua. , 
kai. kula. ='^'3- 


Caucasian. — kyen. khar. 


cb'i. ker. aku. 


Dog. ) 


Assviian. — kalbu. kattu. 


tcbo-kou. 


lion. cur. ] 


Egyptian. — kaari=yo(7i'. fu. 

Aocaclian. — ku. Sanskrit. — kukuya. 


touma. ma. 
mu. kbo-pcn. 
te-san. 




agoTo =goat. 


Accad. — (laTa.= antelope, gug ; lu=s/(«f^. 


acb'i. li. 


Goat. 


lemene =sJieep. 


„ shagih =piff ; sow. 


yung. c'bi. 


Sheep. 


kara=f7o^. 


Assyrian. — Vik=dog. ku^tnasffff? 


mau. ta-yo. 


Cajeel. 


ikv.ma=cow. 


Egyptian. — kamaar = ra;«r^. 


mu. pa. yha 
te-pa. pei. 


Cow. 
Buffalo. 


kama ; simha ) , • 

= ti(!cr. 
nmge; nya '' 


,, ka; kana=J«?/. ]\».an—ffoaf. 


Hindi. — hara^loar. gan.=coic. 


mu-kwa. ) 
chau = figer. ] 


Sow. Pig. 




,, ]nm\il= eamel. 


Lion. 


' 


Caucasian. — hari. kiiro = coio. 








Sanski-it. — simha. Malay. — singa = lion. 






khut. nye. eka. bald. 


Caiicasian. — gar. Accadian. — glia. ku. 


ta-men. 


Fish. 


nyu=«w«A«. 


C. India. — hai. ayo. 

TJgro-Altaic. — kan. Assp-ian. — nunu. 

Egyptian. — nar. bari. ^iu. auau. 


sung. 


snake ? 




Indian. — cati. Accadian. — kisi. 




Ant. 




Dravidian. — cidal. Aryan. — cicada ? 






tan. kail. 


Accadian. — du. ku. kiku. kur. ga. ki. 


kbum. kuim. 


HorsE. 


hu. dvha=viUaffe. 


Coptic. — kar =/icId. Persian. — khana. 


pu-wa. su. 


cot. hut. 


ger. gao. 


TJgro-.ytaic. — yu. liu. kota. bar. kar. at. 


Ian. cbwang. 


tent. 


ko. 


Hebrew. — gan =gar(len. 


nung-pa. 


stone ? 




Burmese. — teb = tent. 




yillage. 




Egyptian. — bu. katr. rn\i=village. 




bam. inn. 




Mongol. — gur. karr=/o«-«. 








Caucasian. — kan. duun. ga\= stone. 






vka=Jmife. kou. 


Ugro-Altaic.^ — kao. ker. ken. 


shak. sbik. 


Stone. 


taku. dak. kcre. 


Accadian. — tag. digb. gar. za. 


ti-lau=ff.re. 


to cut. 


sukan=Jc>iife. sen. 


Hindi. — ]i.at = cut. 


keb-yi. 


rock. 


kau. sio. sok=«.w. 


Caucasian. — kera. kau. kagbak = /(o?(s«. 


kiai-mau = 


knife. 




Egyptian. — sex=^<' cut. 


hiife. 
'ko=hard. 


earth, 
hard. 


cliita. kia. eku. ki. 


Caucasian. — khie. Ass-^Tian. — kanu. 


cba. ^•i-lei. 


Tkee. 




Accadian. — kan. gi. E. Tartar. — nao. 


bau-tau = (raoff. 


branch. 




Egyptian. — bu. achcn. ■xe. 


meug=i«wiJoo. 


high. wood. 




Ugro-.\ltaic. — kbu. ])u. 






eye. agno. paku. 


Jlongol. — pa. gascha. 


lat. kai. 


Bird. 


koku=c7H'cfe«. 


Accadian. — ghu. tu. -pa^wing. 


tai. tat. 


to fly. 


Tpak\ic=parrot. 


Drayidian. — padcbi. 


C Andaman ; 


wing. 


papa=fo/y. 


Egyptian. — ta. pai.=;o fly. 


lobay). 


feather. 


yaro. pcrat—/o«/. 


Indian. — pu-mia. puri'nd. 
Caucasian. — kliaton. tzu. 
Sanskrit. — ]}at=toJlg. 




fowl. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



200 



iNno-CniNESE. 
East Himalaic. 


TimiET. 
West Kimalaic. 


Amekican. 
North. CEUTUAL.t South.* 


kata. tonnia. 

kway. kway-ali =jaclcal. 

touma. kula. 


ky. kyi. kom ? 
ra. ngao. 


kcikuo.* pu-ku. kalatu.* kc. 

chcr. 

tayo. yo.f cliukoo. tsunu. 


mea. me. gara. 
khami. khapa. 
ka-lah-ohk. 
no-all-mall = fO(<'. 
paren ; karau = huffalo. 
kliaboi ; nwri=w«'. kaen. 
vict=2)ig. wct-mah = 4'0i<'. 
kj-ah=^/o«. 


rama. 

lug. kha. 

ruamo = she- camel. 

khami. nua? 

pag = %. 

sengo = [tiger =stag) . 


llama?* paca.* ccaura*=«/«c«/). 

llama.* ccaura.* 

llama.* (puma* =/;«>!</;«•.) 

W\a = huffalo cow. 

paca=^o«<. pecchari=ioar. 

occlo.f chinka*=?w». 


pla. ngah. ngu. para. ka. 

ta-meu. 

khi. hu. ya. rhu. 


nya. 


liua.* pali. kanu.* hai.* 
kay.* yoe. pira.* hua. 


cigi. cuss. 


gTogma. 

(shorgolgi — Mongol.) 


cussi.* sisi.* pussi-oc-lo. 
cayoHnf=/y. tlalacotlf = ice^/e. 


del ; ijA\=rilhge. 

ku. twa^rillaffe. 

phonii. kam. daha=nUaffe. 

pan. gum. dliim. 

chung. bolbang. padda ? 

tun. khem. ban. 

ayn. kidu =«<■«<. 

kin. in. hi. kym. hattu. 


kuku. khyim. 
kutu. yyam. im. 
katel = cot. 
gur. kan. 
mk-UX= fort. 


puku. koga.* kiki. tab. 
cal.f tahn*j = i'illage. 
kah. ui.* baan.* uta.* 
coochut.* ngu.f 
pana.* ku.* dum. ghu.f 
kuh; ka,t= siotie. tee. qui. 


keehi. kyauk. 
dab; kukri =/i?»/«. 
ken. sen. 
kawa. kwa. 


gorri. chhu. 
zaccar =flint-ston e. 
rdo. 
tsul. 


I 
tee. kuh. chahk. kakswa. ' 
saouka. taque.* caa.f 
kak.* kiik = eartJi. seh. 
tsai. thaWoj =earth. can. 
gaT= earth; land. 


pu. kadung. kai. akan. 
kung. ton. tou-mai. 
kanoung. 


na. 

naggs. 


khoka. haqha. chc. 
kagg.* kau.j- aa.* quauh.* 
queuua.* ■Mat\\=crtiie, reed. 
ice-ju=icood. he.* hu. kah. mittek.f 


petan. pya. huget. 
gyo. kava. 
khaton. tho. 
T^w:ii=pi(jeo)i. 


techa. tawa. 

SpU =/('«//((■/•. 

sog=iving. 


pa-hue* =<o^y. hue.* 
tchui-TUC. hu.* aku.* 
pahura.* pipil-t poena, 
kukai.f i^at^a\ = wi)ig. 



26 



201 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 







Aboriginal 








Chinese 




Afeican. 


SUNDEY. 


and Miau. 
Lacouperie. "L." 


English. 


benye. asio — axe. 


Assyrian. — mitpanu ; kasbtu. 


pienkia. 


Bow. 


peno — arrow. 


Sanskrit. — bana. isbu. ■pa.ni^hmid. 
Egyptian. — sesm=arrotv. 




band? 




IJgro-Altaic. — nn, — hoiv. 






kowi. pun. 


Ep;}T)tian. — han=darf. 


pun'tiek. 


Aeeow. 


pen. bcnyo. 


Cbiuese. — pang^Jo^'. kung. pengo. 
Sanskrit. — vana. 
Dravitlian. — panam. 


kiai-mou. 




sok:=«.r«. 


Sanskrit. — cburika. ak^^o cut. 


kbiak. 


Kntfe. Axe. 


dak=«<o««. 


Accailian. — kucl. 


kbiu-ka. 


to cut. 


idikw^donc. 


Hincli. — zukbam. kat=^ cut. 


kiai-mau. 


stone. 


■^eno^arrow. 


„ tegba. katar. 
Egyptian. — pexa. sc-kb^fo cut. 
Hebrew. — kakku^«'Crt/)o?« ; knife, sakkin. 






kowa. ku. 


Assyrian. — ziru=*r«7. mat. 


kiai \ 


Maize. Food. 


sauye. san. 


Hebrew. — sbeber=cor». 


bai > rice. 


seseme. rice. 


sa. se. sar. 


Accadian. — .sibir. ka. 


hau ) 


seed. 


rsio=^rice. 


Chiuesc. — mi ; raa.=^rice. 


cbai-meu= 


flcsb. 


maza. hi-^oah. 


Caucasian. — sez=zgrass. tsou:=^r/(/. 


rice. 


bread, com. 


edn=:effff. 


,, sze^wlieat. sbalcc=:r/fc. 


ma^corn. 




osese=Jlesh. 


„ gosb ; maus==^fs/(. 


t'sau-nu:=r/ee. 






Greek. — anoi'^corn. ^ea. /iia^a. (Tap^. 


sbi ; m= flesh. 






Egyptian. — s]ia.= food. su. 








TJgro-Altaic. — sarnu=c//y. zic= flesJi. 






ako::=crool:ed. 


Coptic. — arik. Cbinese. — bo. kak. 


ak. ako. 


Foot. 


kako=:/(««rf ; foot. 


Accadian.- — gir ; du^to go. ih\i:=liand. 


pe-ting. kipa. 


to go. toes. 


bo — hff. osa. 


Assyrian. — sliuku:=%. ahiku^fo go. 


laga. ket. 


leg. 


eko. ki:=i'o ffo. 


Egj-ptian. — tcbt. kcp=.si'(yj. 


kia-lau. 


pad. ]\"o. 5? 


kcka. nakoa=:/iff»r/. 


TJgro-Altaic. — kucbu. 'kw^iand. 


k'ok. obey. 


paw. to kick. 


laku. oku. kcka. 


Caucasian. — akka. kok. 


tak. la. 




koa. ukuh. 


Sanskrit. — car— /o go. cura— hand. 






nun. inasa. mo. 


Egyi^tian. — ma. merti. nu. 


nik. miak. 


Eye. 


nito. nya. muku. 


Accadian. — mu. ne. 


du. mai. 


sun ? eyes. 


muna:=to see. 


Cbinese. — mok. Malay. — mata. 


ucba. mi. 


to see. 




Caucasian. — min. nat. nyu. 


mik. met. 






Assp-ian. — enu. Sanskrit. — nayana. 








E. Tartar. — nan=.sZ'y. Coptic. — maaje. 






laku. mok. 


Egyptian. — baq. m'\=to give. 


am. la. 


Hand. 


ckc. karu. 


Greek. — ■xcii)=./i(iud. 


veng. 


arm. 


kako. koa. 


Assyrian. — laktatu. qatu. 


h\\i=foot. 


])aw. foot ? 




Accadian. — gad. sliu. Indian. — pun'ja. 


p'ieb." 


iVo. 1. 7^'b. 5. 




Caucasian. — ki. kacb. kok. 


kai-pu. 


give, fingers? 




Sanskrit. — kara. ma=;^o measure. 


kui-da. 


bow. claw. 




TJgro-Altaic. — tok. kar. 







A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



203 



Indo-Chinese. 


Thibet. 


AMEUrCAN. 

Nohth. CENTKAL.f South.* 


lay. 


yzu. 


pannum. pcnta.* panduc. 
siia.* za. suu.* 
])an—ri(//it-hand. panuka. ana. 


kani. pen. 

ken=:«foMe. 
quai. hmyali. 


nida. 


kana. panurk. pia.* tsahpe. 
yah.f thay. quit.* siia. 


dhao. penju. dah. 
kakri. V zic^axe. 
pyut-tliL'=:('o cut. 
kjauk=.stone. 


jog-pa=fo cut. 
t'sog:=<o cut. 
gri. 


kiai.* penta*=ii9M'. cutaf=fo cut. 
liok'^'^-stone. \)im-dvk=zarroiv. 
tuk-^^axe. seh ; toh^stone. 


khao=:r2ce. 

tsun ; tsabah^/'/«. 

mohu:=brcad. 

sali-salL-yah=:/borf. 


skjo-mo=food. 
sahonz^isoed. zabs=:/bo(?. 
soma,^iem2). sintog := 

fruit. sgo-na=«yy. 
sitse. atse^.s^«cm«. 
'hTas=^rice. 

sa; zas=food. zo^millc. 
zaba=fo cat. tsi\-:=fat. 


mahiz.* saba=^c.«A. 
sauan ; saYa:=jiiaize. 
siji.* sum. stsi=('o cat. 
saxif — corn, koxi.''- 
ca,sa,*^maize. mohn^seed. 


aklio. cliyco-pa-wab.. 
kali=fo dance. 
khou. shou. 
kau. kko. pal. 
kal (Ghoud). 


bi. ko. 

lap'pa. takha. 
lag-pa=/(rt«(;?. 
rhan-pa=/f(/. 


looga.* pat.* pui.* acan.* 
vh:=Jiaiid. qliioa.* 
cuh. kuki. caki.* gua.f 
tacux. aqan. 

kayu.* kolo. po.* goca.* 
Uoke* — hand, caqui. 


myin-thc^!'o see. 
ta. paiiek. nik. met. 
mitthah. myet-see. kan. 
miu. myuk. mat. nyu. mi. 


mik. mig. 
mo. kusi. 
7zigs-pa — to see. 


nick.f uayc. nakai. nicote.* 
sah. naira.* pusiki. 
nakuy. rikumi. miri.* 
myhh. nagui.* kussec. meichta. 
nani.* michi.* nocki.* 


mo. lok. wan ? 
let. ka. ban. pang, 
moya (=5). (KoL). su. 
khar. akkai. let. 


lag-pa ? 

ser-mo=;?;;^£';-. 

ku'tsa=:j?«<. 


makqi.* ak. mawa. mah. gaura.* 
ca-f=finffer. mamo. onka. 
looga:=foot. maco.* cab.f 
mako.f pana.* pan. aku. 



203 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 







Aboeioin.u. Chinese. 




Afeican. 


SrXBRT. 


"L." 


English. 


ko ; ku =: door ; 


Caucasian. — kol. sna=/o drinh. 


'ka.-chxvag^door. 


Mouth. 


mouth. 


Dra vidian. — 'kvli^^hole. 


mom. che. 


lip. door, ear ? 


da. 'k.on-^door. 


Egj-[)tian. — ro. ken. qer^cw'cZe. 


pan. su. 


cat ? hole. 


shu. kun. 


Ugro-Altaic. — kha. siii. kan. ko. 


nang=fo eat. 






Accadian. — su. ku. ka. 


(In-door. 






African. — kliuri-u=/(o/<;. pu. 


(Chinese. — keu.) 




siko. 


Coptic. — sha. Ugro-Altaic. — kamar. 
Egvi)tian. — anx:=e«/'. 
Hindi. — nasa. nak. 




XOSE. 


hana. 


Hindi. — kan. Accadian. — dan. 


seng-sha. lu. 


Eae. 


kitu. 


U. -Altaic. — nakka=.s/-»(. ku. cike. nyr. 
Sanskrit. — karna. Tikhh\=^navel. 


lei. 




narka. lime. leme. 


Accadian — erne. 


kan. khata. 


TONGTE. 




Dra\itliau. — na. nakhu. 


leng. ila. 
hing-nai. 


leaf. 


esi. du. 


Sanskrit. — liridaTa=:7;rffr<. Coptic. — snaf. 


in=aniinal life. 


Blood. 


dsi. 


Accadian. — sha'g^icart. gud. zi^ife. 




heart, red. 




.Japanese. — zi. Celtic. — swar. 




Life? 




Egyptian . — hliii^^heart. senf . 








East Tartar. — tchsu. sengi. 








Ugro-Altaic. — ki. weer. s,z\— heart. 






suk. sen. 


Russian. — serdtzav. 


(Chinese. — sin.) 


Heabt. 


esi=:Woo(^. 


Accadian. — zi=/(7«. Ugrie. — szi. syda. 
Hindi. — hiya. surkd=rff/. 




blood, red. 


ko. agha. 


Persian. — ko=7/ ;'//. U . -Altaic . — koigo. 


ko. lu. 


Head. 


inutu. 


Egyptian. — t'ep. tata. kai. 


leh-kau. ngo. 


mug? face? 


bop. 


Accadian. — mu. gii. gus^//«;'r. 


dan. tope. 


top. cap ? 


ixsi^iair. 


Assyrian. — 'ka.(\.\iA=zpeak. 


ki-pe. 


peak ? hair ? 




Caucasian. — kop. kok. asliam^/(«/r. 


(Chinese. — kap.) 




sere. sak. 


Amharic. — tsequr. Coptic. — kas. 




Hatr. 


shin, kimsi. 


Egyptian. — seh. ta. Sanskrit. — kaca. 




wool, head? 


asi. 


Caucasian. — sak. kho. Celtic. — siocli. 
Accadian. — sig. sug^it'oo^. kiski. 
Indian. — sir^Asffrf. kesam. 




shaggy ? 




Ugro-Altaic. — shag. -zac. 






zuio. kiui. diso. 


Celtic. — adarc:=/i(»-». Persian. — suru. 


ayeu. ta-p'i. 


Too-rn. 


qkau^fo cut. 


Accadian. — kak. si. '^ar^eat. 


nai. she-shi. 


tusk, curved. 


so-ku. 


Japanese. — YAnvA^wrn. 




fang. bone. 


diso. akn. 


Eg\-ptian. — kes. kariiat=/iO)'». 


(Chinese. — ko ; ya.) 


hard, cut? 


ka^/iflrrZ. 


Hindi. — sing, shakli. 
Caucasian. — ska. dzeh. rka. 




tine. horn. 


kel)i. kali. 


Sanskrit. — kapu=y«<('. 


pa. 


Snake. 


sabii=?!are/. 


Eg)-]^)tian. — ^'ip'"*— ""''*^- 




fish, tongue ? 



A nilLOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



201 



Indo-Chinese. 


TnlBET. 


Amkkican. 
NoKTH. CENTiiAL.t South.* 


kiimi. sun. 
kugo. cho=:to eat. 
kha. so. ansaka. 
kau. ku=ffar. 


kun = //f/A'. 

zul. kor-lo=(<;Ac«^ ; 

round. 
m^\\\— throat, 
vam^womb. 


cenka.* so. {ccan*^car.) chi.f 

koh=:fo eat. kama.f ^'a.f 

cana.* zam.f yamc. {ul\ic=^to)i//tce.) 

iku. 

hu. pah. lakka.* gavf=zland. 


kamut. nakhu. 


sna. lcc=tonffue. 
smi-kun=z II osln'l. 


sono. cana.* akiifz^tonffue. 


nah. nabi. 

ku. kun. kliato. pik. 


maba. ma'ba. 
kun^hok. 


nacat. gii.f g\ia.nc-^to7!ffue. 


sliah. nakhii=«o.s<! "? lali:=Z«ff/. 
slak=:/(v//! thcla^fcff/. 


I'jags? lee. 
lomo=^leaf. 


inaka.* khane. oku.f 

ulue. karku^ ?(>(//. llakkaf^Zsff/. 

cana''= HOW. cenn*^rtw. 


hala. 

ui. jTi. hi. swe. wi. 
heu. chi. uya. litseiliu. 
zyai. gau. harra. 


krag. 

snyin ; seme=heart. 


uh. uah.f uir. hu. kik. 

zch^red. sakh^red. siquci=;'(;(?. 
f[hi.f estlif. zihtz.f 
sa-wickf=:rc<^. skino. skai. itsh. 


chai. zcit. {ch\-==.hlood.) 
hi ; zjiii^blood. 


suym^hlood. 
seme. 


sonco.* chuimo.* 
shah^r(?(^. si([Ui;i^rcd. 


kamon. alu. kok. 
mustok. tuwi. 
mata {forehead), leekgo. 
kataii. ko. kop. piya. tuku. 


go. 

mgo. 

bash. 


kam. chola. ppekci. pacu. 
uma.* gne.f mu.f hool. 
kakka. tata. matif {^= forehead). 


sac. swet. kes. 
tsim-gyin. son. 
asham. kho. 


skra. 
spu. 


suucca.* socco.*" cuca.* 
xta.* zye.j- cob.* 


zhua. sot. tau. ayoh. 
tahu. khiau. khyo. ghi. 
sung. aro. koren. hu. 
sarwa. maru. km. 
karau. thuru. duk. thawah. 


so. kor. 

ra^horn. 

baso=u'ory. 


kohaka.* tzi.* sah.* nasso. co.f 
sanna.* gua. tong. icari. sa.* 
huakra.* kii'au.* quii'u.* taw.* 
garra*=SoH«. gu. pakh. yooh. 


kapu. gu. taroa. moo-ay. 
kalon. thanmi. 
nabi^cfl;-. 


sbrul. 


koh. kebe.f so-lah. sibu—ffod. 

koo-sebh. sameior. nohecr. 

huillia.* katari. coatl.f \ilnc-:=^tonffue. 



205 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 







Aboriginai 








CniKESE 




Afeican. 


SXWDET. 


and Miau. 
Lacouperie. "L." 


English. 


okvin=zhhck. eso. 


Caucasian. — chsxna— death. jeg=had. 


dan; ^011= 


Night. 


'kaka.^b titer . 


,, seaw ; "A." koy-sbcy. 


llaclc. 


death. 


UZllZU. 


Accadian. — gig-kukki^Wrt'c/i;. nko. 


sakokoi ? 


dark; black. 


n'ko=kigi ?:=niffht. 


Corean. — k'omen^i/rrcZ-. 


dam. 


sick; evil; 


nga^Hoi. 


Egyptian. — mer= death. ak= to>nb. 




bad. 


suko. osoko. 


„ iixa; kck. 






'kukyra^death. 


Coptic. — kake. Cbincse. — kek. 






tukxi^black. 


Assyrian. — dakii. samii. 
Sanskrit. — nakta. Qyama. 
TJgro-Altaic. — keka. aku. 






tukii=:hhck ; demon. 


Accadian. — gliul=i«rZ. 


pi. 


Devtl. 


bogun. joka. 


Egyptian. — x^x^demoti. 


tcy-tu^i«r7. 


demon. 




Sanskrit. — na^ = death. 




bogie. 


baka. 


Hebrew. — rab. 


sii=hiffh. 


Geeat. 


kura. 


Celtic. — ro = very. torr:= /; ill. 


nga. 


biU; high. 


adoku. 


Caucasian. — atta. tar. magbta. tak. 


hwa. lau. tai. 


head. 


tu. 


Sanskrit. — ucca. maha. tvi=^strong. 


mcng^ ?««;((/. 


good; strong. 




Accadian. — magh. aka. gan. kbar=7i(7^. 


so^hiffh. kry. 






Coptic. — i\\=kill. 


kai=/«7/. 






Egyjrtian — a^a. 'kg.\::^high. 


me. nie. 






TJgro-Altaic. — kar ; taxi:=hill. 






tu^ffreat. 


Hebrew. — jab. 


ti=_yf/Y. 


God. 


isbii. soko^f/od. 


Persian. — shall. 




good, great. 


kaka. mahhii=^ffood. 


Celtic . — torr^ /; ill. buan= s«(m. 




spirit. 


hon. juko. 


Egyptian . — \ma=ffood. axa=:y?rfl;. 




fire; sun? 




Polynesian. — hi.m^=ffreat. 




king; chief? 




Accadian. — ma.gh:=iffreat. aka^^ffreat. 




to rule. 




Indian. — niahara j ab:= chief. ayah=: nurse. 






sida. zdu. csa. 


Sanskrit. — shat. 


ok. to. cho. 


Six. iY«. 6. 




Accadian. — ash. 


tsolo. 






Chinese. — sul ? lok. 


k'io. lok. 






Egyptian. — sas. 


ch'u. huk. 






Caucasian. — siba. 








Arabic. — sitt. 






edsc. 


Accadian. — sisna. 


chct. situ. 


Seven. JVo. 7. 


samba. 


Egyptian. — scchf. 


dau. ya. 






Cliinese. — tsit. sat. 


sou. chiai. 






Caucasian. — skit. 


ten. shih. 






Sanskrit. — sapta. 


tsit. tsolo=r 






Arabic. — sab'. 


JVo. 6. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



206 



Indo-Ciiinese. 


Thibet. 


Amebican. 

North. CENTitAL.f South.* 


net-the^Mack. nyah. 
kosai. khnaiiii. 
sua ; hocho^Kour. 
khalcTVc. ya. mai. 
khatan. katsau. 


nam. nag-T^o— bad. 
nig=i/«e/c. 
vi-ha.=-dmth. 
khika:=i«<^. 


cuata.* nek*=««c/i. coco.* tcgg. 
akahha.f sm=ni(/ht. 
yanii.* yacy.* za.* j-ano.* 
shke.f cliamaka.* 
kaka=iffrf. na=?8o<. 
kaak. tah. 


nat. 


goupo. klu. 
begs. 


cupay.* kliona. 
baka. (kik^lood.) 


tkckha. makna. 
ko. mat. lau. tau. 
hachnr^^ mnxntain. 
po ; tn=:hill. tail, 
klia ; cliia=(/oof/. 


mgo=head. rab. 
ccba. akay^c/i«e/. 
mton'ha=iJiic/h. 
ri^iill. mt-ba=///y/;. 


baccha.* \<.\i\:=f:iipremc god. 
arou. ovcu*=zmoimfain. 
huey.* da.f tco\=god. 
haar'^^frce. atu. kotai=.«^;-OM^. 
iihof:=f/ood. ma-tab. 
tee ; ku^rocZ;. aacb ; mieckf =«(«(•/<. 
rab-ta. tcnab. nai.f 
sih.::=sfroii(/. qualli.*" rax.f 


ta.u=:ffreat. 
hoa^sun ; fire. 
ak.o,j::=chief. 
mat; vaak\i:=ff reat. 
na; nagn^suu. 


tla. joho. 

dhi\:=cJiief. 

sha. go-\^3.=^chief. 

mit-lKi:=hic/Ii. akay= 

cJlil'f. 


tub-a-pec. boa. naai=SM». 
ogba.f 'ka^supre?iie god. 
teo.f ogba.* eba. zubu.f 
tsaj-^.«!<w ; poiver. ku.f 
toii-yab=«;7j(>_/^ pacba.* 
baie^si«?«. baccbu*^r7;r«<. 
mamtou:=(irr?«< spirit, buot. 
tepachof=r«/<7'. niou. 
ayar*^c/»>/. buc=sM». 


sail. sauk. sah. 

tuchi. 

tiik. kok. fu. kkyaiik. 

khn. re. ok. 


drug, 
thu. 


sib. bue.f taki. 

taki. acbiak. sDi. ta.f 

sokta.* sojta.* 


cket. sini. 
sata. sining. 


zum. 


cbae. siete.f senio. 
cbibome.f yika. 
tsowetate. tsbana. 
tutsheos. scinkawi. 



2or 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeicas". 


SmiDEY. 


AbOMGIXAL CHDiTESE. 

"L." 


English. 


itta. moko. ikko. 
eke=/(rt«f/. 


Sanskrit. — cca. Persian. — yak. 
Accadian. — id= iVb. I. 
TJgro- Altaic. — atik. ekisit. ak. yks. 
Malay. — tik. Chinese. — pak? yik. 


c'hit. kii. 

to. ta. 

tTX = animal life. 


Ko. 1. 
mouth? I. 






to-pak? yi-pa. 


Xo. 100. many? 


fii. 


Accadian. — a. u. gha. ghu. 


chip. ha. 
c'ha. ko. 


No. 10. 


tanu=i\7). 5. 
tzika=i\'b. 10. 
khar =ha7id. 


Etniscan. — thu. 
Accadian. — ia. ya. 


ngo. pihlo. 


No. 5. 


ama,=viUaffe. 


Ugro-Altaic. — ma. su. da. 
Accadian. — -aia=land. du. ku. 
Assyrian. — matu= countrt/. kar. 
Egyjitian. — kar. Taah. = land. qer=cire7e. 
Caucasian. — tshi. sze. szc. shen=viUaffe. 
Coptic— kar =ter?. ["A." 


na. 

ten. 


Enclosure. 
field. 

house, land, 
garden. 

village, circle, 
boundary. 


ngi. na. 

nu=/. 'kii= month. 


Accadian. — 'kn. = mouth. ngae. ma. ni. 
Egyptian. — anuk. nuk. 


nan. i\i = life. 
yi. ku. 


/. me. month ? 


'kn= tJioii. 
'khar= hand. 


Accadian.- — tu. 
Ugi'o-Altaic. — ta. 


mu. kai. 


Thof. 
you. 


u=he. ka=«^. 


Caucasian. — han. na. Ugro-Altaic— bi. ta. 
Accadian. — ene. ba. bi. na. 


kwa. pun. 


He. 


tero. 


Accadian. — bi na. ki. E. Tartar. — t'a. 
Egyptian. — tai. tcr. Caucasian. — es. 
Amharic. — ka. TJgro-Altaic — as. ui. 


pai-nei. i 


this. that, 
which ? 
the. who. 


di. ende. 
la. 


Ugro-Altaic. — da. le. ka. te. den. 

Egyptian. — ma. an. en. 

Accad. — ta. li. din. ki. E. Tartar. — de. la. 




to. at. in. 
with, from, etc 


hu; pu ; ca — no/ 


Caucasian. — nu. Egyptian. — tem. 
Accadian. — na. nu. mi. 




no! not. 


onu. yub. ) _ , 
ye.pu. j-y^*- 


Egyptian.— aia ? ja? xu. 

Ugro-Altaic. — o. nji. da. Accad. — d'in. 


man. ye. 


yes ! good. 


ctsa. 


Accadian. — zn\=lright ; shining. 
Hindi.— shakkar. Japanese. — ski wo. 


sih. 

(tshcn = to shine. 
Chinese.) 


Salt. 
white. 




Sanskrit. — salt = sara ? 
Egyptian.— shu =«/«■«/»//. 




sugar 
sweet 


1 


Caucasian. — .sc. Dravidian. — yan = ice. 
Accadian. — ■^o.r=tohitc. shcg=«HO«>. zal = 
Ugro-Altaic. — jcg = ice. [^shining. 


pa. chan. 
song=co/(?. 


Sxow. 
white. 
ice. glass. 



A rillLOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



208 



Indo-Chinese. 


Thlbet. 


.VjIKItrCAN. 
NOUTII. CliNTKAL.t SOUTU.* 


itto. ikku. ako. tit. 
moc. chik. (j^uih. ^zig. 
mo=hand. 


7'eg. 


iku=/. 

mai.* pakh. ta. ita. ikii. 


bhra. mue. 


brgya. 


pacak.* paiak.* 


chok. uinka. kerr. 


heu. 


cokhi (Texas), cunka. 


ha. khnn. hi. pasim. 'ka=haH(I. 


Ina. 


zakcn.* tahoh. nan. picka. 


mie =land. 
■pjec=counfri/. 
sre. ma.ti = l(ind. 
joo-'h.&=villaye. 
dat. oo-yen. 


zin. tsul. khius. 
'k.OT=circle ; ivhccl. 
mta ; ma= hotmdanj ; 
limit. 


muye. zaca.f milli.f ama. 
too. mah = la)id. tvt = Kio?ie. 
miiyuk* =circle. tiih = /i(jHse; stone, 
calli\ = house, tialli — land. 


kha. ku. kau. anka. 
awai. nga. yi. 


na. ned. 


ne. iku. noka.* ni. ah-ai. bi.f 


tha. thin. nah. bai. 


k'yed. 


zu. ki. ta. nan. uqui.* nugui.f 


no. bii. wa. pi. thoo. 
hana. 


ko. («/(<■ =kon.) 


hau. ch-ih. nunu.f aco.f 
wah. ano. 


as. hto. 
ee. the. 


di. de. 
kar. iti. 


ti. na. sa. ca. 
ar. tu. ha.f 


de. mai. 

kab. 

peni. 


mdnn. tur. 
la. dan. 
ma. im. 


teh. tin. 
to. ti. 
mee. 


ha. na. maha. 
hegne. augua. 


gan. ma. nu. 


na. hani. mao.f 


on. ye. yuh. ma. 


0. de-yin. ugei. 


yau. ma.* 


syang. po. (sowar; Ghond.) 
tsah. 


tswa. 6<i\= glass. 


iztal.f iitAlioe=snow. ntal. 
sheh-eh-pok. 


th'chyah. sugu=«2<w. 


kara. dnar-ba=s;c««<. 


zuraf; sutes=ivhite. STid6k= sweet. 


yay-geh. 


ghaus. dar. 
se\=fflass. sakchu? 


jah. kharsa.* kais ? poh. 
iztalf = 6«/^. stahae. zahs. 



27 



209 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 







ABORIGrNAl 




Afbican. 


SUNDET. 


Chinese. "L." 


English. 


oke. 


Caucasian. — Bharga — i/od. " A." ? 
,, tail. tukt. iak^t/rent. 


io-^e^icad. 


Mountain. 


hska— great. 


Accadian. — aka — ffreat. tiiL kbar. 


nga ; kry=^;'Crt^. 


peak. hill. 


aglia — Jiead. 


Dravidian.' — kaWu^sfone. 

Sanskrit. — kakud; kuta^=jJf(iJ:, rock, adrl 


kavi^^head. 


stone, rock. 


kolu=:^rfff<. 


Egyptian. — x'-'t- tii. axa=/»'y/i. 
,, textn:=sfone ; rode. 




great. 




Ugro-Altaic. — tar. tau. aga. 




head ; top ? 




Indian. — kooli. 






mano. ku. 


Egy|5tian. — hammu. 
Accadian. — mu. nu. me. ku. 


lu. 


Man. 


tliomi. 


,, lu. gisb. gur. gun. 
„ ■ai'xa.^iing . nam. uku. 


lau. 


male. 


tiiama. 


Hebrew. — adam. isb. 
Ugro-Altaic. — er. komi. son. 


me. 


husband. 


uio. mu. 


,, kena. mi. manne. 
Libyan. — ammis^sow. 


iaru. 


father ? 


amah. 


Gaelic. — (iCi\i\ix^diindreA. cearn. 
Caucasian. — kmari. gwami. 


hu. 


son? 


Ii07iii. alo. 


,, goTai=f(!miIi/. 

,, khomo:=-so». zm^=.hoy. 


ti'ma. 


people. 


koa. har. 


Ladian. — jun. ma'noos. nur. 
Sanskrit. — manusba. manu. nara. kin. 




family. 


zuno. ma. 


„ jana. enna=?(/«/. 






bara. 








ema. 








kame. 








kum. ma. 


Accadian. — dam=«t'«/e. 


(iaru :=;««»). 


Woman. 




„ niu. ummu. geme. 


fia? 




amc. mu. 


„ (\u.m\i=^da tighter. 


ngo ; aga:=SM)'('r. 


g-ii-1. 




Egyptian. — mki^moiher. 


ahmei. 




aye. meme. 


Ugro-Altaic. — anii. mum. 


mi; ine:=motf(i'r. 
cbima. lak-mes. 


wife, mother. 


nana. 






daughter. 


ma. 


Caucasian. — mama. 

Accadian. — geme. dam. ama:=M'(/«. 


ma ? me. 


Mother. 




Indian. — mail. umma. 


ama. 


wife. 




Egyptian. — mat. 




woman. 


ba. baba. 


Hebrew. — ab. 


apa. po. hu. 


Fatheh. 




Accadian. — aba. nda. 


pau; na.— husband. 




pa. 


Sanskrit. — pitar. 




man? 


na. 






husband. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



210 



Indo-Chinese. 


Thibet. 


Amebican. 

NOUTU. CENTUAL.t SotJTH.* 


tako. tu. bhar. 
hajo. hacluir. 
tan= ffreat. klialon. 
thckha =kii/}i. 
katau=/ic«f/. takiiii. 
]iha.= ffood. 


ri. sgau. 
Vm^=rock. 
ido= stone. 


baccba*=^r««<. or quaubtla.f 
tsak.f tepcf =rofZ:. j)ata.* 
kaax.f boo-ak.f kboilo.* ku. 
'ku=stone. Vak=done. tetef =>-0f/-. 


sani. bhar. lu. 
tba-tbami. kami. 
cbamai. b)o. khon. 
ami. kumi. ku. 
abunc'l. bo. ilian. 
puka. amme. su. 
bbarmi. kbar. barb, 
karu. koda. kbom. 
me. mi. manub. 
songo. sauniak. 
kari; tcmok=tvom(in. 
mana ; has. biwa. 
nguoi. 


makai. zami. 

er. kbyo. 

kisbi. 

me. 

mi. mani ? 

amme. ami. 

jak=»iale. 


«vi=.people. sunt.* jazi. 
bama. canai.* amo.* ma.* 
loar. tbimce.* tamo. kb)b. 
dini.* cunc. dina. leno. 
mue. malik. runa.* umo.* 
makbo=/(;(.sA(r«rf. 
taka. neka. bake.* bito.* 
huarma*=.so«. ermeu.* can.* 
cari.f kbari.* cburi.*=.w/«. 
kosa^'' =hushand. uarc.* tbaka.* 
sawe. buano.* sugne.* 
oquiek.f am. hahn.j = wo)na». 
uarc =father. urku* = male. 


maym-mab. 
temek. 

m.a.-jah=u'ife. 
aya ? mairima. 
amab = .s(4'(";'. 
tbami = daughter. 
luk-sa. 6u=man. 


mo. ano. 
bud-med. 

tsa-mo=(F. grand- 
child.) 
c\m-TSia,=wife. 


nsu.f marmi.* muki.f doma.f 
aini.* me. anu.* amo* = wrt';(. 
ab-nab. meba. meue. tlena.* 
micaA^girl. iiamai = daughter. 
abnab. tabmab. bama = wfl?«. 
cunba.* = (6'o«iff». cunia. 
layka. buarmi.* babri.f 


aya. me-ya. mab. 
luk-sa. a-mee. 
ama. zima. 


ma. gam. 
ama. 


me.f abnab. cbema.f iskeb. 
amama. ami.* maou.* 


pba. na. appe. 
aba. apa. babai. 


pa. dpada. pba. 
yab. 


api. appa. dada. 
baba. pai. apa. 



211 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 







SUNDEY. 




Aboriginal, 

Chinese, etc. 










Afeican. 


Caucasian. 


Berber. 


Basque. 


"L." 


English. 


lima. 


gori = %. 


ammis. 


mammi. 


zau; \a'a = small. 


Son. 


kQke = litth. 


gwami. 




buino = (7(/W. 


ai; \o = small. 




num. 


ce. 
pha. 






• 


little ? 
man? 
boy? 


sure, sorre. 


eklii. 


azul. 


iguski. 


nai. 


Sun. 


kase. sui. 


tagLa. 


tiziri=MOOw. 








kaka. dzua. 


mze. 




ekki. 


nao. t'ai. 


fire. 


tschen. 


zeru=«%. 










iie=fyc. 


(Saiisk. = surya). 






ta'. fa. 


moon. 


nyarn. 












kiele=«M» or 








kbisi =//•«. 


star. 


moon. 












isi\ko=j!re. 




Eti-uscau. — 
usil. 

Aecadian. — 
izi. gar. 




numa. 
ni. 


sbining. 
eye. 


gueli. 


la. 


tisori. 


illgai. 


ka-ly. 


Moon. 


kclo =ivMte. 


as,t\=star. 


azul =s WW. 


ilzar. 


t'a. 




kau^ sun. 


zc =star. 




zillar=S27c«-. 


long. 


sun. 


ali; zc= sun. 








ku=_/fr«. 




dzua=s2m. 










montb. 


kase. kasu. 


za. tsi. 


esbegh. 


sikki. 


ti'. tai. 


Fire. 


na-ta. kaka. 












(lzua=«i<w. 


tza. zo. 


tacbart. 


zik. 


to. tau. 


star. 


isako. aka. 












massu. asat. 


tsetskUi. 




izeki. 


kbisi. fi. 


(lay. 


tsclion=.sM».. 












zo. itso. (Isow. 


niza. 




ekbi. 


nu. ma. 


beat. 




bur. 




irazck=fo burn. 


matu. 


sun. 








zillar=sifrw. 


nao. ku. 


to bum. 








[Japanese. — zuki 


sbau. lau. 


liot. 








=»ioo;?.] 












[Koriac. — ekbi.] 







A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCOEDANCES. 



212 



iNBO-CmNESE. 


Thibet. 


Amemcan. 

NOETH. CENTRAL.t SoUTU.* 


knru^ziiuiii. tliah. 


kyly. 


koimeg. huahay. thimac=w(are. 


tha-tliami=«0M or man. 


ci^— little. 


cliuru.* timawon. t-Mna=zivoman. 


ammc=:waM. 


a,mme-=man. 


sief — Uttle. taksa.* hama — man. 


kichai. luan. 


hii=-c/iiM. 


a.mo*=man. cm=hog. 


sak-liak. sugu. 


nar=:sta): 


shakineh. sak-i-not. tsue.* 
masahr^mooM. nee. nina. 


nagu. na}'. sanu. 


{yzcT=ray of light.) 


za. tsa. nage. nakhai=(?«y. 
nine=/?/'«. damif=f/fly. 


kasi. dani. na. 


ri. tser-ba=^o .shine. 


hi. kisito.* kesis=SM» or moon. 
\ixj^ra!/s of sun. 


sul. nam. san. no. 


nyi-ma. 


kieski.f nag.f kyik. sa. ishe.f 
ktal* ; iUa* ; hello==^r«. naai=s!«M. 


bold. (Khond.) 


gua. ne. 


teo-ro ; nee=/«oo«. nia*==;?r#. 
qnassi.* haika. akai==/?r«. 


kk=fin>. (Ghond.) 


nimo. 


cam ; ma ; rera"'''=: re. nani=<^y<'. 
RVLVA^^white. 


tserba. slian. ych. 


[Chinese. — sa=_^re. ] 


sacas; sacut=Ao<. chaan=(/rt//. 


I Cliiiiese. — sing. \ 






1 Sanskrit. — surya=:.sun. ) 






{ Accadian. — zahar—brii/Jit. sa. j 






ke. dpu. lab. 


zla-ba. zhi. 


citlali.* kay. hi. kiuf=f/(/y. 
masa^moow. sah=.s7(><. 


bpyalit. kis=_^/r. (Ghond.) 


slikna. 


illa*=:.si(» or fire. ktal:=SM«. sillo.f 
dina^rA/y. iiivd^ight. 


sul:=s«w. lyali. 


[Accadian. — zabar= 


kakka. chaau:=rf(fy. quilla.* 


« 


bright.'] 




hoa. mi. mee. ne. 


sa. iin-hn—heat. 


sa. ho. tahi. teo. to. ta. 
tschuco.f iakai. haik=:««». 


masi. mai. men. 


tog-sa. ri. 


mass, tizaker.f kesis=:sM«. 
matto. hi=67«i. 


kasi^fo burn. kamo. 


gal. 


tona*:=^ burn ; sun. tata.* hello, 
ktal.* ciuola.* talu.* Hla.* kon. 


na. ami. fi ? 


Ihan. 


sacu*^(o<. nia.* nee. nine.* 
chaan:=f7rfy. mata— /?/•<■, heat. 


sabuk=s^a;'. sai-:=sfar. 


t'zigpa — to burn. 


naai^sM«. (inassi*^.v;«M. cac.f 
sliiks.f sak.* uaiki.f sakasf=/i6^. 


kis. (Ghond.) 






bela:=s!<«. (Khond.) 






1 Accadian. — bil. izi. ku; su=smm. ) 
( ,, za; za\—bric//it. f 











213 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OP ACCORDANCES. 







Beebeb and 




Aboeiginal 




Afeicajt. 


C AFC ASIAN. 


Libyan. 


Basque, etc. 


Chinese. "L"." 


English. 


jimma. 


zeru. zata. 


guina. 


egun=(7ffy. 


wo. 


Dat. 

Skt. 


genaa^sim. 










kanu. 


dgch^ddi/. 


iigot:=liffM. 


zcru=:sZ-y. 


negay. 




tango:=s«w. 










heavens. 


dian. 


zo. tza. 


agenna. 


zin.ar::=silrer. 


kota. va. 


Ught. 


kose. 










dawn. 


tsehen. 


sar. 


tignao=«X'y. 






sun ? 
bright ? 


kose. 


za. tsa. 


itri. 


izar. 


khisi=/rf. 


Star. 


kasu. 


asti. 


tizori^woow. 


zem^slci/. 


kasu. 


fire. 


shunda. 


seta. 


atar? 






sun? 


(iiar= Arabic.) 


zuri. 










zi. man. 


tschur. 


aman. 


ur. 


na. zi. 


"Water. 


masna. 


khi. izquali. 


babar^see. 




nan. i. 


sea. 


maka. 


pishi. 


asLE. 




ho. ni. 


river. 


uko. acho. 


pseh-psez. 


amon ; chih. 
(Guanche.) 




nam. 


rain. 


aya. amu. 


dzeh. 






num. 


humid. 


anki. dsi. 


tshin. 






che. er. 


wet. 


nyam. 


cher— river. 






tak. to. 


splash. 


ru-wa. 
(mah ) 


nech ?=zram. 






mena. 
tiii. 


mere. 




mayo Arabic. 






Etruscan. — ar. 






me 






Coptic. — cir ; 


han=^o drink. 




'(ayam=Ethiopic). 






„ iaro. 
Hebrew. — mayim. 
Ugiic. — ky. su. \va. 

„ lu. mTi. 







A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



214 







Amebican. 


Indo-Chinese. 


TmuET. 


NOBTH. CENTBAL.t SoUTH.* 


thien. tin;;', tiiiuui. 


koh. 7zi. 


tauif:=.sZ'y. c-ini.* zura*==wA«fe. 


taka. tunak. biiii. 


tser-ba. zap,=rfrt//. 


temc. tonica. tikas. 

pacha. kacai=rfoy. do*— dag. scila. 


tamak. tuudi. nam. 


yzer=! if/ /if. 


ca,m^Jire. naai. 

zakf — white, temc. tahn — dag. 


tanklyan. kor. 


■iTl-=^b right. 


na,m:=cge. nam.* niWo^^star. 
tagg dag. tikas. tzuna. sua.* 


kani. diua. ngay. nay. 


ynani. ynam. 


nage^SMW. tma^ight. 
kaan.f illn — star. 


nagu. sahak. 


skarma. 


tesel. siri.f tze. ish. 

tysel.* kase. gashi.f sa—fa-e. 


tsah. sam. 


sar. yuldus. 


kesis=:si«j or moon, taika. 
za — .mn. nagc — szm. zzham.* 


kasi=s«». sar. 


skara. eni. 


stan. i[\a*=fre or .lun. 
saka*=^/-«. sah:=«MW. 


tsha. kesoa. 


tsiue. 


zuraf — white. 


.saka. kych. 


zuldur. 




/ Caucasian. — za. \ 
\ Accaclian.^ — sin. sig. f 


tscr-ba=s,^-y : iiglit. 








j ,, sir^ ifjiif. 1 
' „ zabar. — bright. ] 










zo. to. ti. tak. 


kia. chu. ku. 


tanak. koo. to. tu. yaku.* 
huma. lu. na. men. 


va.Yit=-river. 


tcha. tsu. 


aba. hy. ho. ko. awwa. 
ye. kik. khah. kiokoh. 


ka. tan. yay. 


ka-ba. 


aha. ki. ak. ha. aka. 
a.m.jam=irircr. uke. 


kawa. koma. 


wa. 


nee. ma.* naama. 
paha. aza. mak.* ma. 


awa. au. kyu. 




mayu*=?-/r«-. meanee. 
tza.* tia=^rain. use. 


may. ni. re. 




sie.* sa.* ahti.f tesse. pa. 
tsash.* po. pae.* ahmah. 


asie; jov;a=river. 




ahesu. kok. uash. 
hahuiri.* atoya.f uni.* 


nam. mioe. 




haucri.f peez.* (S.E.). ahmah. 


a.%oi—dro2). 


■ 




tui. assi. kak. wa. 






pisi. esi. 






ishin. mat. 






menam. pi. 






Sanskrit. — udaka. ■) 
( Chinese. — shui ; ho. ] 











215 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeican. 


StINBET. 


English. 


da. ^i\—to give. 


Accadian. — gar. 


1 
to give. 


sutrt. dza. 


Chinese. — shih. 


to eat. 




Cliinesc. — tok. da. ko. \ 


to do. j 




Drayidian. — chey. 


make. ) 


shwa. 


Indian. — nuisali=ro('('f. \ 
Japanese. — na=«rtWf. ) 


to speak. 


pap;i=/o flif. V\—fo go. \ 


ITgi'o-Altaio. — kar. \ 


to go. ) 


pe-kiai=!rrttt. 


Accadian. — gin. gir. ) 


foot, j 



A nULOLOUICAL TABLE OF ACCOEDANCES. 



21(3 









Amekicax. 




* 


Indo-Chinese. 


TiniiioT. 


NouTif. Central t 


South.* 


to give. 


ka. pay-tlie. 


skur-ba. 


caa. j- kia. rbu.* qua. 




to eat. 


clia. tsh-the. 


za-ba. 


wipislia. Izi. ipih. pah. 




to do. 


hocho. 


by-e.l. 


he. ku. glia. 




to speak. 


nena. 




nimi'^z^.specch ; word. 




to go. 


'kau=foot. 


ko=/wo^. ca-ba. 


pa=/o i/u. ka ; pat*=/«'//. 








iiub-ba. gro-ba. 







* N.B. — The "Indo-Chinese" languages do not appear to yichl go(xl results in Archaic Coni- 
j)arative Philology ; probably they are much mixed ; I have included in " Indo-Chinese," the Burmese, 
Assam, Cochin-China, Annam, and Siamese groups of Latham. Some good analogies may, however, 
occasionally be noticed as between the Hebrew and Assyrian and Thibetan. (See also p. 164.) The 
Thibetan, however, may also yield other useful general comparisons. 

The words selected under head of " Original Chinese," have been mostly taken from Prof. Terrien 
de Lacouperie's "Languages of China before the Chinese" (London, 1887); and from the Eev. J. 
Edkins' " Miau-tsi Tribes," and which probably come more or less under the two branches of the 
so-called Himalaio family, viz., the Eastern, and Western or Thibetan. 

The "Intrusive " Bak tribes are supposed to include the Accadians who migrated some 3000 years 
B.C. from Chaldaja and Central Asia. The Mantshus and Mongols came into North Western China at 
a much later period. Prof, de Lacouperie in his book appears to include two classes of so-called 
" Chinese before the Chinese," viz. the Aboriginal Chinese, and the Pre-Chinese. (See p. 51.) 
Brvan Hodgson is the best authority on the Himalayan languages. 



28 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE 



OP 



ACCORDANCES. 

(PART VI.) 



DRAVIDIAN; MALAY; OCEANIA; POLYNESIAN AND PAPUAN. 



219 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Modern Afmca. 


SCNDEY. 


Enolish. 


ilu=7io«se. 
taku. eta. dak. 
ikimda. oko. 
kou data. 
moojarr. kala. 
okuta. kau. 
batura=^o cut. 
eta. taVd\n=.spear. 
libuko. kuka=:roci. 
\.Q\\^stone ; egg. 
[yatu. — Madagascar.] 


TJgro-Altaic. — ^bat. katr. katle. 

Arabic. — billab. kata^c^//. 

Hebrew. — baitli=/((/M.s('. ga\^/raj>. 

Ambario. — biat. 

Cbincse. — ilat=en>-th. 

Egyptian. — bat=fo cut. baak=AoMs«. 

„ tektu. at^wtise. xal^«'''««'- 
Indo-Chinese. — keclu. kbyawk. 
Accadian — gar. bar. tac^. 

,, khalon:=/(//7. 
Hindi. — pa'thur. k'dt=:cut. 
Japanese. — sato. oka — hill. 
Corean. — tol. 
Kurilc, etc. — kual. 


Stone. 

hard. rock. 

earth. 

house ? , 

round. | 

taw? 

hiU. 

to cut. 

knife. 


uuiango. 

kurma. 

bua ; 'kohx^great. 

oka. oke. 

k\\TA=igreat. 

ikunda. 


Ugro-Altaic. — kar. 

Egyptian. — tu. kid^iigh. 

Hindi. 

Japanese. — oka=7/ iU. 


Mountain. 
hill. 

tall; high, 
great, rock. 
top. head. 
tree. 


umuti. moeri. muri. 
ki. to. koue. mi. 
goru. karaga. buo. 
kodsi. tir. gi. tu. 
aka=:s^(V/.'. m'paho. 
kesgar. pidi. 
ukari. okix^iill. 
tab. eku. buk. 
kiti. ki. kuru. oke. 
ogi. esan. ti. 
'koko^^siick. csi. 
su. kon. kia. 
mori. kiragar. tcra. 
kunu. mutti. 


Arabic. — mava. 

Hebrew. — ga^iigh. 

Assyrian. — isu. 

Eg)-ptian. — x^ ; l^ua. kai^iigh. 

,, ba. tar. 
Indo-Chinese. — kadung. pu. 

,, wah=Jr/H(ioo. tet:p=o«r. 

„ pun=/o(6Y7'. 
Caucasian.— che. 
Chiuese. — chu. kok=/(('(///. 
Accadian. — gish. gi. 
Ugro-Altaic. — pu. kbu. 
Japanese. — ki. kawa — high. 
Corean. — nan. 


TliEE. 

wood. 

bamboo, cane, 
branch, 
forest. 
Jim ? high. 


kagado. okodo. 
doko. da. pat. 
kouliwc. 
koko. 


Hebrew. — k'ad. 
Turkish. — kab. 

Assyrian. — kaddutu. kaqnituk. 
Egj'j)tian. — pig ? niarex. kabh. 
Chinese. — pao. pei. ch'ih=)'o drin/,: 
Sanskrit. — patra. pri=^ drink. 
Accadian. — gu=:/o drink, dug. 
Ugro-Altaic. — bariluk. 
East Tartar. — gardu. 


Pot. 
jug. cup. 
calabash, 
shell ? 
to cook. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



230 





JIalay. 

achinese. 

Micronesia ? 


POLyNESIAN. 

Fiji. Maori. 


Papuan. 

N. Guinea. 


Ameeican. 


Dra VIDIAN, Etc. 


Melanesia f 


AUBTBALIA. 


NOIITH. CESTUAL.t SoL'TU.* 






lioUNEO ? 


Tasmania. 




kal. kallu. 


batu. fatu. 


(ihatu. 


hat. 


kat.* cata.* maca.f 


man^i'drfh. 


hixt-it. 


poliaku. kca. 




callif=:AciMM. saUa.* tc. 


ha\\(;:=rill<if/e. 


patthar. 


ofai. hat. 


vatu. 


oca*:=/(Oi«««. 


(khar. Ghoml.) 


\\atz^car(h. 


toka. t(dva. 




totLf kak.* paki.* 


katu^fo kill. 


na\-=zearth. 


maka. vatii. 


bakcer. 


bak. tot giu-.f 


parai. 


inga-ta^earth. 


rakaii=/«i'/e. 




t'ka=earth. palihi.* 






kahdirryjca;-. 


moara. 


Tiunai=:<!«/-^/( ; land. 






kamaka. 










taku^.v/m/-. 


bii]idi=^o cut. 








pa]xi. rua. 










kupi — knife. 


baia=:to cut. 








koatu. tu. 






malai. 


gunong. 


kiiahi. 


tavii 


1 

mochi^inucli. 


male. 


bukit. baik. 


scvii^/iiz/h. 




pata.* (luauhtla.* 


kunnu. 


kaya=(/;Y'«<. 


tua. 


siiku. 


ukka*:=/((y//i ; great. 


!iir-:= Jieud. 


nijab 'i-:=L(jreat. 


mok6=.si'/-o»y ? 




toak.f luunomo.* khollo.* 


kaiida. 




great. 


bon. 


iiiakta*=4('/Y;»y . 'kuan=great. 


fi'iulda. 




maima. 




ahhi. hu-yah. ku^rocl;. 


lyddai^ff real. 




iiou ; Toa:=ffrcat. 


weshe. 


ta.\i=grcat ; high, tc^stone. 


ta\in=J/ead. 




o\c=igrcat. 




huacha*=y;Y'«^. 






kaua ? 


iwz=grcat. 


hMey*=zgreat. tse=sfo»e. 






a.\\xa.\^great. 




zaciiali^i/rm^. hoo-ak. 
7ia=zkigh. 


kaikol=fa»«. 


kazu. 


kaan. kai. 




kahiia.* kan.* hi. 


iiuira. 


nyu=coeo« nut. 


pukc=i(/a<. 


hasiai. 


]iirn.*^hranch. chc. 


dHyadarxi^cedar. 


kayo. boh. 


kau. 




hacha.* hua * khoka.* 


mai-am. 


kaya=: )*«//. 


niu=cofO(? nut. 


kaibiis. 


hiii-hi.* kar.f 


karaiubii^fffwe. 


ki. kauru. 


hum. hutu. 




kagg. acatl^/-<?«f/. 


kodu^lninch. 


pohim. epap. 


haari^('o<'0(? nut. 


kalk^stic/c. 


'kao'-^=zboat. 


tenuu ; trire=: 


pshun. 


rakau. 




pisku.* qiiauh.* 


cocoa met. 


bah. 


yo^^great; tall. 


kai. 


karga-|-=/y/Y'.y<. 


para. 


utan~/i/*fs<. 


lakan. toa. 




kah.* ruk-ma. 


dilru ? 




ira. lira. 


rahiia:=4o«<. 


tsa. toha^ffrZ:. muya. 


murra (Gliond). 




mkau^^oZw. 




muira.* yahak. 


pushpam ^^Jlower. 




ki-wi? 




naa. ccami'"'=^branching out. 


sasi. tei. 




miihiita ? 




ccaspi.* gazo.* 


pu=_/o«.'c/\ 










pattiram. 


piryyak. 


gild. 




kaka. potum. 


kudam. 


inangkok. 


])eiz^f!hcll. 






koppai. 


chawa. 




? 


puti*=io.!'. 

tcco. matl.f manka.* 

tzsy. koto.* 



221 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



AFEIC-iJf. 


Sundry. 


English. 


Yaio=la}id. 


Egyptian. — ta — hmd. kar. kai. dai— fold. 


Encxosttee. 


kau ; ku'a=/<WOT. 


,, jam^ii/li/ ff round. a!ir=^stone. 




ihi-:^rill<iffe. 


Assyrian. — mCitxim^find. kini. kar. umT=cit//. 


land, field. 


a.mo.=viUaffe. 


Chinese. — ten. kai. d\i=.land. kia=/;oj<sf. 


garden. 


io^vlllage. aar^^house. 


Ugro- Altaic — mat ; 'kia^wuse. 


earth, stone. 


kuIo=/a/7».. 


,, kar. khoe=.s;'o»e. 


house. 


moozc^nnd. 


Accadian. — gal ; kal=/(OKS«. 


village. 


vala (=Mad.). 


,, kar. gan. ki=:fc«r/. 


circle, enclosure. 




Amharic. — ar. 


country. 




Arabic. — heUe^village. 


bag? 




Hindi. — ur. huta. kliara^7;o!M«. 






Japanese. — n-arm\=^roHnd. gxun=:comitri/ . ta. 






Kuiile. — tni^^eaiih. 






Corean. — mxit^latid. da. 




ulu. ilu. ta. 


Ugro-Altaic. — polle=t77%«. 


House. 


ilee:=r//?(7^e. 


„ hii. kote. kalle. ha— tree. 


tent. 


esu. tan. 


Egyptian. — at. ha. pa. met. baat — stone. 


homo. 


ura. bVale. 


Coptic. — al=i'o dwell. 


cot. hut. castle. 


ger. aar. 


Accadian. — kur. gal. iini^citi/. 


bricks ? 


pcra. ndsii. 


,, ma. gal. har^waH; castle. 


village. 


da. aro. ho. 


Sanskrit. — (;\\a.^zston e. 


family ? 


kaLa=«<o«e. 


Assyrian.— bitu. kar. !\\\\=^city. 


land. 


dcbe. hu. 


Basque. — em^^riUdfje. 


door? stone. 




Hebrew. — ^vX^ieaj). 


skin. 




Chinese. — hi. pao. hi. 


to dwell. 




French. — batir=fo hiild. 






Indo-Chinese. — kwa. i(A\:=fent. 






Hindi. — ghar. mighar:=i77/(?y<'. dera:=^'w<. 






Japanese. — che. ihe. sato. 




mokoro. 


Corean. — pai. 


Boat. 


egba. kuku. 


(Levant.) — felucca. 




kokua. ki. 


Accadian. — kiku^/(OM«e. 'kmm.-=.free. 


dug-out. 


achu. nckoko. 


Basque. — lorcha ? 


canoe. 


koye. eke. 


Sanskrit. — nau. vidaka.=zwater. 


pinnace. 


bwato. ogbo. 


Andaman Isle. — loringa. 


ship. 


kanowa. 


Ugro-Altaic. — kayik. kyna=)'rw. 


tree ? 


wata. oko. 


Egyptian. — baki. kaka. kai. ukha. ua ? 


water-house. 


•vrato. eya. 


Chinese. — tuk. pao. kok. poh. 


fi.^^h ? .sail ? 


koue^iree. 


Celtic. — \i\kia.-=.toafer. 


water ? 


akwa; a.cho=zwater. 


Indian. — va.=.icnter. tap'a=:rf{/l'. 
Gorman. — kahn. 






Caucasian. — t'argi. 





A PIIILOLOOICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



%%% 









Papuan and 


Ameuican. 


DkA VIDIAN. 


Malay, etc. 


Polynesia, etc. 


AUSTIIALIA. 


North. CBNTUAL.t South.* 


(•lmrru=(;2rtfZ«. 


tanah. 


Me I ''"''■''■ 


amG-^hoicse. 


callif:=/joM««.f amet. 


walt;i=(/«rrf<;». 






kalpullif=r)7foye-fac/. 


toak=yrtrc?«?j. ir. 


motu. 


wliare ) 


taar. 


m'dyd=(/a)-den. 


tarai. teta. 




uare > linnse. 




bob. zacaf=.i/arden. 


era=/iOM«e. 


na.i-::=cart]i . 


ula ) 


do. 


buaylla.* coni*=Ao«<««. 


malam. 




■moi\i=lmid ? 




canclia.* too. teo::=/«(yMs«. 


kanda=/(!?(?. 


kihon-^gardcn. 


marae=e»cfo«Mre. 




tlallit=«(w7 ; land. 


kony=A(/^. 




pa. malaj. 




nunai=ze (I rth. 


cj-kal. lir. 


hatband. 


T^ew^world. 




mohl^v illaz/e. 


bottu=/?VW. 




kai-:=land. 




ua.dm:j=^)/ardcn. 


vcli=7^'c/r^. 




■paro^w use. 




panf^juface. kali=:/iOM.s«. 


hola=^'('^f/. 




kari^ffarden. 




gar.f gare.* kub=:sto»e. 


tottam^^rrrf?*?^. 








tialli. ti. mab. 


niata:=fff;'/'/i 










[(Him.). 










halle=:r(7/«(/tf. 










arasu — hiwjdom. 










iota,=zgarden. 










mott^i'illat/c. 










te)iera=viUaffe. 


rumali. im. 


hale. fale. 


ome. 


huasi.* katf=s7o«e. 


mane. 








quit, bii.f oma. 


patti. kudil. 


bali. katil. 


paro. 


uma. 


kab. pehrc.* be.* bob. 


halle=(v7/ff(jr(!. 








gare*:=/««f/. tecpan.f 


ja]li=zhome. 


hat^stone. 


kana. whare. 


bae. kae. 


katibike^.sfo««. katun. 


manai. 








tabi.* kotai. 


scnkal=brich. 


'bata=ztoicn. 


])a-:=father. 


hoi— stone. 


calli.f uma. kei.* 


VLV^zvillafje. 








(!ali)ixoa.f pat. 


clicri. era. 


hat— earth; land 


■piiz^ril/itffr; laJld. 


bain — to build. 


pa.* kat=«<0M«. tec. 


kallu^sfo»«. 








l)ahla=zstone. mobl. 


kiularam^<e«<. 


desa:=rillaffc. 


hac. fac. pab. 




cani. ku.f era.* pana.* 
koga.* kukh. boe. uta.* 




'hatn=^hn'cks. 


be. arc. 




pat.f mab:=?ff«fZ. gar^^and. 
oma. 




homah. 


mud. paro. 






toni. 


chuma. doan. 


wba. oaku. 


rahua. 


acsiQij^ivater-hoKse (Aztec). 


vallim. 


waqu. 


waki. kolu. 




caoua==As^'- 


padagu. 


prau. proa. 


vaka. kau. 


taa-uako. 


cabak. oomiak. bai=^s/«. 


kappal. 


kai '? ckon. 


moku. wagu. 




pitucbi. cbimaum. 


manclid (Mala- 


sampan. 


wauka. piuke. 




wab-lce. 


bar). 


biduk. 


p)oti. pabi. 




gya. pirago.* kao.* 


odam. 


piroquo ? 


paralagi. raca. 




m.6hu=^tree. agara.* 


oruva. 


laja^sdil. 


kaipuke. vaa. 




yayak {=tree). tappa.* 


payi=s(i(7. 


tiang=:imist. 


pinakbu. 




menanko. kabua=:<;'('tf. 


liuttu ) 
tandu ) 


hattu=ortr. ) 


tiwai. waa. 




canoua. wabta. 


]^ohmi=free. 


pitau. 




huampu.* ibuira.* 






maratau-naa. 




tlu. tomolo. 






waapa. tulula. 




haca*:=/;re. 






bipi. koma. 




qucnba*=:('/rp. pab-a. 






sa(7=:laca. ) 
mast^^vAna.. \ 




minaka. haka^^tree. 








pob-wib=:0(7/-. 






kaoiia:=iV'o. 2. 




vaat — sea. kab* — tree. 






tai ; v^ixi^water. 




paba=;/-8i;«r ; canoe. 






aka ; vaxca^^water. 







223 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeicax. 


SUNDET. 


Engli.sh. 


oko. holla. 

ka=<o go. mo. 

pese. perat=/««'?. 

siso. noni. 

yara. esu. mesin. 

pig. pidi. 

mano. nu. elu. 

he. pids. yara. 

kokko=:/oii'^; cock. 

kuku^(7//f/.Y'w. 

pap;i=^/(/. 

[vurong ; Madagascar.] 


Egyptian. — tutu, ap ; pai — tojty. mnut. bahu. 

mail; patex=/y; wing. 
Accadian. — mu-shin-ghu. tu. 

„ -pak^^to catch birds ; pa=:?c!'«^. 
Indian. — pur'ind. chir'iya, jmkh^ will g. 
Indo-Chinese. — paten. pj-unthe=/y. 
Assyrian. — para.shu^^o //;/. 
Ugro-Altaic. — kakai. kush-pteatza. 
Sanski-it. — pakshin. kukkuta=focA\ kaka=cro;(.'. 

„ i)at— to fy. 
Zend. — machas=.fti/. 
Chinese. — mao. tsiao. ch'ui; iA=tofy; wings. 


BlED. 

fowl. 

ty fly. 

feather, 
wing. 


kale. ulu. 
kukira. 
kura. neha. 
kerb. 


Assyrian. — kalbu. 

Egyptian. — uher. fu. 

Hindi. — kutta. 

Indo-Chinese. — kata. kway. 

Simskrit.— kukkura. 

TJgro-Altaic. — kaik. key. 

Japanese. — gu. chin. 

Kuiile, etc. — koma. khatulan. kosha. 


Dog. 

cur. 


ailo. mekan. toma. aya. 
ahago. sirowa. koe. 
edu. gidegwa. go. sula. 
goriUa ? aya. ukau. 


Chinese. — yii. 

Sanskrit. — kapi ? 
Burmese. — myowk. 
Libyan. — ibki. 
Kiuile, etc. — mcich;=w(n'». 


Monkey. 
ape. 


hi. 

ogoro. 
ngua. 
OTUca^^goat. 


Indian. — panni ? \tix\.v\^goat. 

Latin. — porcus. 

Mantshu.- — gachi. 

Sanskrit. — sukara. ps.(p.^cattle. 

Ugro-Altaic. — vetek. pors. 

African. — nunii. sakku. 


Pig. 
porker, 
sow. hog. 
boar. 


khut. t-ja. zeiui. 
bai. 

nima. ctsi. 
nye. ckue. 
as,sur. eya. eka. 
nyoka — malce. 


Egyptian. — x'i^i- "lii'i"- banana. 

C. -India. — hai. kaku. ukka=4V((fZr. kaic. 

Sanskrit. — niatsya. 

Hindi. — muchh. Accadian. — glia. ku. 

Ugro-Altaic. — kan. tyg. kal. 

Chinese. — gu. 

Greek. — ixOv<s. 

Africim. — ni'inu. 

Japanese. — hebi ; rya=s»fl^r. 

,, io. sakana. 
Kurilc, etc. — kok. inna. 


Fisu. 

boat ? 
snake ? 



A PTTILOLOaiCAL TABLE OP ACCORDANCES. 



224 




225 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeican. 


SCNDHY. 


English. 


zebe. edso. 
suweba. sa. 
kodi. ze. 
sa. nyo. 
abuk. kewo. 
nyoka. ka. 
samoka. edso. 
tadi. aguo. 
si.\hiiz= tiavel. 


Snake. 
Sanskrit. — qosha. sai-pa. Hindi. — mar. samp. 
Egyptian. — sep. hefi. nait. ncs^toii(/ue. 
Chinese. — zeh^tongue. sia. min. Acoadian. — zir. 
Indo-Chinese. — ngah^^sA. kapu. moo-ay. 
Assyi-iau. — shiru. Hebrew. — nuhash. 
Japanese. — hebi. ivo=^sA. Ugric. — nanza. 

Alligatok. 
Central America. — ku ; kuu ; boa ; ba. 
Egyptian. — atu. sebak. mak. ^cnti. mshu. 
African. — "koro^izard. nga. kin. Indian. — mugar. 

Lizard. 
Accadian. — tuhu. Egyptian. — hcutasu. 
African. — koro. kada. kuko. 


Snake. 
serjient. 
god. di-agon. 
fish, lizard, 
navel ? 
tongue ? guts ? 


soso=/^y. 
ema=//.y. 
ezo; igmo=:J(-(?. 


Hebrew. — zebub=Xy- Chinese. — sian^locust ? 
Sanskrit. — kiio^^g nat. Arrawak. — tussi. 
Accadian. — kisim^/oc«s<. 


Ant. 

fly- 

bee. 


esuo. tsu. so. nson. 
niwa. eni. nsau. 
so; esi^/)or.s«. uku. 


Assyrian. — sisu=/iorse. Mongol. — sann. 
Burmese. — tsin. Japanese. — zo. 
Chinese. — siang. sbi^?/o/«. 


Elephant. 


naki=o.r. 

h\lom^=camel. 
t\iv<x^=biill. lo. 
so^fiorse. 
cai^horse. 
koro^sheep. 
nikomo. m'gombi. 


Chinese. — ku. ngau. Hindi. — gaur ; gau. 
Indo-Chinese. — ksxrw^calf. kacn^coff. 

„ 'ka.va.w.^luffalo. kora^/(o;-«p. 
Egyptian. — ka. kaui. Dra^-idian. — kiittu=(?o^. 
Mongol. — temor=tf»«i«?. Sanskrit. — go. 
Ugro-Altaic. — kor. kaims=«/(«cyj. 
Accadian. — lu. kurru ?=/ior«<;. dara?=(fff;-. 
Assyrian. — shuru. kirru^s/(c<'j!). Japan. — urai. 


Ox. 

bull. cow. 
bison ; buffalo, 
camel ? 




Corean. — kamui:=4<''o//'. 


Goal 






Sheep. 


jagcrri. simlia. turam. 

chiiikundm=//««. 

guero. shuko; iiya. \ _^- .. 

ningo. nampa. koiu. ) , •' ,' 

chwi. kaiua. ; 


Accadian. — shid. la-raax. 

Sanskrit. — .siiiiha. 

Indian. — singh. Japanese. — kuma=}««r. 

Egyptian. — shcna. mah. 

K in-ilr, etc. — ruma=;r/i'(/ gont. 


Lion. 

leopard. 

tiger. 

cheetah. 


kule; kura=f%. 


Hindi . — kutta = (?o^ . 

Japanese. — gu; chm—dog. 'koms,— horse. 


Jackal. 
cur. dog ? 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



^26 









Papuan and 


Amkkican. 


Deavidian. 


Malay, etc. 


TOLYNESIAN, ETC. 


AUSTEALIAN. 


Nouiii. CKNTUjiL.t South.* 


nagam. 


ular. 


ngaore=_/?s/(. 


mata. ongab. 


sbi-qwa. boya.* 


pambau. 


naga. 


moko. 


mara. mar. 


amara.* macbaco.* 


saiiHUu ? 


ima-gata. 


nata. 


wooonka. 


kotari.* kcbi.f kota. 


liavu. liabii. 


sawcr. 


moo-o-molc. 


gata. ooloor. 


guac-baro.* sebh. 


iiiacliam^yf.s7«. 


chich.aq=lizard. 


ncko. 


beika; juku:= 


boa.* samcior. kob. 


uccu. 




nakalic. 


fink. 


.sagua^/«H//«e. 


turras (Ghond). 




na-hcsa. 


{kohoag=lizard). 


kc'uubek. katari.* 


todas ? 




ika^A'S^. 




okt. t-dktah)\i^ izard. 


nnhi^^navel. 




mvoir:^<juts. 




nobccr. (-oatLf 
sibiif^yt/rf. riiikc^oofh. 
nangar. iku-uk. 


erumbu. 


kamu. 


an^ice. 




tasabuc* mcru.* 


icca:=^y. 


ani. 


roa=/y. 




quana. ckuno.* 


kos\igu:=^y. 


sidon. samut. 






uiiii*=/fea. seborf=/?y. 


temw.a=^bi'e. 








cayolin=/y. usu^—Jlea. 


celxLz^scorjiion. 








zicotlif=A«(;. ahmoz=bee. 
annoe. sisi.* arit.f 
karasiska. ku-gnab. 


ane. anai. 


ga.jah(=hiff?). 






sof ; euif ; naif ^('«^iV. 


jesMa. niutta. 








tiitzi=it it/er ? 


kati ; koti=i«so». 


\iir'ha=huffalo. 




lemmook^ 


marrow ; buffalo. 


Va,raz=horse. umi. 


lomon=o.j;. 




kangaroo. 


lbaina*=:/rtOT«. 


ko. pctta. dane. 


\cm\m=zcaUle. 






]iha.=zb itffalo. 


pucn; paku=:co«'. 


kawan^/iprrf. 






icbamef=:.«/i(;c^. 


kuri. adu. 


kambiu g=.sheep. 






ccaura*=47/tfc/;. 


ci'umai=i)<//fl/o. 










koJia,=^huffalo. 










onte^^camel. 










adu. kolladu. 


kambing ? 


kijang. 




kallatu^f^o^. 


peti (Gbond). 




kuli=f/o_i7. 




icbame:=»7«;c^. 


mesham=ra?». 


dumba=«/i("«^. 






ccaura=sA««^. 


kurimari. 


biri. 








kadama — stag. 










(kom— horse.) 










simha=^h'on. 


singa ? 






occlof^jmma ; lion. 


ciTa,te=:leopard. 


maoliau; remau? 






cbinka*=/«/« ((iuicbua). 


-pu\i=^iif/er. 








namuf ; jaf^\iar*^eopard. 


ka.tt\i—f/(/er. 








cougar.* cbubi=/c.r. 
puma.* tutsi. durc.f 


nari ; kaduke= 




kvli—doff. 


koria ) 


kallatu ; jay^axe^^doff. 


jackal. 






kuri 5 doff. 




anaj^doff. 






kuU ) 




kora=7(or.s«. 











227 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE Of ACCOEDANCES. 



Afeicaij. 


SUNBEY. 


English. 


mbzi ; osese; tiiasii = ^c«7i. 


Egyptian. — uabit = H7(rr;/. miuui=7io««y. 


Food. 


sauyc ; si=>tiahe. ikiso. 


,, sba. sulit = fi'/^. 




matu. simba=w(Crti. sliu. 


Ugro-Altaic. — maiiu.=rgg. ros=ri/e. z\c=flesh. 


corn, maize. 


se; cse ; iaasarai = ma i%e. 


,, sarnu. mamel=»M7/i. oscb=_/7fsA. 




samba=JIesh. era=egg. 


Hindi. — seseme. sasya. 


oats ; rice. 


maza-zuai ; sa= maize. 


Celtic. — min. hovo = lread. 




kawa ; ekvd= maize. 


Sanskrit. — amislia=;?<!s/;. anna, sara ? 


miUct ; flesh. 


masse; mole; isi= oats. 


Latin. — mangcro = to eat. mammce = bmists. 




jioTio=milk. ■Azi = cgg. 


Chinese. — mi. mah. zu. suk. 


milk; egg. 


sikapa ; moka=r?«. 


Greek. — fere. anp^. fia^o-i=ireast. sbih. tsii. sa. 




\io\\ro\t.=hrcad. maniac. 


Burmese. — sa-bah = com. atsab. ts\m=rice. 


to cat. 


nama ; ■a.jAma.=flcsh-meat. 


Assyrian. — mat. ittv.= wheat. 




onyi ; vio.x\.=honeg. 


,, zh'n = secd. sbe'um. 


grain, seed. 


iiii=milk. moliku. 


Hebrew. — man. 




soso ; eza; uya=Je«««. 


Coptic . — sooulii = egg . Corcan.' — knis = m ilk. 


crops, bread. 


siwaka. mulu. bolu. 


Accadian. — sucn; seh = ir7«vr('. zi. ■oi\\-mx\ = toettt. 




gussa. lissa. ■posyo = meaf. 


,, slieg. i^hv=graiii. \\z\i=flesli. 


(mamma = 


zaloso. kowa. kwo. 


Japanese. — meslii. sboka. motsi. 


mother) ? 


■aic = mouth. 


,, mai. mimc = ;«o^/(f;-. 




Arabic. — zara = maize. ) 
„ sam. ris=;'('c<'. ) 


Km-ile, etc. — ie-sa-mam = /w;77e^. 


(See p. 70). 


,, kam=_^fs7(. nnku = (y^. 




ota. koti. baka. 


Sanskrit. — buna. v'\ns.=arrow. 
,, kut = to be/id. 


Bow u 


tenu. oron. kala. 


Cbinese. — kung. pang. 
Assyi-ian. — miclpanu. 


hand? 


uta. boro. bcnyo. 


Egyptian. — ben=«/Y. pet. 
Accadian. — bam ; ban. 
Japanese. — yami. 
Kurilc. — ku. 


foot? j 


sa ; akon = .«/)<'(7r. tsi]s.ii= stone. 


TJgro-Altaic. — zaa=how. sabs=«towe. 


Aekow /\ 


kebia. oket. pen. 


Egyijtian. — set. Bm-mcse. — bcnya. 




songa. masona. 


Hindi. — teer. Chinese. — pik. shi. 


swift. 


sa. pcno. bcnyo. 


Accadian. — taq^ = sfone. sig. 




taki\=sto)ie. nsob. 


Sanskrit. — vana. (jara. shatate. 


bow-stone. 


piimtsa. bion. sor. 


Assyrian. — midpanu = bow. 




mara. bahura. )iok=a.ve. 


Celtic. — twcca= dagger. 


bii-d? 


mon. mta. 


Japanese. — pana. ya. ua. 




kaku. aiko. acliu=«<o»«. ite^stone. 


Egyptian. — tokes; ukh=(;M;. h.eti=s2)ear. xaqui. 


Axe. 


kai; aka; dcka; ek.uma.= axe; hoe. 


Sanskrit. ■ — kutt; ak = to ^-m^. tlkshna = s/(rtr^. 




kut ; oko=stone. koangoa. 


,, (_\mrika =k)i if e. kn = sto>ie. 


adze. 


kuiiga = .tpear. j oka = devil. 


Indian. — tcglia; katar; ugupti=/-«7/e. 




takobi=s^><'(7/-; sword. uka.=Jcnife. 


,, doklia=«aw. katar = 7-«//;;. 


knife. 


auchan ; mxikalo = /ni if e. 


Arcadian. — taq = sto««. kud = to cut. 




kanii; kat-sura; kapi; ) _,,„^„,. 
koti; ukoa; nekon;tamba ( '-' 


Chinese. — khiak = to cut. ko. 


club. pike. 


Zend. — akn— a Jiook; point. 




kat-saga; sio ; kM\=su-ord. 


Ugric. — taka. suka. ' Ncpaul. — kakri. 


dagger, stone. 


zigzen = to CM^ kau ; taku=stone. 


Assyrian. — kakku. katu = to cut. 




(Arabic. — sukiii=ZM//b.) 


Ugro-Altaic. — taka. Xurilo. — mfdca. 
Japanese. — katura. katana. tsuka. 


to hack ; cut. 




„ kaka. sriki = to cut. 


(cat; scratch?) 




Corcan. — koto. kare = to cut. ko. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



228 









Papuan and 


Amebicuj. 


Deavidian. 
I sama ; save ; 


Malay, etc. 


POLYITESIAN, ETC. 


AUSTKAXIAN. 


North. CENTUAL.f South.* 


makiinam=/oo(?. 


maa. fac. 


svLsvL^miUc. 


sara*; sana.n=maize. 


j tinai ; sami= 


maa. 


mcng-o-mo. 


mann-=ef/ff. 


snmit^maize. 


( mi!M. 


santop. 


nica. 


mama.\u=^mouth. 


mabiz*:=wa/'z«. 


kema=/«ofZ. 


manggu=:mfl!«^o. 


mango, kai. 


tainiim=<o eat. 


mobu=s('«rf ; graiti. 


soro; akko=r/w. 


sagu^sff^o. 


mamai=: !?(///. 


nam-nam. 


ikwof=w«('se. 


mankay=w«»^o. 


SUSU^W(//^'. 


sakul=c,(/f/. 




mamak*=.s«y«r-f«««. 


bitt.u^,s('('rf. 


au. 


iiiani=:(Y/^. 




guaso^^ry//. 


makkc-jola= 


asso-a\ya=:^oa<'«- 


bi'si=«ff(/o. 




maab. amaj'u.* 


■maize. 


flesh. 


kuiiiara=*if«e< 




maniuk ? 


mamcsan^/?esA. 


sukon^^hread- 


pdfato. 




soban. awpia-^egg. 


mansa ; mas= 


fruit. 


kutai. 




stsif ; miccuni*^)'o ««<. 


flesh. 


inakanr^/o ent. 


fafs^i«7«««. 




maza-morraf =?««(/. 


arisi=r/c«. 


mas<"ik=)'o fooX-. 


tai'o^.fw^'c^ potato 




ikwo^OTff('2e. 


mosuk=;ci7^s. 


padi ; ivAiiv=rice. 


=Kiro ? 




aobaebuf^wfrt/se. 


(Ghond). 


hnro^hrcad. 


RUSU=J;r«.S)!. 




meme=?^'o//(ff». 


pusi=:/o eat. 


•wiii^whcat. 


p()i^/;;-cf«? fruit 






appam=irtY«?. 




paste. 






pusi=(?fli. 




bu. 
missi=;f s7(. 






vanakham. 


panab ? 


kakaka. 


? 


pana*:=7i«»(/. 


krmiya=Jf«<. 




gagai. 
sri. 




bzeika.f pentax. 
kuki=/oo)'. caki*-=/oo^. 
panuka. mateka. 
parami.* cutof^^o cut. 
pentat.* pandue. 
vacotzi. siia. kba. 


ambu. sar. 


panab ? 


pana. tua. 


? 


kana. oclatl.f aka. yah. 


panam. 




skiiri 




^wcaw^arroic. 


tume. 




pera. taa. 




mabba. panuka:=Jo(t'. 


takaba. 




teka. sukori. 




cberc.* sari.f 


(pengu ; Khond). 








ankiira.* tzub.f 

panuum=ioip. 

pama^7:«.{/(?. 










sawa ; sata=si'o«<;. 


kodari. 


kapak. parang. 


/ kamaka. patiti. 


karrgeen. 


abtokea. mebtl. ) 


kodali. kri. 


samil. 


I tukia. ukaba. 


kau-karie. 


cae-sa-que. tukb. \ "■ 


Xioitan^hammcr. 


pisau. 


< koi. opabi. 


juko. doongab. 


mutcka. kiai. mabs. 


katti. dori? 


kris. 


/ poke. toki=:«.r^. 


iiat^stoiie. 


kaka*=^ cut. 


hakw^xtrike. 


tumbaq. 


(tipi=^v(//e). 




chnki=.y(ri'»-. 


kiiduba. kuttee. 


i-djimi^sharj). 


kiq)i=r^-«//'«. 




kub ; \ai— stone. 


vettu ; kirru^ 


knh=:^o cut. 


mabas. mataku. 




makaua^r/Hi. 


cut. 


ha,ixx:^stonc. 


taku. kakk= 




entof ; matif ; tcqnif =i'o cut. 


kaIlu=«<o»e. 




spear. 




mabs ; kat.f tetlf=«<a»e. 


kattu=:<(Vjrfr. 




-waki^spear. 
duko (Borneo). 
ngu^club. 
teke; to]ia,=zsto?ie. 




muteka=^-H//«. 
tuk=ff.re. 



229 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afbicai.-. 


SlWDET. 


English. 


ka ; knkii^^bifter. 

n'ko=niffIif. 

nete. 

ukpon. dih'i^biid. 

okun. oroka. 

dudu. 

huHa—niffht. 


Egyptian. — u^a ; kek — tiir/Jif. xemi — J«<^- 

Accadian. — kukki=r/rtrX-. kaka. 

Assyrian. — duku. da'ummuta. 

TJgro-Altaic. — kara. kuvak. mik. bak. 

Hindi. — kharah= Jr/f7. 

Sanskrit. — nakta^=niffJ/t. qyama. 

Chinese. — kek. mek. ak. khurub^?W(?. 

Indo-Chinese. — khatan. khakwe. mj-dh.=mff7d. 

Japanese. — kerai. yami. yoru. ya. 


Black. 
night, 
ugly. dark, 
ache. had. evil, 
crow ? shade. 


moku. nagiL 
kukwa. 
mahuso. ku. 
schule. kukwa. 
idii. kue. lelc. 
ukoa. niutu. 
menfo. mayi. 
ugondo^wai-. 
na-mut. m'mut. 
kulu ; koka^oW. 

[Madagascar. — matti.] 


Egyptian. — mut? meru. sat. mat^J«^. 

Accadian. — mid. mara. mana. 

Sanskrit. — mah ? mri. maka:=sacrijtce. 

Chinese. — mut. mo. ku. 

TJgro-Altaic. — margh. kuol. 

Arabic. — macit. 

Assyrian. — daku=:?o kill, mutu 

Hebrew. — maireth. mut. 

Greek. — f.ia\ij^l>uftlc 

Hindi. — marua-mua. 

Latin. — mori. 

French. — mourir. 

Indian. — kixWa^^hlack. 

Japanese. — matozrn=:«(7f/'/^pe. 


Death. 
to kill, 
dead, 
corpse, 
war. 
to die, 
tomb. 
weapon ? 
night. 


etsa. esa. 
fitu. salo. 

ussu. 


Assyrian. — sarpu=e<;/«Y(;. 

Accadian. — zal ^ sh in ing . 

Ugro-Altaic. — zelan. she. saksi. sal. 

Egyptian. — ashen ^zhonei/. 

Burmese. — sah. Latin. — sal. 

Caucasian. — sc^snow. 

Japanese. — sori^«<;/( He. 


Salt. 
white, 
snow, 
shining. 


maka. nsalo. 
kara ? 


Accadian. — ahc^^snow. Hindi. — shakkar. 
Indo-Chinese. — sugu=:s)f«. 
Ugro-Altaic.' — saksi=;sff/i!. sokcii. khosh. 
Sanskrit. — (juci^ while, glistening. 

„ <^\cta.^sweet. sara? 
Japanese. — sato. Kurile. — shki=eye. 


Sugar. 
sweet, 
snow? 
white. 


daka::=wow///. 
doko=<o drink. 
ukc=z water. 
akc, kalca=yjo/ ; rnji. 
zoggii:=2)<ilm n-ini'. 


Chinese. — 'ku^spirit. Hindi. — arak. 

Accadian. — karau^ ivine. 

Mongol. — ajaka=eH^;. Japanese. — sake. 

Assyrian. — sikaru:= wine. 

Egyptian. — aqt=;^o drink, hcqt. 


Bkku. 
sack. wine. 
cii]i ? s])irits. 
airack, drink. 


liii. iiiu. 


Accadian. — {mmn-^thirst. kw^moulh. 
Mongol. — onai. 


To drink. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



230 









Papuan and 


American. 


Deavibian. 


Malay, etc. 


PoLrNESIAN, ETC. 


AUSTHALI^IN. 


North. CENTRAL.t South.* 


idukki^night. 


jahat. gamu. 


buto. sia. 


ka.ttik=»i(/ht. 


pabts. yauiiii.* 


karnppu. 


ckah. 


\w=iniffht. hades. 


kaput. 


mata. akako.f 


katalada. 


kainep. kalam. 


wlu'ko. 


bookin. kooroo. 


yama. po. 


kutthu =/«/«. 


scpat. jclek. 


ouri. 


bodok. 


\wcat— shade. 


, ,. Mack. 
^'^"'^^ bad. 


malam:=»i/?/(<. 


kiki=Jfl//. (B.) 


boorcn. okyo. 


cuata.* chngtA^^uit/ht. 


makah-atuk. 


oaUi^s/iadoiv. 


ukoa=fo die. 


hukn^ demon. 


kappu. kar. 


naraka=:A«^^. 


maca. iruiru := 
shadow. 




kaak. yace.* 

kaka^if«7. 

yano.* 


murana. 


mati=to die. sick 


mano-mano = 


mata. mati. 


mikkaf^^owi. luea. 


kadam. 


m.a,-it=^corpse. 


hades. 


mala. 


mui'u. 


marauaya. 


majan. c-mak. 


mate. hemo. 


mas ? mai =^ to 


miquij-=;/o die. num. 


kollu = to 


e-mat. 


polie. mei. 


die. 


mahi^knife. 


katham kill. 


\wh^fo kill. 


matcna. mcla. 


mootche. 


miirani.f nomae=<o kill. 


mc'jau? 


mati^fiick. 


taua=war. 


manbe. 


kloma. liuanu.* du.f 


]i.atu.— kill. 


tanam^i'o bttnj. 


marere. 


balome. 


mara*=^w kill. 




mejan =^ tomb- 


maru = (jod nf 


wanga. 


ti-koo. menic.f 




stone. 


war. 


meri = club, or 


mutu.f iuiuiiu.* 




miiit=corpse. 


kukumi. 


killer. 


muteka=^-«{/«. 




msiix— tomb. 


mari ^ death- 


ngatiug^jfa/'. 


mehtl^fl.fe. 






[jhost. 


wykit. 


muick=:^OMO». 






haamoe. 










merkai=rf*fl<A- 










dance. 










mahe:=.s^ (?(??•. 










amo= J ('«/•. 










nxaXakw^spear. 










mirvL-:=ffoddess of 










Hades. 






uppii. 


asin. 


yote. 


solo. 


skubosb. on. soh^siiii. 


sowa (GhoDtt). 




paaclii. 




sh.otto:^tchite. zak^white. 


sima=««o!f. 








tot. iztal.f 


'bi\i=^white. 








znra.*=.tvhite. j(Ao::^s)iow. 
sacbi. pok. 
shamaa.:^ snow. 
sikkoo ; rassu=:««o«'. 


sakkarc. 


sakah. 


gaso=SHffarcane. 




s\idak-=siveet. 


ci=^8weet. 




kaso^bamboo. 




shotto^tvhite. zakj^wMte. 
sikkoo^swoit'. znraj^= white. 
kbarsa, — ice. sella — sky. 


churukku. 




karaca. 




Sicca,*=maise-spirit. 


lotti. 




keshega. 




octli.f tbaoloctli.f 


uruk. 




'kait'i^o^ffrape ? 






oluku:=rfyoj). 




ascga. 
kava. 






kudi. panam. 


minum. 


inu. ona=;-«/;;. 




mas. bindi. bannab. 






inumia. 


? 


xrai^water. 



231 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeican". 


SUNBET. 


Enguse. 


ek'ka\iz=hand. 


Greek. — viKaw^to conquer. 


Slave. 




Sanskrit. — karkata=rt-(?S. na(j ; vrik = fo se/sc. 


lackey. 


caca — shire. 


Chinese. — tuk^^ seize, kap. na. 


catch, captive. 




TTiTidi. — puk'urna ? Mantshu. — akka. 


to seize. 


kako ; nakoa=:/(aHf/. 


Accadian. — shuk-kaL tuk=:feZ:c. 


grab, servant. 




Egyptian. — bak=«e;-p««<. 


hand ? 


obeah. 


Accadian. — utuq ? ukku. 


Demon. 


n-'ko^niffJit. 


Egyptian. — yy^. hka = «(rt^('('. W)i\\. kck. 




bogun. joka=f/f(77. 


Sanskrit. — naeta="/(//(i. 


dark, devil. 


asoka^bhick. 


Mantshu. — ckko;=Wrtf^'. 




sada]i.a,:=sacrifi,ce. 


Turkish. — w^-^spirit. 


sorcerer. 


tiiku=Jfoc^. 


Ugro-Altaic. — uliyok ; j)aka. 






Indo-Chinese, — chat. Chinese. — kek. 


bad ; idol. 




Assyrian. — akii^ wicJced. Greek. — KUKo^^^had. 






Japanese. — akki^iw*/. doku=/;o/so«. 




pimga. 


Egyptian. — ba ; ka^ffJwst ; soul. 

„ nef. tica. suh. anx='i/^; ear. 


WlKD. 


fo=fo breathe. 


Hindi. — huVa. 
Ilgro-xiltaic. — charru. 


air ; spirit. 


mi. koe. 


Arabic. — kaaru. 
Chinese. — ch'ui=('o ///. 


breath ; ghost. 




Aocailian. — pa. tu. zu. aimz^sIci/-gorI. 


puff. sigh. 




Sanskrit. — va. vayu. an. 






Latin. — aura, anima. 


mouth ? 




Kurile. — keru. rahra. rui. 






Mongol. — klia=OTo;(/A. 


nostril ? 




Assyrian. — sharu. pu. Japanese. — kaze. 






Ugro-Altaic. — img:^ nose. tual. 




mah'u. 


Chinese. — hu. ta ; 'k.\m=^ffreat. 


God. 


hou. karu. 


„ t'ien-ti. khi. kha=i5r/'ca/. 




ekii^ ffreat. 


,, kun; ti^!cing ; bright, ta^great. 


chief, king. 


kmii. kanu. 


Indo-Chinese. — akay= <?/«>/. ko— great. 




bala. kaka. 


Mongol. — khan:=^-/Hy. 


fire? sun? 


zoo. nom. 


Egyptian. — ahu. ra — sun. ^u — good. 




hemm^smi. 


„ kai; axa.— high. 


great ; good. 


menji. memi. 


Accadian. — 'kala^great. 'knn::= bright. 




taimara. oro. 


,, \ikn:=l:inff. ntx\kx\ ?=zsun-god. 


ruler ; chief. 


soko. juku. 


,, gu; gur^,s7ro«y; great. 




sa\m=-navel. 


TJgro-Altaic. — kan. hiiwa. tari. u. 


idol. 


inti. hciuiu =_/?/•«. 


,, khun=.SK«. 






Teutonic. — tio. 


bright. 




Greek. — c H^good. 






French. — dieu. 


snake ? 




Celtic. — hiian = «M«. 






Sanskrit. — deva. ruyd= prince. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



232 









Papuan and 


Ajiekican. 


DeA VIDIAN. 


Malay, etc. 


Polynesian, etc. 


AUSTEALIAN. 


NOKTU. C'ENTKAI-.t SoUTH.* 


cakaka. cakara. 


biulak. 






thacotli-t liuaicaf^^o seize. 


chirak. 


c]xok=ta/^e. 






mall, zolo.f 


muriyau. 








kachik=fo falce. 

ku ; tliab^to take or grab. 


yako. 


hantu. 


tiki=idol. 
iuiki^ priest. 
liekua= evil spirit 

or ff/iod. 
atua. 




hc'ka. itk. khoua.f 
builka*=/;r/«i!. 
zithu. kaka:=bad. 
oki^god? lox. 
tlacateolotl.f apu=: i'rfo^. 
kik^blood. 


kattoo. gali. 


tantu. 


vau. hau. 


tumtagi. 


valioro.*" ik. ku. 


karru. 


langit. 


iiiauri=y//os^. 




baca.* yu. ba. 


avi^g/wst. 


hawar. 


iiinkani. 




iiunu^.s'0((/; spirit. 


akmn^soul. 


tuiiin^Iiio-ricmie. 


ianjii. 




aiiixi\^=ghosf. 


velu. 


naiaii=ibre(ith. 


kckiia. kau ? 




mouua-bcka. yab. 


keli. 


jwi^ahz=sotd. 


piihi. waka^ 




'puhn^spirit. 




dang. 


spirit. 




biiaira.* takbu.f 




nioeng. 


tokclau. 
kckua=5r7w«^. 
matangi. 
raka^wind-ffod. 




su; Tolit=///e. h'bct. 
buakia*=^o call. 


devan. 


tuhan. 


t\i=ffod of tear. 
tiu^=lurd; god; 


intu. 


mti*=^sun-god. oba.f 
tup.* (Brazil). 


kadavul. 


kaja.^=f;reat. 


king. 
ancaiii. liano. B. 


konc. 


toiia-tuiab.f tcah^zgood. 
tuh-a-pic. 


raj all '? 


a.jii=Jire. 


tou=/rfo/. 
iiiaru=yof? of war. 


koro. 


ta\ai^great. boe. 
hacc\i'd*^greaf. 


arasun^pn'iice. 


ba-ik^yoorf. 


iw^greaf. 
raka:^ wind -god. 


koruiii. 


buek-mak.f (Toltec god.) 
sibu.f tupani.* 


Tana— queen ? 




tawliaki = light- 
ning-god. 


suku=^rf«^ 


baylli=«i/«-i70(/. 
hnum'^=ifre. 






kaloii. taroa. 


ta.\n=:great. 


baio=.«(». bun.* 






whaitiri = 




builkaf=: ^jr(Vs^ 






thunder-god. 




apu = idol. buL'y*=^/Yrt<. 






tanga-roa =^ sea- 




tewa=//orf. 






god. 




teo.f kou.* oki. 






a-nki^cing ; 




manito^s^iW^. 






priest. 




ininari=yorf. 






otu. atua. mani. 




mm\m=^good. 






ma\\\^sim-god. 




khona^demon. 






tiki = creator ; 




taika.j=fire. 






god-idol. 




kon^^sun. 






ra. roa=/cing-god. 










hau^king. 










kon^good. 







30 



233 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeican. 



tliomi. mume. 
akala. nona. beng. 
gor. okure. gar. 
boana. alo. moku. 
ira. t'kohn. koa. 
lemio:zzwoman. 
kama. ume. 
bara. mutii. miilo. 
bonima. homi. 
manee. emo. 
rume. zuno. 
mar. ningba. 
mano. koango. 
oxam^^woman. 
mo. ma. ba. bi. 
nic^tiwiitJi. 
oruni. muntu. 
momba. anab. 
moere ; muri ; moti=zfree. 
Madagascar. — ulu. bibe. lelay 
,, orrang. olen. unm. 



de. kam. oruni. 
bona. onya. 
yabere. ankona. 
Icnno. manka. 



den. 

naba. 

gana ; keke ; ok^rcz^lUtle. 

enia. rcme. nama. 

bi ; mano=wf/«. 

'kuko:=cJiicJc(n. 



SuJTDEr. 



Greek. — avi/f>. 

Latin. — manns:=/w»(?. bomo. 

Sanskrit. — mannsba. manu. 

Egyptian. — t'a. bammu. menb=:(/o«</(. ba. rex 

„ unt'i. 'ka^mnle. bii. 

,, annee. lun^men. me. 

E. Tartar. — buman. are. vaoo=itree. 
Ugro-Altaic. — kena. ena. mart. 

,, mat. manne. mo=ztree. 
Indo-Cbinese. — manus. mana. 

,, loo-myab^ji;<!0^fe. kanii. 
Cbinese. — ^jin. nan. manzzimale. 

„ mu ; mok=:/;w. 
Accadian. — enna. lu. muku. mu^tree. 
Assyrian. — maru^sw*. amelu. kimtu. 
Arabic. — taraar^ilaie- tree. 
Hebrew. — ani. adam V 
Japanese. — nin. nwiko^Inisband. bito. 
Corcan. — sbana. ba. aino. 
Kiu'ile, etc. — onne=6iW man. 

„ binne. amub. kar. okkai. 



English. 



Sanskrit. — j anani. 

Slavonic. — jena. 

Japanese. — onna. mune=</(e breast. 

TJgro-Altaic. — kara. ema. zin ? 

Tbibetan. — cun-na=:w//«. 

Accadian. — ninni. gime. 

Egyptian. — hcmiu^^;V^. 

Greek. — r-jvinj. 

Coroan. — amooni. ban-nin. 

Kmile, etc. — menoko. matcbi:= ;<■//<?. angnau. 



Egyptian. — ri.et'i^=i/ounff. sa. 

„ at'ii. nexen^f/»7r/. 

Tlgro-Altaic. — sak. nuor:=yo««y. 

,, ma. aicbo=yo!«jy. 
Latin. — natns. 
Hindi. — 'kiu:h'h:=h'ttle. 
Indo-Cbinesc. — kicbai. tbab. 
Cbinese. — ni. tik. 
Sanskrit. — sunn, sakhni^^small. 
Assyrian. — pitiku=(7u7rf. 
Accadian. — gina=/////f'. 
Arabaric. — n]i]in=zbrot/i(r. 
Corcan. — pak = boi/. 
Japanese. — ko. kodomo. 
Kurik', etc. — occai. nakam. soiibik 



Majt. 
husband, 
kin. male, 
people, 
monkey ? 
hand? 
I. me. 
son? 
tree? 
family. 



Woman. 



mother. 

wife. 

kin? 



Son. 
boy. chUd. 
man ? 
little, 
chicken ? 
mac (Celtic), 
kith ; kin. 
tree ? 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



234 









Pai>i7an and 


A MERICAN. 




Dk.widian. 


Malay, etc. 


Polynesian, etc. 


Adstealian. 


North. CENTUAL.f South 


» 


mnnam—mi?ul ? 


mar. mah. 


emma. Lii. 


motemc. 


amo.* eneme. nana. 








rang. orun. 


maalce. 


llenni. lenno. 




gandasii. 


loh. lesi. 


amarc. nu. 


kiire. yuon. 


canai. naro.* ma.* 








hui. nud. 


inone. bcng. 


runa.* kliari.* 




manusluiu. 


orang. tona. 


kanaka, ala. 


liv.nc-^zivomim. 


talio. bama. ta.f 








laki ? oni. 


pcnna. 


dina. kloh. tinna. 




theme. 


urun. ck. 


tangata. koro. 


moanit (Aus- 


runa.* snno.* noo. 








taata. tane. 


tralia). 


oquiri.* tcnai. 




a.n=:inale. 


monyct — monkey. 


iuatua=/«//((T. 


snone. nirc. 


nnin. uni.* na. 








]\i\\n^icoi}i(m. 


boana. "A." 


h'hommo. 




p<iruslian=; 


\a\d-=z]iushand ; 


Udm=i/iicii/jfi>i(l. 


whanouw. 


cunc. inik. yon.* 




husband. 


male. 


mano^I think. 


sononman. 


taka. 








mcdona^^parent . 


andai. 


hake.f matoi.* nianco.* 




m.anga,=.»ionlf'i/. 


anion. 


da. la. 


kolin. 


chinanut]f=/'«w;//y. 








Vi-hana^^people. 


nnnna. a. 


neka. hcnui.* khari.* 




janam^people. 


nikc. tan. 


kanaqnc. 

laki. (Eomeo). 


noa. 


mena.* loai. ma.* 
huarma.* anini. siinc.* 




manhai. 


simat. ham a. 


muan. 




manaco*:=?»ow/i;«y. 
canuoke. enika. tama. 




manchlia. 








innuit. hito.f 
akun.f oquiri. f 




koro ? alu. 












mandsa (Ghond). 












manai\=zw/fe. 


betina. do. 


hoa^ivife. 


binn. 


guai-mi. cunha.* 
panum. dah. 




pen. 


bini ^ tvife ; 
ivoman. 


makan^?f{/«. 


koruni. 


ann.* huaina.* 
lenno^wrt«. 




maiju (Ghond). 


binoh. 


hani. indn. "B." 


koroi. 


tlena.* cxaie^man. 
dini*:=?««w. kona. 




stri. 


naina. pen. 


pehaha. 


kene. 


ainif^>»o//(«\ kanum. 
nsu.f koja.*^qiieeH. 




hengasu. 


fafine. 


andi. mutan. 




chihua.f quic. 
makuki. ncmi. 




hendate— wife. 




kona^;ro«(J. 




mene.* 




makan. 


anak. 


keikc. na. 


mate. tei. 


enika ; nana^/nau. taka. 
kooeh^ittle. 




suthan. 


liki. 


kane. 


angata. mura. 


kin. nah. eenek. 
tenai^man. 




mage. 


nike; laki=;«rt'«. 


tamaroa^Soy. 


tee. keikc. 


nekdosh. tene. nakam. 
manco*=r«((/«. 




magan. 


mah^^mnn. 


kaikce=:f /; i!d. 


natui. uani. 


natsi. shka. hua.* 
numan. keimeg. 




kliiIi=:c/(//fl?. 


m.Ai\it=Uttle. 


kanaka=«iSM. 


tene. 


saik^Soy. cana.* 
churu.* hake. 




paiyim. 




tera-mal. 


tsutsua. 


ti.f tze.f moulike*^Joy. 
teconeugh.f chichi. f 




anu^hoi/. 




seari=if /(«/(/. 


metcmc^ww?!. 


matci*=»wM. haan.f 
anini=:/«aw. arm.*:=:ti'0)nan. 




pillai=c/jj7(^. 




nri^children. 









235 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 


Sundry. 


English. 


ba. baba. pa. 


TJgro- Altaic. — baba. Accatliau. — aba. 
Egyptian. — aft. iL-\)ix^=ancestor. 


Fathee. 


babi. tuta. 


Cbinese. — ba. Indo-Cbinese. — pba. 
Sanskrit. — pitar. 
Kurile, etc. — aba. pepe. 
Coreau. — abomi. 


papa. dad. 


mama. ama. 


Sanskrit. — matri. 
Egyptian. — ma't. 


MOTHEB. 


ankona. naua. 


TJgro-Altaic. — ame. ■^un^dauyhter. 
Accadian. — erne. nin. 


mamma. 


omma. ma. 


Hebrew. — benr=so». 
Corean. — amoomi. yimina. 


woman 


n\okasz=zvonian. 


Japanese. — onna^MJOMore. 




neka. ndugu. yaka. 


East-Tartar. — tugau. tyge. 

Accadian. — sissi. Amharic. — akbu. 


Beothee. 


baruka. mamako. 


Cbinese. — i^i^son. ti. 

Kurile, etc. — gabki. Corean. — chegi. 

Japanese. — sid^^^elder Irother. 




rnona^elder sister. 


East-Tartar. — oka. eke. Cbinese. — tsi^sister. 
Sanskrit. — nandana^f/«M^/(^«r. 
Ugro-Altaic. — ena, akba^wowaw. 


Sister. 


moaa^ff irl? 


Greek. — r/vt'ij^woman. 
Ugro-Altaic. — ina— female ending. 


GlKL. 

maid. 


obu. cdse. 


Arabic. — 'kM\ih:=iheart. Assyi'ian. — sbarku. 
Egyjrtian. — ieshev=zred. l\\\.i\=zheart . 


Blood. 


tlu. dd. 


Chinese. — bit ; kik^Woof/. 

Sanskrit. — rakta. liridaya=//<'fl!/-^ rudliira= ;•<■(?. asan. 


red. 


mas. 


Accadian. — giid. sbeg=/;f«/-<. 

Ugro-Altaic. — syda=:)Trf. j-iiruck ; sziwu^/^car^. 

Japanese. — ketsu. zi. kokoro:=Ac«>-f. 


heart. 


na; ona; nca— to see. 


Sanskrit. — nayana. nctra. akma ? ahan:=f7(?y. 


Ete. 


mo. masa. koi. 


Slavonic. — matati=fo see. 




acro^sun. 


Hebrew. — ayn. (Ambaric. — am.) 


eyes. 


nuku. aiiku. be. 


Egyptian. — nennu. merti. ma=to sec. 




meso. neay. 


Accadian. — kin. no. mn. an^.v/.y. 


to sec. 


kuno. kanos. no. 


Chinese. — mu. nan. kien=fo see. mab^^o hvk. 




muiia=::^o see. 


Mongol. — kahna. na=«Z-y. 


sky. 


nya. nun. nito. 


Per.sian. — khan'.=tfye. 




buna:=(/c/»/. kion=SMH. 


Hindi. — nyn. aniu^sX'y. 


Ught. 


mere ; monc=w)Oo». 


Indo-Chinese. — nun. myet-sce^^o see. 




(Madagascar. — massa.) 


Japanese. — mi. miru. 


sun. 


Arabic. — ain. noor^igM. 


Corean. — nun. Kurile, etc. — uannin. sik. lalat. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



236 









Papuan and 


American. 


DeA VIDIAN. 


Malay. 


Polynesian, etc. 


Australian. 


NOUTII. CENTllAL.t SoUTII.* 


pitha. 


bupa. 


pa. matua. 


.mannun. 


babi. pai. 


appan. 


baya. bappa. 


pidavi. 1 


bab. tama. 


baba, appa. api. 






tama. hupa. 


mook. mariuun. 
pappi. mar. 
apcri. 


niatei*^/«««. 
temabe. paicu. 


matha. 


mak. 


ma. nine. 


ama. 


me. ami. 


metnaiyi^tcife. 


hhn^wi/e, 


mai. 


baboop. 


nikb. kanum. 


tay. 


woman. 


'kimv=z/roman. 


mamma. 


marnn. nana. 


amma. 


dada=:i/'«(?«<. 




'kenQ:=zwoman. 


cuiilia.""' cunia. 


■pen=:wommi. 


im. 
hianh^wuman. 






kauik=:it'0H(«» 

theua.*:=zvoman. 

mcne.* 


tambi. 


sudara-taki. 


tuaka. tasi. 


tai. tonaue. 


tanye. tata. 


tamma. 


kaka. taka. 


pui. tunaue. 




taka. vatzgua=e7(/f/- hrother. 


sahodara. 








teymoa.* buauki. 
cbaca=«(rt«. ii\c\^ittle. 
akim.f 


anna. 


"kakak-^elder- 


monai. 




nana.* puna.* tiema.* 


akka. 


sister. 


touabine. 




tacuma.* okc. 


chirupon, kahni. 




moohcnewe. 




teconeugb.* margua. 


pounu. 




waliina. 




mka. taski. cunia. 


kanni=i!My«». 




potii. 




cunba*^ ifo»w « . 


inam. 


darab. 


koko. 


saquo. 


bu. f.ek— heart. 


rattam. 


yabra. 


dra. 


dugo. daba. 


kiket. nnc. eeb. 


]ivdiijii^=keart. 


mevah^red. 


tsera. 


riki. ra. 


kik.f sakb. sbab=:;;'e<?. 


ragat ? 


bati.=:/(Cflr<. 






skino. pakbo^rff/. 
yahwa.* nab. crat. 
misqiii. garra:=SciW(;. 


kannu. 


ni. nir. 


maka. karu. 


mcme. ma. 


kannab. bannab.* 


kannuahi. 


manna. 


mata. mat. 


mata-tonga. 


asma^/o see. nuta. 


kan. 


mata. 


whatu. 


mcna. ma. 


nate-nik.f kane. 


netiram. 


maro. 


noo^I perceive. 


mco. merrmg. 


naa.f nanacoco. 


kunk (Ghond). 


kalon^fo see. 


'ham=zsJci/. 


mu'. men. 


biaf^^o see. nackai. 


ankhi (Him.) 


nayan=/?*'«. 


kanobi. 


erne, tam. 


kbalom. kiauf^to see. 


(]i=k=n). 


sijang—dai/liffht. 


karu. 


mata. nil. 


meiscbta. naxxi^sky. 


tharisi^^o see. 






mel. 

m=^sun. 

moe=»800?J. 


kin=:«!«*. masa*=H(oo« 
nait^sww. naita.*" 
nani.* ne. mybb. 
miri.* mata.f 



237 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Apeican. 


STwrar. 


English. 


cuiiko^nairL munua. 


Cbinese. — 'k'a\i=pff ale . kn^rallei/. bao. 


Mouth. 


kana. da. nso. 


Accadian. — ku. pu. ka. gud. 




iwo. le]yu=i)iaicl. likano. 


Latin. — manducaro=^ eat. concha^s/icll. 


chasm, bole. 


ama. me. emi. mia. 


Ambaric. — sbamak. kadaka=//o/<'. 


womb ? 


moyo. monii. mana. 


Arabic. — gbar:=ra«. Magyar. — kapu=:)ia)T/. 


eat. munch. 


nil. shu. likano. kasi. 


Hindi. — kan=e(7r. munb. kandar=f(7i-«. 


vulva? 


dabu ; sa.hii=z iiarel. 


,, kba; 'khaTia=^io eat. 


cave? 


dsi. kun. malagii. 


Sanski-it.' — kupa^/;o/c. kapu:=(/r«/c. mukba. 


door. gate. 


nubo ; jibia=«OiT?. 


Indo-Cbinese. — kugo. t'sah:=fo eat. 


M. 1 ? face ? 


kuka=^o/. 


Egyptian. — ken. kena^u-omb. qucr^eircle. 


man? 


mn^to drink, ko. ketok. 


,, anx=^life; ear. ■xp.'^a.^navel; to eat. 


I? navel? 


malagu. maniia. ucbi. 


TJgTo-Altaic. — kXx^oo^gate. mu-mu^m^. 




kona^ door. 


„ kvoi^hcUy. kuo^Mr. kona^/ffce. 
,, kokan. 




gungo. chiDgi. 


Japanese. — kuti. Kurile, etc. — paru. 




Egyptian. — ne&^tonffue. rmx=///'('. 


Nose. 


nu. isue. mia. 


Indo-Cbincse. — nakbu. 




ehue. san. niing. 


Ambaric. — afinka. 


nostiil. ear? 


tmi. emu. sico. 


Sanskrit. — gbrana. nwikhix^mouth. 


mug. tongue? 


bongo, erro. 


Latin. — concba=.s/(^//. 


mucous ? 


baTigi. ma:=c(?r. 


Ugro-Altaic. — ang. ncna. 


tan? 


naso=nionth. 


Caucasian. — banka. 




(Madagascar. — iirong. ) 


Armenian. — akancbk. 

Japanese. — bonna. kbana. 

Kurile, etc. — cnku. Corean. — ko. 




kutu. eti. 


Sanskrit. — karna. 


Eae. 


nyaru. 


Cbinese. — er. din. ■^c\=.sheU. 




kimne. tu. 


Accadian. — pi. tan. gin. 


to bear. 


dabu; sa.hu— 7iaveL 


TJgro-Altaic. — kuo. korwa. 


lug. nose ? 


nua. nyaru. 


Indo-Cbinose. — kbato. nab. 


navel ? 


cnsko^navel. 


Celtic. — ciu-o=/(o//«w. 


conk? shell. 


okua. maro. 


Ambaric. — aflnka:=«o«e. 

Hindi. — kan. 

Coreau. — kui. KurUe, etc.- — kine. 




limi. eleb. milalo. 


E. Tartar.— dyll=//fff^('. 


Tongue. 


lem. na. ile. ale. 


Indo-Chmesc. — nakba. thela = /«;/'. 




ulo. lulimi. ning. 


Arabic. — g'weli=.'.«ffZr. 


tail? ear? 


bile. none. deme. 


Assyrian. — kalu^i'o -speak. kVAw^prominence. 


leaf ? 


lila^^o ay. 


Ugro-Altaic. — dil. alep. 


tang ? nose ? 


nuncmc. telam. nen. 


Greek. — (pv\\oi'=Ie(if. \a\eu.'^to speak. 


throat? 


nua=w;-. tammc. cnc. 


Latin. — gula=M;-o«<. 


snake ? 


jisb^/t'ff/. limi. la^knf. 


Accadian.- — erne. 




ulcma. imi. halla. 


Hindi. — Dak=Ko.sf. dnl^Ieaf. 




kalu=;s%. 






suku. siiki. murit. 


Indo-Chinese. — tsun-gyin. sac. 


Huit. 


yika=:/(rar/. nyu. 


Sanskrit. — kcga. kaka. 




eru. hi. 


Ugro-Altaic. — kluc=:^fff^. cac. sac. cukka. 


bead? 


h\i\ioji-=Iie(id. 


Chinese. — san. Accadian. — sig. 


whiskers. 


ikararc. 


Ambaric— tscqur. 


wool. 




Hindi. — moo. ki\ch=^Jiead. 


fur. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



238 









Papuan and 


Ameeican. 


Deatidian. 


ilALAY, ETC. 


Polynesian, etc. 


AuSTIi.U.IAN. 


XOUTH. CENTllAL.t SOUTII.* 


vay. 


nguti. babak. 


mauga. 


kanc. kanik. 


kama.f so. yu. ne. 


biiyi. 


i-ekum; liang— 


\i.cti=:ffafe. 


moun. kone. 


simi.* \>n\)n*^)i(n-el. 


kuli^/(«?c. 


hole. 


gw\. clia? cuo. 


auka. guso. 


lakha* sane, ca.f 


kutluiiii = aMeM. 


mulut. 


mada = CM^rft. 


taiiium:=fo eat. 


sirai.* tii\vaf=««i'(;^. 


kugui^crtre. 


pinto=(7oo;'. 


kana^=/« eat. 


soicUjii. ponco? 


yaiiena. shum. 


kappu ; uabi;= 


goall =:(■«('«. 


konu^ivomh. 


nKiiiialo. 


qhiUH'l =^toiiffue. 


narel. 


mukan^fe eat. 


vhiisma^cave. 


gangaumi. 


okk(jti*:=rt«««. kauik. 


\a])\i^sna]cc. 


puki = t'((foff. 


kiiki=^ t /mat. 


mulluug. "A." 


cuz(;o*=:MrtiY'/? centre. 




■pi\-pa^7iavel. 


raa^hole ; cave. 




rakka= ragina. kacnga.* 




mMcu:=/ace. 


kiha:=b(ick. 
kimi—I sinff. 




ponku*"=f/yo;'. 
maukana*^<tf eat. qai. 
ia\\iA\w=zncck. 


muKU. 


enga. iu. 


hunguc. 


ceengi. 


ccnka.* benka. 


milku. 


hidong. igu. 


ibu. pot. 


dganga=:(//(W<. 


kiuaga. en.'' 


anuktin. 


ilion. 


matangi^wind. 


kowo. 


hu. uk. dacat. 


nasi? 


kupmg=:f(?r. 


icu. 


eye. 


pasu. 


t'ogai=<rt(7. 


mucu=/rtf«. 


asu. 


tingan. 


mm. moopec. 


m'ukhu. 


cunga. 


{im^p/ialhis.) 
iku=te«7. 


mindo. 


mucbu^««f^. 
ihn. sobn. inci.* 

auga.*^.v^"''^- 
ceun-''=i('«r. 


kebi. 


telingu. 


taringa. bii. 


iri. 


pu =?««/■. 


ki-^-i. 


enga=nose. 


{ki]m=bacL) 


kure. 


cuzco=:/i«i'^Z? (Peru.) 


kathu. 


pusat=wa!v?. 


ba.iik. 


bine. 


cnabiri.* ty.* buaeliu.* 


kappii:=?!«r«?. 




bakin=:/(Cffr. 

talinga. 

pei=s/(«?^. 


niarmo. 


detesa=:»rtce/. 
maka.f nlianer=fo?«(/M«. 
paoki. si-pell. kis. 
khinne. kinaga^/josc. 
pupu*=:;(fl!Y'/. (Qiucbua.) 
Q,eik&.=:nose. cuz. 


na. nalige. 


dila. 


lelo. 


tali, ilping. 


tcnilla.* ccalln.* kalla.* 


nakku '?^nose. 


kakalamo. 


leo. 


mena. 


tutela. lappi.f 


nalayo. 


erne. 


mona. 


tangam. 


nnnu.* bal. del.* 


talai=/w/. 


tilingi^(;ff>-. 




jerrang— ?«(?/. 


atlapallf ; inquilli*^?«(?/'. 


lida. na. 


ular=«;;rt^:(?. 






bem. mapilli=/i';/y«'. 


ithal. 








nine. lcef=/«(/'. 


eli. ilai=?ea/. 








nan=^rtr. netUe. 
inaka. nacat:=frtr. 


kaco ? kaka ? 


uk. 


umg. elis. 


yiico. cao. 


cuoa.* chucca.* 


kut. 


buk. 


Sim? 


tira. gian. 


mu*=/«ea(/. cacaa^/iertf?. 


kudulu. 






muke. bak. 


shuka. suga. turu.f 


kesam. 






marah. 


gue.* nacu. koo. 


mayir. 






yarro. 


Vich.\\=zhead. cob.* 


VLCCu^^snaJce. 






boka=7(«ir. 


mah;=/iefl(?. ma.ia=.liead. 



239 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 


SUKDET. 


English. 


kak. gika. ka. 


Egviitian. — fip. ri;v;a ; kai = /;/y/«. 


Head. 


yimi. isrf. tu. 


TJgro- Altaic. — oiko. p;i. 




oka = Ml. 


Assyrian. — zuktu^toy^. 


hair? 


ko. ku. kiin. 


Sanskrit. — kaprda = «/:e<?/. aga = f/re<it. 


skull, face. 


koko. ire. kohlio. 


,, mukba = ?«o«iA. 


peak. top. 


kammu. tuk. 


Accadian. — ka; imi = face; nose. 


hill ; bat ? 


motue. kara ==tree. 


,, kara=/«7Z. aka=high. 


high, poll ? 


itk. kala. bop. 


Hindi. — ^puhar=OTOM»tem. kaeb. kob=7/(77. 


great ? 


ikayare =/(«(>. 


Celtic. — copu. 




bukon. ammo. 


TJgro-Altaic. — paa. kolkii. oike. tagai. 




miitu. moorun. 


Japanese. — kaobo. 
Kiu-ilc, etc.^ — caba. cliapu. 




soku. kolo. 


Sanskrit. — balu. danta. nakba. 


Tooth. 


'kci=Jiard. kaii. 


Hebrew. — slien. kextJ\i = horn. 




tini. mine. na. 


Assyi-ian. — akiilu = to eat. dannn = hard. 


fang, teeth. 


dino. aku. loene. 


Chinese. — t'in. kak. kub. 


tine. horn. 


temi. ki. din. 


Ugro-Altaic. — tern. tang. til. lu. penk. 


crooked. 


leeang. disc. na. 


Arabic. — sin. 


bone. 


tudcka = /i'(;;7/. oka. 


Accadian. — kak. 


hard. cut. 


kani. ]i.uh.\ = bone. 


Caucasian. — dcndag. 


ivoiy. 


na. nya. golo. mcno. 


Indo-Cbinese. — kbys. alu. Corean. — ni. 


nail. beak. 


kanga = /((?/-<^. 


Egy|itian. — h(Ak=naiL bcmti. 
Japanese. — kba. cbone. 




langaka. tangam. 


Sanskrit. — pancba=i\'o. 5. piini. car=to ffo. 


Hand. 


kako. banka. 


,, jangba. kara. diq=faiffer. 




tan; •«-an=i\'b. 10. 


Accadian. — da. gar; mar=to (/ive. 


right; left. do. 


rc'ka. tinga. pila. 


Ugro-Altaic. — kar. min; parna=;?«ycr. 


take. arm. 


kaiida. koa. 


Assyrian. — katu. imnii = left hand. 


give. paw. 


keka; laku=/oo^ eke. 


Indo-Cbiuese. — pang. kbar. 


fingers, bone ? 


peka. tanga. mok. 


Persian. — -paiiga=shoulder. 


foot ? 


iki=/iti//e): gan=/(;oif. 


Greek. — ^f^p'i- 


■wing? palm? 


ma. bcn = /(Y/. 


Latin. — mamis. 


ten ? five. one. 


oga=(irm. ikami = i\'o. 10. 


Cbinese. — tch = tal-c. yau. cbi. tak. 




nakoa. banka — /bo^. 


Egyptian.— ermen = rtrw. kat=jMuv. 




mabe (Madagascar). 


Celtic. — pen. lam. 
Japanese. — te. ti. tono. 






Kiu-ile, etc.— dck. tono. kba. teke. 




rcta. keka. pase. esa. 


Accadian. — kab = hand. 


Foot. 


kiilii. ]i;i = to ffo. 


Mongol. — kn = to dance. 




laku. pala. 


Chinese. — kak. pa'e = fo^o. 


to go. toes. 


tan; wan = i\^o. 5. 10. 


Sanskrit. — pada. 


hand ? 


eko. bcn = /«/. tsab. 


Egyptian. — kat=pmv. kcYi=step. x^^=>'>i»- 


shank, leg. 


hondo = Jcnee. 


,, kal=hiee. (\ch=hand. 


to kick ; walk. 


pata. tanga = /(««^i'. 


Ugi'o-Altaic. — kok. pud. 


dance. 


banka. donga. 


Assyrian. — kibsu ; ])M]im\i=path. 


road. sole. 


kako =h(i)i (I. bata. 


Bunncse. — kab = dance. 


five? ten? 




Japanese. — kubi. usi. 


pad. 




Kurile, etc. — kira =»■!/«. 






Corean. — pal. zo. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



240 









Papuan and 


American. 


Deavtdian. 


Malay. 


Polynesian, etc. 


AUSTHALIAN. 


NoHTH. CENTBAL.t SoUTK.* 


talai. 


oko. ter. 


poo. pane. 


uman. 


uma.* pegkc* mu.f 


kare. 


tangak. 


ulu. upoko. 


konto. 


pacu.* ikab. acu. 


talc. 


mata. ulu. 


pobo. 


poko. kakba. 


kini*=/rrtKc«. 


toppi=/;rt^. 


kapala. 


ka-poo. 


ioucba. 


pto. gu.f tata. kam. 


■mukam =f II re. 


I'liic = tongue. 


upoo. 


suku=A«7/. 


poke, kakka. apoo. 


kodi. todi= top. 


topi =/(«<. 


mas=ya(!«. 


pada. 


■saak\ = hand. 


mukku=?iose. 


mucu =face. 


maker. 


muru. 
boka=Aa?V. 


mata =/wT/((.'rtf/. pan. 
tc]>t(i\'\ =mountain. 
maku = wo?<</(. 
haccba*=y»-e«<. 
muv\iu=neck. coba.f 


hallu. 


nor. ni. 


nifi. iwi. 


taug. derra. 


tollu.* tong. sa.* 


tantham. 


nifi. cot. 


tau. ngi. 


tungimg. 


quiru.* tlantli.f 


'ko(\.VL=horn. 


tandak. 


■wbena=JoH«. 


yira. locang. 


nabe.f icari. 


kuli. 


buku. tolcn. 


wcna. ni. 


tulan. 


nio.f noque. kirau.* 


kalla= foo<^;/oo)!. 


tulang. 


uicbau. 


malingo = Jo?ie. 


nake. nai.*' tanus. 


pal. 


(tangan=«r;«.) 


\\ako=croohed. 


dang. 


toi.* pi. yen. io.* 


ka\le=stone{cut). 


gading=M-ory. 


nibo. ni'o. 


tcerah. 


totlan.f tit. gu.* 


raal ==hoHe. 




danga. 


sui. 




na,ga.m.=nail. 






leevo. 
iixmia.= foot. 




kai. 


tangan. 


anema. 


cimemana. 


tachlli.f iku. ka. 


karam. 


kanai. kana. 


ringa. pa. 


kanga=10. 


pan.* pat. aman. 


kei. 


tong=(10 also). 


amo. agum. 


ma. murra. 


pana.* kcnin=f«-»». pua.* 


ratte=(WOT. 


tik=iVo. 1. 


mama? 


tine. dina. 


kam. maki.* panum. 


'hetta=finffer. 


pana. ima. 


lima; rima=«rw;. 


tanna=/oo<. ) 
tona. j 


cunka*=10. pat=/oo^. 


]iman=5. 


pat =/oo^ 


una. para. 


aman. amecu.* eme.* 




kaki =foot. 


rima=iVb. 5. 




maitl.f 




y\n= finger. 






nako.* mab. kaUkh. onka. 




kaimuk. ban. 






tene-law. kayku=/oo^. 




uma = 5. 






bana.* yenari.* ak. 




tangam=an«. 






acu. nakoa. maki.* 




lima = or?«. 






canka = /<y. mamat. 
lloka =/«««(?. pika* = 5. 


patham. 


pat. pai. par. 


kapuai. pir. 


perre. co. 


puia.* appu.* pi.* 


kuttii = <o dance. 


tappa. kapiiai. 


tata = ^o run. 


bareng=te(?e. 


Tpa. = to go. cub. asboo. 


pada ? 


kaka. petbe. 


pao. pere. 


tua. cba. 


po.* pata.* pat. kuki. 


cliara=^ run. 


ion^=hand. 


liaka=^ dance. 


teena. 


pika* = 5. pa=fo(/o. 


kal (Ghond). 


tapaq = so?«. 


pade. 


lula. tona. 


pateen = 7(rt»(?. tao.* 


kaUu. 


pana=/M«rf. 


kap =(■/««(■«. 


tanna. 


kappata=/(««rf. 


tal. 




maka=<o dance. 


tm\^=hand. 
kunga = 10. 


caki.* canka*=Z«^. tolo.f 
kolo. onka =}mnd. 
cuuka*=10. looga. tobahan.f 
\lokc*=Jiand (Quicbuan.) 



31 



241 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeicajst. 


Sundry. 


English. 


usana. uru. toni. 


Egyptian. — matate ; rok— fire. ra. aten ? 


Sot. 


sure (S. Africa), kion. 


„ shu^-ihiiie. agh=/?;'«. \iani=^dai/. 




tete. tango, tiiri. 


,, merti ; mcr^ei/e. ma; t'a^to see. 


fire. 


dzua. tan. kuara. 


Indo-Cliinese. — sugo. uay=rfay. 




0111. sui. tia. 


Zend. — atar=^r«. cire^clai/. 


moon. 


kar. tar. ta. te. 


Latin. — ard:=a!tar-fire. dics=zf7ni/. 




nyam. 


Sanskrit. — uiiUi^f'o sJiine. Ifirya. hvare. 


day. 


kase. tsehen. giro. 


Celtic. — bel ; t'du=fire. 




arai=/(«(?t'e«s ; fire. 


Accadian. — su-ras^i'o fiamc. bil=^/'e. 


eye. 


tang-u. Tona. 


,, uinz^siin ; day. -n=^to shine. 




tari ; ma=r/fr«. 


,, tam=(^ffy. su; gar=s!<re. azag^riffJit. 


god. 


Inte=/?;Y (X.E. Afiica). 


,, itu=»ioo». nTni=diii/. ni—fire. 




intya:=?y^. ctana=f?rty. 


,, na; su; an=sZy; day. 


star. 


liana=(/rty. zu. 


Assyrian. — aru.=^to shine. 




sauu=y6?(^. 


Hindi. — eri=burn. 


sky. 


aero, ekomhi. 


Sontbal. — singa. 




ekombo. mi. 


Chinese. — nao. nih=moon. 




apara '?^t)won. 


Berber. — atar=^sfar. 

Mongol. — tu=^/'e. mira^if/hf. 

Ugro-Altaic. — kbon. tan. tu. kar. tlna=fA;y. 

„ tara.=zsl-i/-f/od. mato^ fire. 
Japanese. — fi. tida. 
Corean. — liai. hen. 
Kurile, etc. — touki. tangi. koatsh. 

,, fihki^ei/e ; slcij. tze=i«oo». 




kisili. ta; zii=^sm. 


Ugro-Altaic. — ^hit; ilio=«oo». tiick==^/-e. 
Chinese. — sing. 


Stae. 


alsa — moon, fossyc. 


Egy|)tian. — sel. sui. 

Accatlian. — kili. \\i^ngh. itu=»(oo». 


fire. 


sliimda. kasu=_^/-(?. 


Assyrian. — cllu= J/vV/Zf t. 
Ethiopic. — aha ; tcherka=»(oo«. 


sun. 


kieIe=«M« ; moon. bibi. 


Japanese. — fosi. 
Corean.^ — peru=^;-«. 




(Madagascar. — vinta. ) 


Kurile, etc. — kytta. 




gueli. alsa. kalla. 


Accadian. — man. zal=:^ shi)ie. 


Moon. 


liulu. ma=/ire. 


„ kili^star. hil^^fire. i\i=.hiffh. 




koana. nkima. 


TJgro-Altaic. — mauo. ilio. hari. kul=i 


fire. 


ptiana. kikena. 


,, tel=/;-«. gilu^r-y*. kun=sM». 




irmz=fire. aria==/?re. 


Celtic. — llocr. cann=:fu!l moon. mi. 


sun. 


tL-lu=:/';-e. muesi. 


Chinese. — yuch. ho=^;-<'. ka==/?;r. 




kielc=«?(«. suTigi. 


Egyptian. — mcT^ei/e. ami=ifire. 


month. 


ki'\i;=:white. ma-^fire. 


Greek. — k-aiic^fo burn, fuji'ij- fftXiyr//. 




(Madagascar. — masso-auni. 


Latin. — caloi'=/(frt^ 




„ fia. vulu. 


Assyrian. — cttxi^iriffht. kalu = fo hum. 

Sanskrit. — anala=/(r<.'. clumdra. 

Lithuanian. — kiel=«/'y. 

Slavonic. — nicsscz. 

Persian. — mah. Uindi. — eri=;i'o burn. 

Arabic. — hrdal=fo shine. 

Corean. — hai. oru. tal. pol=/?/'«. 

Kurile, etc. — kuletsch. gailgen. lcllc=eyc. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



242 









Papuan and 


Amkrican. 


DeA VIDIAN. 


Malav, etc. 


Polynesian, etc. 


AUSTIUXIAN. 


NORTU. C'KNTIlAL.t- SoUTII.* 


surya. 


mata=s!<n ; e^c. 


ra. la. 


ni. toi. 


tona*=<o hern. Ine. 




kioss. la. 


asa. tai. 


tcnc^fire. 


Toiiatuiahf=.sM». te. 


singa (Khond.) 


tai. 


mam^sun-ffod. 


zan. ras? 


intuiii*"=('» burn, hoisu.* 




kara=«i(» ; fire. 


singa. ialo. 


IsTv^yod. 


kisiti. hoasi. sa. 


bela (Khond). 


Init^s!(m ; fire. 


\iimo\n=.ei/e. 


ingu. 


koso=/!>e. rii*=zheat ? 




ni=day; hai= 


eoiiiai-a. 


gan. 


zun. euse. ini:=fire. 


siirga. 


fire. 


maliara. 


Tone. 


bari=w(oo?j. quassi. 




hari=^(hii/ ; sun. 


hiisani=.s^:y. 


timi (Australia). 


tuni. tuns. tab. 


poddu. 


nir; ni=cye. 


ra=:(/od ; fire. 


arao=^;/(oo». 


puttu*'=4/rt;-. ensc* 




tvihan^ffod. 


tiirno^=(/od. 


ngumi. 


tzuc. sah. su-si. 


hottu. 


niijan— fire. 


tui=z(/od. 
rare. 




rera ; paa*— ///■«. 
haie. Inti.* ho=zfire. 


urukksm— heat. 




kasa^^oi ? 
rabi=^re. 
hiiri^dai/. 
ariki=X-m^. 




kanani*=<o hum. 
hot=fire. watu. 
aia'^—day. 

kesis==^/-e. hoase*:=«<c«-. 
ra;* rau.*==^/-e. 
hashe. kcra^^fire. 
naira.*=:ei/e. 
ari.* hcllo^fire. 
tam=:ski/. ne=zei/e. 
nisna — fire, mn—.fire. 
jnata,*^fire. i\aa.=^ligld. 
teka=^fire. sbak. 
hi=moon. 


naksatra. 


bintan. 


beta. fetu. 
wbctii. whelu. 


windah. 


kcsis=fire. kkoyllur.* 
heetay ; za ; sah=si<«. 


Hnka. 


edsa. 


odsu. fuis. 
tawera. 


alliah. 


aHit*— moon. 
hoaso.* puttu.* 


taragai. 




fetia. 
tai=-sim. 


alla=^Vc. 


ilia.* deeshu. 
tcheitas. 


boUi 








hoiseu^«!<». 
pira*; tab=^«. 


chukka. 










candre. 


masina. 


wlielu. atua. 


gille. 


tuhi.* qucla.* 






ma=fire. 


meene-an. 


quilla.* i\\a*=zsiirr. yace.* 


bUby 


biilan. 


kaka. kawaka. 


kilai. "A." 


masa.f cbic. moar. 






aho-roa. 


kenah. 


kulaza. b.cotaj=star. 


tingaL 


bai=/re. 


vulu. hiilu. 


arao. 


manook. iiina==^re. 






maram. 


alla=//'(>. 


hello— AVf. killa.* 


chandu (Kbond). 


mata=^ei/e ; stm. 


mabama. 1 
marama. ) 


moe. 


ari.* metzli.f 






gal a 11. 


khangi'af=s«» (Otomi). 


bolli;=«tor. 


kayo, 
wolli. 


yoiila. 
ma=zmoo)i- 

ffoddess. 
mamngT.=full 

mooH. 


poullc=s% ; dnij. 


tsul. 

tolu; ab=:/rc. 



243 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



African. 


SCKBET. 


English. 


Tona. tone. ta. 


Celtic. — icme= fire. 


EmE. 


aka. etana^dai/. te. 


Latin. — calor. oxa^altar-fre. urere^^o hum. 




tia. na. inii. 


Greek. — Trip. 


sun. 


umoya. afi. uru. 


Egyptian. — r'k^sun. t'afi. agli. aah^wioow. 




arai. heium. ea. 


Chinese. — liua. fo. pei. hi. bak. pu. nih — hot. 


star. 


kash. mu. kash. ag. 


Ugro-Altaie. — hat. tcl. rakh. ai; harc'=wioo?^. 




siire^««« ; fire. 


Sanskrit. — agni. dah. 


moon. 


ora^suH. tuk=Jiot. eso. 


Accadian. — 'ii^moon. da^Jire. 




telee. luta. iutc. 


Japanese. — fi^sMw ; fire. 


to bum. 


kalla=:wioo«. akan. 


Persian. — mah=woo». 




kose. kar ; kasei=si<». 


Indo-Chinese. — n\m=^liglit. 


teat. 


kiele=s!«j. mosa. 


Assyrian. — ani=<o shine. 




aka. min. mu. 


Arabic. — nar. 


bake. 


a&^water. ciouz=2'ot- 


Japanese. — hi. yake. ha. fi. ui. 




asarn:=mooH. 


Corean. — hai. iooz=fire. 




(Madagascar. — afu.) 


Kurile, etc. — kyshe. taozh. koso. ape. 

„ hallo, eikhi. tschaku. 
Ethiopic — t cherka . 




izalu. ) , 
kanu. |=*^-^- 


TJgro-Altaic. — tangri. kiun. tul. kun^sMW. 


Sky. Dir. 


C'taua. tangh. 


,, na. tan. hurura. tana. 


Ught. 


paon. dayan. ^ 








huer. kanu. 




Accadian. — ana. iWi^iujh. 'kun^brii/ht. 


heavens. 


hana. yange. 








en-a. za. lolo. 




,, na. di=^/-<' ; shine, an. nun. 


eye. 


Sana. ne. 








a.Taiz=heave}is. 


■=dai/. 


Sanslu'it. — svar. svarga ? dyu ; dina=(?ff//. hari. 


white. 


lana. aso. 








yanyina. di. to. 




,, nayana=fyc. ahan^clai/. 


sun? 


otana. akon. 








ona ; nca:=^ see. 




Zend. — an. 


high? 


dian. daib. J 








kiele=s(«!. nsana— sun. 


Assyrian. — enn^ei/e. nur\i=i7 iffht. xirm^dai/. 




mya ; ne=^y«. 






kaWa^moon. 


Arabic. — nur=i!i(/ht. nur=/?rc 




n\m^e)/c. 




- 


gena&— sun. 


Chinese. — t'icn. tin. kan — Irighf. na — sim. 




arai ) „ 
mu. iaia. J =-^'"^- 


Japanese. — tan. akaTi=.light. 

Corean. — panoru. hancl. dya. ■n.\\\\=.eije. 






Kurile, etc. — haian. hallo, eikhi. nanniu? doli. 





A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



244 









Papuan and 


American. 


Dbavidian. 


Malay, etc. 


POLYWESIAN, ETC. 


AUSTIIALIAN. 


North. CENiiiAL.t South.* 


agni. 


ai. luii. ahee. 


alii. all. 


ura. 


tuni.f tonaf:=fo burn. 
mti*=.sun. tata.* eika.f 


bcnki. 


ma. nayan. 


rahi. iuf. 


wi. 


tahi. nina. nee. 

ah. awa. apo.* watu.* 


tu. 


mata=s)/» ; eye. 


ma. ra. 


kal. ka. 


uru*:=f/ay. ahre. 
a,Ti*'=zthe hearthstone.* 


neruppu. 


api. apoi. 


ao; h.an.:=day. 


aUa. 


te. rera. kesis. 
tulu=»(oow. koso. 


tc. ti. 


kara. init. 


kauruki=s»?o^«. 


tone. 


aima. ini. naika. 

tong^fo burn. bari*=:>«oow. 


togo (Khond). 


liari=:(f«!y ; sun. 


kapura. 


ni=;«M?i. 


kcra.* ho. tah. sa. 
intimi=fo hirn. tata.* 


ago. 


ta.\=8un. tolo ? 


? kasa=//o<. 


turo. 


haic^s!<«. uga. ma. 
tupu*=y6f/. ah. 




kasa^Ao^. 


ta=Jire ; sun. 




kisiti=.s««. nia^s?(». 
kera. pira*? 




angus^fo htm. 


i.'rcu=zsiciiimer. 




tee. to. u. naai=s((». 
allit*=/»(*oM. 




haksLX^ake. 


pura^fo Haze. 




innik. kehl=.s^y. 
hi=w(oore. 




fonan. 


aso=s%. 




sa.<in=hot. 
haan. rera. 




nyek. 






tschesco. 


duia^f/ay. 


siang=f7ffy. 


kaiii. ani. 


dau. 


uni.* pani. ^ 










dami.f do.* 




akayam. 


laugit^sZ^y. 


kusani. 


die. 


pa. taui.j-* tu. 
tahn. 


—day. 


bana^sZy. 


konkon. 


aso. raiigi. 


nangeri. 


hanac-paoha.* 
kanyina.* chaan. 




surga=:.sM«. 


pcngc^i/-/y7(^. 


die. Ian. 


dangi. 


kacai.* alapaeha.*J 












nage. kehl. tarn. ) 


alkaca:=s%. 


keikuk. aro. 


ao=(7rt!y. 


kal=/?/'t'. 


ara.*=day. > :=siy. 
zon. huena. do. ) 


kan^tfye. 


su.r ga^ieavetis. 


erai. 


poulle. 


haie=SM». 
seila. tu. ara. i 
terray. chaan. ) 


nal — day. 


nayan=^r«. 


tahue. 


ela. okno. 










ima^iyht ; day. 


dinan^r/rty. 


nil- ; m.=.eye. 


maliara=:s!<re. 


alla=_^r('. 


aUit*^»;ooM. 
naa ; naui=:ey«. 




hari ; uro^dny. 


ta=zjire ; sun. 


arao:=»(oo». 


zura.]^white. 
nmn^eye. 




maia^eye. 


? hari^^dtiy. 


tcne=^/T. 


tuluf^wooM. 
ten ; kiau=;<o see. 




mit^=sun. 


langi. liang. 




haan. nie. 
eikhi=/f>e. 




ali=rfffy. 


ialo^day. 
hi-:=dam. 







245 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeican. 



lo ; dok. ko ? 
tta. mema. zi. 
akwa. nyam. 
mczo. myo. sua. 
nu. ni. na. ira. 
■waha. via. ma. 
nyauja. m-Tva. 



nke. ngun. afi. 
nya. waha. na. 
ni. lo. aya. di. 
uke. omi. nkc. 
ano. mah. tta. mema. 
ru-wa. walia. ira. 
maka. madsa. 
via. maji. mye. 
ma. mcsi. 
nyam. man. 



Stjndet. 



Indo-Chinese. — tan^ivater. tak-tlie:=r/i'cr. 
Accadian. — a. aga=^flood. 
Egyptian. — uka=^oof7. 

„ aa:=<o u-ash. tu=iwater. 

„ aka'n.a^icatcr-2wt. 
Ugro-Altaic. — 'wat ; lu'; ai; tu; nai:^water. 
Coptic. — iaro^u-ater. 

Chinese. — mo; hai ; ni:=rvater. dak=Mr. 
Japanese. — nmi. ankha. 
Corean. — ta. 
Kiirile, etc. — atui. waca. tim=:Ial-e. 



Egyptian. — ma. ar. uka^Jfood. pek ? 

Coptic. — iaro. Celtic. — vakia. 

Indo-Chinese. — tan. ya. 

Sanskrit. — nira. udaka. 

Chinese. — mao. dak=^IaJce. hai. ni. mo. 

,, auT=iriver. ky. tu. 
TJgi'o -Altaic. — wat. ai. nai. nare. wa. pi. 
Accadian. — me. ai. pi. uru. 
Hindi. — wa. am. ar. 
Teutonic. — niki=^icater-spirif. 
Japanese. — misi. mu. kawal. 

,, amc=rrt/«. kawa=rnw. jui. 
Corean. — mu. ki^^rivcr. 
Kurilc, etc. — vaca. aca. tzcn. peh. 



English. 

Sea. 
water, river, 
great water, 
lake. 
boat? 
flood. 



"Water. 
river, 
lake, 
rain, 
mere, 
flood, 
boat? 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



246 









Papuan and 


American. 




Dbavidiau. 


Malay, etc. 


rOLYNESIAN. 


Atjsibalian. 


NoUTU. CENTUAL.t SoUTH 


* 


kadal. 


atui. 


tai. kai. 


tan. dan. 


kanah. sa-ce. 




muhuda. 


tak. dc. 


moana. 


nu. 


veyatLf mama. 




nadi =river. 


kahe. 


dallci. 


nesi= tvater. 


ta. neah. ak. 




cri =la7ce. 


laut (lawTit.) 


wasa. kana. 


tak=water. 


huojt\.f=ff real ivater. 




fir. IT. 


lagi=lake. 


wai; \ai=ivater. 


laur. 


cocba. vaat. atun.* 




tiuinir. 


daim= lake. 


aka; waca = 
water. 

(Ya.a.= canoe.) 

txitii= salt-wafer. 


tasi. 


aha. tzu. 
kar. tome, kakat. 
ko; teta ; i\i\=water. 
chka. hanab. 
taita ; ma= water. 
lee; na ; n\m.=water. 




nil-, nira. 


ai. -wai. 


tai. kai. 


tak. ti. 


tata. taika. waca. 




tanuir. 


oya. tak. 


a,mar=pond. 


kol. kawi. 


uru.* nia. ai. 




a.ra=rwer. 


toya. iye. 


ika. tan. 


nea. tan. 


yaku, ceia. 




ganga, =river? 


nam. ayah. 


mote. naa. ? 


nee. 


eia. uni.* atl.f 




pa. in- = sea. 


uran. aier. 


tiai. vai. 


oua. 


000. ma. ko. ki. mik. 




m'\ri = rain. 


ha,to=river. 


■wai. uai. 


wai. wi. 


nua. pao. una. 




[or, Ghond.] 


ahi. awaen. 


moana. 


war. 


oni. momi.f nina. 






hata=ram. 


tatu= salt-tvater. 


al =;•«/«. 


nip. pa. ma. ui. 






ujan=r«w!. 


waca. aka. 




tari. aha. tia. 






munum. eboe. 


■waikato=j-»i'«r. 

papc. ia. 

waki ; waa= 
boat. 

ua ; ona= ;■«('«. 

t\iak = drink. B. 




para. vaat. 
ok. to. nco. kho. 
hau-uira.* like, 
pul. kiakoh. uh. 
wa=/-iVc/-. pa. pe. 
tona ; parana =)'«'«•. 








tangi=r««w('«^ 
ivater. 




paha=?-uw. 





247 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCOKDANCES. 



Afkican. 


Stotdky. 


English. 


kako; e]ie=hand. 
mi. me. 
na. u. 
nye. ugi. 


Amharic — egniyu. 

Indo-Chinese. — nga. ku. Japanese. — chin. 

MongoL — nege^I^fo. 1. mone, nad. 

Latin. — ego. Persian. — man. 

Aeeadian. — ngae. men. 

Egyptian. — nuk. ua=:No. 1. an]s.'h=zUfe. 

Gothic. — ik. eki. 

Sanskrit. — eka — one. Hindi. — myn. 

Assyrian. — anaka. 

Hehrew. — anoki. 

Corean. — nai. Knrile, etc. — tshoka. 


I. 

hand ? me. 
mouth ? 
No. 1.? 
man ? 


ant. 
ku. 


Egyptian. — tu. 

Aeeadian. — tu. men. ta. 

Indo-Chinese. — mau. mon. Corean. — ne. nu. 

Hebrew. — ka. 

Himli.— do=Xo. 2. 

Ugro-Altaic. — te. nyn. 

Persian. — tu. Assyi-ian. — atta. 

Japanese. — anata. nanji. 


Thou. 

thee. 
No. 2. 


u. ki. ka. 


Indo-Chinese. — wa. han. 
Latin. — ca^sJw. 
Aeeadian. — cne. na. ba. 
Hebrew. — hi. hu. 
Hindi. — woh. 
Chinese. — na.-:=u'hich. i. 
Corean. — de. 


He. 

she. it. 

his. 

man? 




Sansluit. — i. ha. ta. 


We. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



248 









Papuan and 




Deavidian. 


Malay, etc. 


Polynesian. 


AUSTJiALLiN. 


Amekican. 


nan. 


aku. ku. ki. 


ihau. vau. 


mena. 


kaki. ic. ano. 


guan. 


ngu.ti= mouth . 


anema=/i««rf. 


cai. natoi. 


am. gill. sabo. 


nak (Ghond). 


igagk. sayia. 


u. hau. 


anka= mouth. 


ahab. uau. sii. 


ennai =»««». 


guwa. petek. 


akalii=i\'b. 1. 


inau. natoi. 


noka. 


onru =i\'b. 1. 


amba. nyang. 


wau. ku. 


ngai. 


nee. icu. mc. 




quako. ulun. 


(na=ours.) 


anka.=man. 


ninou=«<Je. 






mai. nan. 


angbau. 


si. koie. mina. 
onca=/ am. 










naika. nek. nen. yen. 


ni. 


kan. kali. 


koe. boe. 


nimba. 


tati. ta. ti. timo. 


nir. 


mu. tuan. 


oe. 0. ia. 


io. 


kam. mi. ni. kee. 


ninu. 


lu. hago. 


te. en. 


ma. 


eno. ica. ken. lu. 


unnai. 


kamu. du. 
dua=i\'b. 2. 


tan. =th\/. 




kia. mab. nan. 
ub. teab. aniu. 


aye. 


dia. iza. 


ia. oah. i. 


ia. pauna. 


11. na. dai. ta. kiro. 


van. 


inya. na. 


oia. na. a. 


Tiin. 


hui. piya. zebi. 


uwan. 


mi= this. 


ya. kina. ora. 


nara. 


ipi. bi. ibib. 
ni. pai. aoab. 
pay. nimu. uno. 
ea.=she. 
■weya. ipin. yen. 


nam. yam. 


kami. 


na= o««-s. 




nemak. nami. 



32 



249 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afeicait. 


SUNDEY. 


English. 




Arabic. — baua=^ build. Sanskrit. — ma. 
Greek. — '/ei'aw^to bei/et. Hindi. — kar'na. 
Indo-Chinese. — hocho. Accad. — gar. aka=^io maJ:e. 


To DO. 

make. 


ki. ya. i. 
ka. lo. ta. 


Sanskrit. — car. pad. Ta. 

Chinese. — te. chih. gang. 

Accadian. — du. ga. 

Egyptian. — ^et—foot. pch. pai=^o/y. 


To Go. 

foot. fly. 
run. 


ni. 


- 


To Have. 


peta=/oo('. tanga^hand. 

diw=:(hitice. 

de=:zto rise, tundu. tutu. 


Egyjitian. — tua ; tonnu:=r«?sc. ti:=rest. ^ct=foot. 
Sanskrit. — ])Ma= foot. Japanese. — tatta. 
Accadian. — du. tig. 


To Stand. Teead. 
raise, tread, foot? 
pad? erect. 


vca,. ba. uta. de. 


Accadian. — tu. tur. Assyrian. — ba'u. 


To Come. 


kannu=«?/e. 
U. ga. sua. 


Ugi'o-Altaic. — silu. 
Accatlian. — kin. sav—sun. 


To See. 
eye. 


beta. tura. 


Accadian. — du. tag. pa. Egy|)tian. — nak. tata. 
Sanskrit. — tude=;/ strike. Greek. — totttw. 


To Striee. 
tap. beat. 


kuko=Afl»f?. 
pa — io (/ire. 
wunya. da. 


Accadian. — ba. gar. Assyrian. — katu=/(a);^. 
Indo-Chinese. — ka. payshe. Mongol. — ka. da. 
Sanskrit. — kai-a=/«f/«rf. da ? 


To Give. 
hand? 


maneL^mouth. tcta^ tear. 
tcnda=:fe cut. 
mokomo^zmoiith. 
nie. dia. 'ko=:.mou(h. 


Papuan. — Tiiama[o^= mouth, tainum^^o eat. 
Hindi. — Timnh=Lmouth. ^ha. khana. 
Accadian. — gar. ku. 'kH^^month. 
TJgro- Altaic. — "ko^motith. French. — manger. 
Japanese. — kuti^»«o((!!/(.. 


To Eat. 
tear. cut. 
mouth. 




Magyar. — van. Egyptian. — an. 
Hindi. — bona. 


To Be. 
it is ? I am. 


kako=7(««(Z. 
ta. sa. \a. kok. 
toko. 


Sanskrit. — karkata.^^ crab. vab.:=to carry, naq. 

Egyptian. — x^ht — hand. dat. kat — 2)aiv. 

Assyrian. — liku. Accadian. — namgiu'u=:«Y(J. tiig. 


To TaKE. 
hand, 
catch, seize. 


Chi. c^ic. kot. ^^.^^^_ 
tiki. ti. 

achu; kak ; takn=istone. 
koti=«^««r. dakc=rt:ir. 


TJgro-Altaic. — taka^axe. tuka. 
Accadian. — daku=^o smite, kud. tni\-=stoHe. 
Hindi. — kat. Egyjjtian. — U'xi-a-^axe. 
Sanskrit. — kutt. Assyrian. — katu. 


To Cut. 
split, axe. 
divide. 



A I'lULOLOaiCAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



250 



Djiavidian. 


Malay, etc. 


Polynesian, etc. 


(CniNESE.) 


AMEUrCAX. 
NOKTH. CuNTIlAL.t SoUTH.* 


ckey. akka. 
clieygii'athu. 
madu. 


gawe. 
bikin. 


lakho. 
mea. ana. 
hana. taka. 


gang. ko. 
■\va. wci. ui. 


hapana.*" humi.* 

gha. kia. ti.f achihua.f 

\va. ne. ku. 


hega. popi. 
po. nada. 
pogirathu. 


jah. pargi. 

toloko. 

pigi. 


fai. liaroe. 
Ko. ahi. ao. 
tiki. mea. hce. tao. 
tore, haere. keri. 
aloo. ka^ywo^. 


to. chih. 

pac. 


ka. tah-scc. 
sco-mee. pa. dao. 
hucy.* ju.a.f pi— foot. 
tcho. duu. humi.* 
pika^iS'b. 5. tni*— foot. 


pagai. 


na. hada. 
ana — to be. 


ana. 


yu. u. 


pa. onca.f 


untu. tan. 

tandu. 

pada=:/oo<. 


tedong. 

pat=/bo^. 

tong:=/i««f/. 


tadu=(7«»re. tu. 
pao=/6io^. 
tonu— straight. 
noa — to sit. 


pat. 
tu. 


pa. 

tati. 

po ; tai. pata=/oo<. 


baru. \Ti. cher. 


tcklia. tau. omai. 


tae. amai. hau. 


ta'i. 


kakhe. aiha. tah. 


gargisu. kannu. 
nodi. tupi. 


kalon. lilat. 
mata, — eye. 


sara. 'kam=:ei/e. 
kanohi=«2/«. 


kien. 
siun? 


kian.f hia.f sin. iluh.f 
hesh. sin. morra. 


nopii. 
haku. 


poh. 


tui. tu. 
paki. patu. 


tok. pi. ku. 
pik=fo break. 


tau-oo-it. taha. 
taka.f tup.* 


kodukki. 
'k.ai^iniid. 
ta. kodu. 


bin. 

jiet. 


para=7(««f?. 


pa. kih. 
kik. 


da.f qua. kia.* paco*=A«w(f. 
ka.=ito give ; hatid. ta. 
coa. ku. ka=:/((/;j(^. ara. 


tinnu. 

vay. 

k\igai=cave. 


niakan. 
mih=::fo drink. 
mucn=face. 


hana. meenawa. 
kai. nulu. 
va.a,nga=zmouth. 


chi. 

keu=:tfi02<</i. 


mankana.* 
qua.f ku-hu. 
miccuni.* manni. 


iru. 
tangu. 


ana. 

{na=to have.) 


vai. 
e. 


wei. 


won. hiu. atta. 
anak=A/^/(«'. cani. onca.* 


pattu. 
kartarkam=(';-rtJ. 


chok. 


(tadu=crfl!J.) 
hopu. 


pu. tuk. kap. 
chih. 


ha. pa. ka. tacani.* 
kachik.* kat. paco.* 
chab. apani=<6i bear. 


vettu. 
kattarisu ? 
hatti^cue. 


koh. 


toka^sfo»«. koti. 
kai=:!'o chew. 


kot. kat. kak. 
ko=«/;(Y»-. 


taku ; kuh ; kot^sf'oMe;. 
cuta*=^o cut. 



251 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Afhicaij. 


SUNDET. 


English. 


agh. ugei. ain. 
aha. i^u. 


Mongol. — uge. 
Ugro-Altaic. — aham. 
Assyrian. — la. a'i. ul. 
Bminese. — m'hoht. 


no ! 
not. 


ona. eh. ye. 
haha. ewe. 


Egyptian. — iai ? 
Amharic. — awen. 
Greek. — ev=good. 


yes ! 




Sanskrit. — oha. 
Accadian. — bi. li. ta. 
Ugro-Altaic. — kih. den. li. 
Chinese. — kii. ti. 
Egyjitian. — x^r- fui- 
Hindi. — ula. ka. 
Japanese. — be. yon. 


at. in. 
of. for. 
on. to. 
under, 
by. with. 
from. so. 




Egyptian. — tai. nfa. 
Accadian. — bi. nig. ta. 
Chinese. — ni. ki. pi. 
Hindi. — yih. 
Japanese.— are. to. 
Corean. — de. yi. 


This. that, 
what? why? 
which ? who ? 
it. the. when? 


African. 


SUNDET. 


English. 


No. 10. tan. wan. 

kanyan. 

tank, tanga. 


Ugro-Altaic. — jong. tu. tung. wan. 
Papuan.^ — \im^a.z=i]iand ; No. 10. 
Siamese. — tcn=^}iand. 
Sankskrit. — pada. 


Ten {No. 10). 
leg; hand, 
leg; foot. 


zanga. donga. \ 


South American. — cunka=i\'o. 10. \ 

Sanskrit. — pani. 

Indo-Chinese. — pang. 

American. — khaim. cinco=:iVb. 5. 

Latin. — (iuinquo=i\'o. 5. French. — cinq. 
Sanskrit. — pancha=:i\^«. 5. 

,, pam=/mH(f. 


hand. \ 


banka. tanga. ) 
pena=«?7-«i4'. 

Ko. 5. lime (Madagascar). 
linii=toHywe. 

kayyen. 

No. 5. tan. tano. 


i 


arm ; hand. 
No. 5. 











A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



252 



DlUVIBLLN. 


Malay, etc. 


1 Papuan and 
Polynesian, etc. Austualian. 


American. 
North. Central. t South.* 


illai. attu. 
alia (^not.) 


aim. null, 
baunah. tida. 


aobe. aie. 
uita. up. 


wol. 
ko. 


ba. 

achu.* tau. hinna. 
macama. ou. yo. 
hani.* cob. cbyotl.* 


andu. 
am. are. 


aiya. nyob. 


ila. eora. 
ae. ohe. he. 


piku. 


ho. haah. ina. ca. 
ia. hauo. ia. 


du. denn. 
tu. adu. 
mol. kuda. 
ul. U ; aga. 


bab. kcb. 
atar, ka. di. 
deri. olub. 
kilana. 


vei. li. 
rijrth. me. 
ka. i. 
mono. 




tab. ti. to. inyeyuh. 

aba. caye. roycu. 

tin. at. 

nice. acbi. pa. 

nek. zo. tlani^ under. 


essa? 
dane ? a. 
inta; ithn. 
ada. ictu. 
are? Enta? 
enna ? cthu ? 


ine. puc. 
apa. ha. 
jih. itu. 
nyob. 
izang. 


ia. di. ei. 
e. era. el. 
ital. meta. 
ino. nga. 
te. vai. 




na. ki. cho. 
to. ti. meh. 
tuwe. vet. pi.* 
ar. binnab. 
ima.* kena. 


Madagascar. 


DeA VIDIAN. 


Maiat, etc. 


Polynesian, etc. 


Papuan and 

ausiealian. 


Ameeican. 

N. CENTRAL.t S.* 


pattu. 




tong^Jiand. 


kanga. 


■wonka ? 


cunka. kanka* 

canka=?P(7. 

fan.* caki.* canka.* 


pa'tham. 
























~ 




pana. kana. 

tangan. 

liman. 1 
ba. baan. j 






pan. pannum. 
panna=r;'^/(<-Aff«(?. 

kbaan. cinco.f 

pika.f panka=:^o«'. 

kwanam. onke. ) 
looga=foof. ] 
-^aimr^right-hand. 










einu. 
aintii. 












■ 




_ 































253 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



Apeican. 


SUITDET. 


English 
Ntjmbees. 


kok'ko. ikko. hida. 
isso. itta. eke. 
ik=;?«y(';-. 


/ hand, man? 
,^ T ) I. me. 
i tmgcr ? 
(mouth? 


Indian. — ek. ik. yuk. 
Sanskrit. — ekah. 
Egyptian. — kap=ihand. 


Ko. I. 


No. 2. peli. 
fila. eho. 


Ko. 2=fJiou ? 


Sanskrit. — doe. 
Egyptian. — ua^iN'o. 1. 


Ko. 2. 


Ko. 3. tatu. sigga. 
iho. eta. be. 


Ko. 3=he ? 


Sanskrit. — trayah. tri. ta^ic. 


Ko. 3. 








Ko. 4. 


Ko. 5. tnno. tan. 
limi^^tonijue. 




Sanskrit. — pani=/(ff?if7. 


Ko. 5. 


Ko. 6. esa. sida. n'to. 
dandatu. zdu. 




Arabic. — sit. 
Ainos. — ii-an. 


Ko. 6. 


Ko. 7. cdse. cese. po. 
fungatc. komhisa. 




Arabic. — sab. 
Ainos. — oka. 


Ko. 7. 


tato. 




Ainos. — ita. 


Ko. 8. 






Ainos. — yahao. 


Ko. 9. 


Ko. 10. kuini. fu. tan. 




Sanskrit. — dasa. 


Ko. 10. 








Ko. 100. 



A PHILOLOGICAL TABLE OF ACCORDANCES. 



254 



Madagascar. 


DfiA VIDIAN. 


Malay, etc. 


Polynesian, etc. 


Papuan and 
Australian. 


American. 

NoUTH. CENTHAL.t 

South.* • 


essa. 


ondu. 
onru. 

cgam. 


sa. tik. 

satu. 


akahi. taha. ia. 

iat. 

tai. tari. dua ? 


ta. tono. lua. 
loea. karawa. 
kappo. pissu. 


soos. ]Kiklia. ita. sei. 
ekah. kap. ak=:/(«»<?. 
oshc. (|uih. ek. conai. 
kap. ta. ti. 

poia. gia. paa. 
kilou=:y«. wocr=t}toic. 
tage. vocua. uke. epu. 


rue. 
im. 


raddu. 


dwa. ru. 
dua. wa. 


aroua. oiia. 
halua. lua. 
rua. kaoua. okoso. 


ouadon. bula. 
pilou. pulla. 


telu. 


mriru. 


tip:a. tul. 
talu. leh. tulo. 


atorou. tolu. 
toru. ton. fa. 
atowa. kotodou. 


too. veti. 
ngoro. 
pitoul. kappo. 


taugh. ba. yei.-j- 
ta=/;«. 
couam. pao. 


cfPat. 


nalu. 
nalku. 


hat. pat. ampat. 
ha. writu. 
poet. tan. 


ahaa. fa. va. 
waha. acha. 
kaua. ema. fa. ha. 


pakacua. 

pitfat. 

beu. 


hahua.* dekai. 
hazah. aiki. 
wiag. wacu. 


lime. 


einu. 
anju. 


lima,=:hand. ) 
=5 ftiffers. ] 
nima. 


lima, arima. nim. 
kadima. 


tahue. 
pileme. 


khaan. saihe. 
kam^/(a»(/. pana= 

hand. 
kwanam. 


ene. 


aru. 
edu. 


anam. onoma. 
noko. nam. 


aono. QUO. 
kami. 


poimoun. 
nota. iva. zdu. 


sokta.f navi. 
sih. taki. sei. 


elu. 


fitu. 


ayak. putu. 
pito. fito. 
tudsu. tujah. 


fitu. ahitou. fis. 
kawiton. hitu. 
pitu. tuta. walu. 


nobo. tiki. sik. 
fik. lik. 
piffit. pitou. 


kancis.* siete. tapa. 

paghu. 

tutsheos. tapin. vika. 


yalu. 


ettu. 


ruabiitu. tai. 
valu. saya. 
wal. waru. 
delapau. 
selengak. 


valu. evaru. vau. 
walou. avouarou. 
awa. kavadou. 
waru. evau. varu. 


poual. 
ta. 


pehel. tamai. 
war. wu-su-ya. 
tapwi. vauragua. 


siva. 


ormba. 


sunilau. 
.simbolan. 


kaiwa. kaiwu. 
aiva. chivo. 
kavima. iva. imi ? 


pission. 


yala. chiucnahui.f 
chapko. pacak. 


fulu. 


pattu. 


pula. spluh. 
sapidoh. 

dasa. sa-dasa ) 
=1X10. j 


chauvou. ch'au. fulu. 
sek. kumi. ondu. 
kanga (Maori), 
oumi. nauru. ahuru. 


otsha. 


kanka.f cunka.* 
pat=/(a>i«f.f kolo= 

foot. 
washa.* charato. 
oviksi^^hmid. 






ratus. rate, 
lau. 


tapiik=100. 

rau=;100 or 200. 
takau=20. 
(mano=1000.) 
ras — many. 







255 



N.B. — The Dravidian language from the accompanying simple class of words, 
does not seem to have much in common 'with the Malay, beyond a few probably 
borrowed words. 

There however are, as might be expected, many words apparently in the 
Polynesian and Melanesian, common both to the Papuan and Malay and Melanesian ; 
and also again as between the Papuan and Australian group. (See Introduction). 

But there are many Ameiican, especially of South-west American, words 
showing strong analogies both with the Polynesian and Papuan, and even again 
with the Malay. There is also much of the Malay in Madagascar. (See 
Appendix, No. 14.) 

In the Dra\-idian I have included Tamil, Canarese, Malayam, Sontal, and 
Tulu. Tamil contains, doubtless, a considerable later admixture of Sanskrit, 
Bengal, etc., and is probably not so useful for comparisons in Archaic Comparative 
Philology, containing, as it seems to do, many very long words. 

By some of the later German Philologists, Dravidian is supposed to be nearly 
connected with the Ugro-Altaic and Turanian. (See page 162). This, I believe, 
was . also the opinion of Bishop Caldwell ; and one in which I am inclined to agree. 

Under Malay, I have included Achinese. 

I had prepared in Part VII. of my Comparative Yocabularies a list of Japanese, 
Ainos or Kurile, Koriac, Corcan, Kamtschatkan, and American words, but for want 
of space, etc., have had to omit that pai't. The words selected in those languages 
do not, however, seem to yield very satisfactory results either inter alia nor for 
Archaic Comparative Philology generally. There would appear to be a considerable 
linguistic intermixtui-e in Oceanca so called, of Papuan, Polynesian and Malay ; 
and more especially so in the case of Micronesia and Melanesia. The former I 
have included under Malay ; the latter imder Polynesian. Under Kui-ile, etc., are 
included Koriac, Ainos and Kamtschatkan. 



End of Vocabulaeies. 




PHILOLOGICAL APPENDICES 



COMPARATIA^E TABLES 



FOR CERTAIN CLASSES OF WORDS. 



33 



257 PHILOLOGICAL APPENDICES AXD COMPARATIVE TABLES. 

APPENDIX I. 
POLYNESIAN GEAMMAE. 

PoLTNESLUJ offers mucli resemblance to Malay and belongs to tbe agglutinative class ; it is ricb in 
vowels as a rale, and not inclined to use hard consonants like k, iv, ti/f and hard y, and as not a few 
verbal analogies seem to exist between American and Polynesian, though little, perhaps, as regards 
grammar or syntax, I give a very brief outline, taken from "Precis de Urammaire Polynesienne, par 
S.F.Y.," Paris 1873. 

1. There are two genders only, but four numbers, viz. singular, dual, trial and plural. The 
substantive has six cases, as in Latin (and Algongin, North America). 

2. The article is always invariable, e.g. te and e, though it is not always expressed. 

3. The gender of the noun is expressed or shown, as for animals by adtling (»2«'=:male, and «'«('«= 
female ; (in Japanese owwrt^woman), and for men or women-kind tarn, and vahim-. 

4. The dual is formed by the preposition na, before the singular ; as «V(=fish, naia^^ivfo fish. 

5. The trial by tau, astaafa^man ; tan taata=^three men. (No. S^^atoura). 

6. The plural by )?iau, as maHfetia^=stars. 

7. Adjectives are only changed for number, singular or plural. The superlative, as in Hebrew, 
by repetition, as ariki nouhi tiouhi=^& very great chief. 

8. Possessive Peongun-. 

1st person^wrt taoua^^owrs,. 2nd person^wa oro««:=yours. 3rd person=»« r«oMa:=theirs. 

Peesojtai Pronoun — Singuiar. 
N. van=l. O('=thou. o/d=he, she. Ace. fffw^me. 

G. no van^oi me. V. ovan-:=0 me, to me. 

T. / ran=^to me. Ab. / fa«=from me. 

Dual. 

N. taoua='wc two. 0}-oua^yo\i two. }'«o«r/:=they two. 

Plural. 
N. mafoti ; tatouz^vre {i.e. three or more). otoii=^je. ratonz^thcj. 

Vekds. 

9. Verbs are rather active or neuter, e.g. iti'^to know ; ite Jiia^to be known. faaitez=.io make 
known, ite hin:^to be known. 

There arc active, passive, and neuter verbs ; nouns may be considered as active verbs : 

mate^dead, to die, or to kill. 
There are six moods and four tenses, much as in Latin or English. Three numbers : the 

singular has three persons ; the dual four ; and the plural three. ■ 
The verb proper does not change ; the moods and tenses are made by means of prefixes 

and suifixes, e.ff. 

verb : ;Vt'=to know. 
Singular : tS ite nei van-:=l know. tc ite nei oe'=thou knowest. te ite net o(((=;he knows, etc. 
Dual : te ite nei taowa:=yfc (thou and I) know. 
Plural : t^ He nei tatou=^we (more than two) know. 

10. The copulative conjunction and, is rendered by m, and wliich is joined to the following word. 

The conjimction but, by i; if, by e. 

1 1 . The adverb is not specially defined if one of negation ; aita is placed before the noun, as 
aitataiita-^no man, or men. 

12. NuJtERAXS. 

ata}d-=:.\ ; aroua^2 ; aahouron=lO ; aahouron iiiatahi=i\\ ; aroua a(iliuurouz=20 : aroiia aahourou 
matah=2l. 



APPENDIX II. 

EXAMPLES OF N. AND C. AMERICAN GEAMMAE. 

1 . In the Ileve there are four or five declensions of nouns.* As auxiliary verbs arc not used, 
pronouns are made use of. 

• E.Kample of a first declension of substantive: N. «nJj=hawk. G. siibiqi(e = oi hawk. D. siilil^to Iiawk. 



np 



Ac. siibic. V. siibi. Ab. sibidc. 



PHILOLOGICAL APPENDICES AND COMPARATIVE TABLES. 



258 



2. In Quichiia there is no gender; in Aztec tlic gender is usunlly expressed hy adding oquichtl^ 
male, or lie; and cimitl=ivm;\\c, or she. 

3. In Aztec diminutives of nouns are employed ; as chielii^f/oy ; chicltitoti^sviaM dog. «=not ; 
and qiwlliz=g^oo(\; whilst (iquulli^nvti good=hud. (In Ciuichua «///^good). 

■1. The Otomi is almost the only monosyllabic language in America, though the Hevo perhaps is 
next to it in this respect. The masculine is expressed by a use of ta or tza ; and the feminine by 
»«i<^mother. The noun is not declined in Otomi. The adjective always comes before the noun. 
Nouns are also verbs. There is no dual. 

Sing. — Bi-neez=.\ will. (/ui-nee^hoTi wiliest. ynee=hc wills. 

Plu. — l)i-nce-lu}^: